- General problem
- Diet tasks
- Principles of the diet
- What can not be eaten
- Approved products
- Sample menu
- Related videos
The liver performs very important functions in the body. It is the storehouse of many vitamins, glucose and red blood cells, produces bile and some enzymes necessary for digestion. In addition, the liver neutralizes toxins that enter the digestive tract or into the bloodstream, as well as metabolic products. It is a unique body that has great recovery possibilities. But quite often there are various serious liver pathologies that affect the state of the whole organism. With any disease of this organ, a diet is very important, which helps to reduce the load on it and contributes to the restoration of functions.
General description of the problem
Cirrhosis of the is the most severe pathology of this organ. It is characterized by the gradual destruction of cells. In this case, the liver ceases to cope with its functions, which affects the state of the whole organism. This is a chronic disease that will progress continuously without treatment. It is believed that cure can not be cured completely, but proper nutrition in conjunction with drug therapy prescribed by a doctor can stop the process of organ destruction. Observe this diet will have to constantly, the slightest deviation from the diet will lead to an aggravation.
There are many reasons for the development of cirrhosis. Most often, it occurs as a complication of hepatitis with improper treatment. Alcohol abuse is the second most common cause of liver cirrhosis. It is these factors that most often trigger the process of cell destruction.
Despite the fact that cirrhosis is considered incurable, with the right approach it is possible to live normally with this disease without its aggravation. In this case, the main method of treatment is with cirrhosis of the liver diet. Moreover, the choice of its variety depends on the stage and severity of the course of the disease. Self-treatment with cirrhosis is unacceptable, only a doctor can determine what type of food will help stop the destruction of liver cells.
Most often, in this pathology, table No. 5 is recommended during remission or 5a during exacerbation. But even in this diet, small changes are made depending on the characteristics of the disease. For example, with biliary cirrhosis, which is characterized by a violation of bile outflow and the replacement of healthy fibrous tissue, it is necessary to reduce the amount of fats and proteins in the diet, and there is more plant food. If cirrhosis is combined with a violation of metabolic processes, obesity or diabetes, you need to limit the use of carbohydrates. In the presence of diarrhea, fats are excluded from the diet, and in ascites - salt and a large amount of liquid.
Depending on the severity of the course of the disease and the presence of accompanying pathologies, the physician will select an individual food plan for the
. The severity of the course of the disease also affects the dietary peculiarities.
Four stages of its development are most often distinguished:
- At the initial stage, cirrhosis is considered compensated. Usually, such a pathology is observed with excessive use of alcohol. At this stage, the cells just started to break down, and the liver has not lost its functions. With the help of a diet, the process of cell destruction can be stopped. To do this, the diet should be more natural protein, which will help restore the protein balance in the body.
- In the second stage, therapeutic nutrition, in addition to a large amount of protein, should include as many vitamins as possible. This will help improve the immune defenses of the body and accelerate tissue repair.
- In the third stage, the process of cell destruction leads to a loss of the liver's ability to neutralize protein-exchange products. This decompensated cirrhosis, in which the peculiarity of the diet is that it uses as little protein food as possible, and in some cases it is completely excluded. The amount of fats also decreases. The basis of the diet are plant products.
- The fourth - terminal stage of cirrhosis - is characterized by a total inability to eat.
The tasks of thediet
Proper nutrition with cirrhosis helps to normalize the digestive process and stop the destruction of this organ. The task of the diet in this pathology is not only to reduce the load on the liver, but also to provide the body with all the necessary nutrients. Especially useful for this diet number 5.If you adhere to such food constantly, you can achieve the disappearance of the symptoms of the disease, stop the destruction of cells and prevent the development of exacerbation.
For patients with cirrhosis of the liver it is very important to maintain a diet without breaks. Only this, combined with prescribed medicines, helps to achieve such effects:
- normalize the work of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract;
- restore the accumulation process in glycogen cells;
- to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood;
- stimulate the excretion of bile.
Principles of the
diet The diet for cirrhosis involves changes in the patient's lifestyle and diet. First of all, you must completely abandon the use of alcoholic beverages, fried foods, animal fats. It is also excluded any products containing essential oils, oxalic acid, purines. In addition, you need to monitor in the diet everything: from the volume of portions to the temperature of food. It is recommended to eat only in warm form, hot or cold is contraindicated.
In this diet, not only the right choice of foods is important, but also the ways of their preparation
It is very important to eat small portions in order to reduce the load on the digestive tract. But the number of meals increases. It is recommended to observe a diet to normalize the production of bile and hepatic enzymes.
The most common diet involves such meals:
- first breakfast, at about 8 am, it can consist of cereal, cottage cheese or protein omelet;
- a second breakfast is needed after 2-3 hours to prevent hunger and replenishment, it includes fruit or vegetable puree, baked apple, cottage cheese or yogurt;
- dinner can consist of two courses, for example, vegetable or cereal soup and porridge with mashed meat;
- snack prevents hunger, it can consist of crackers or low-fat cookies and jelly;
- dinner should be satisfying, but easy, it is better that it should not be later than 19 hours;
- for 1-2 hours before a dream you can drink a glass of yogurt, kissel or broth of rose hips.
Diet number 5 assumes a daily intake of at least 1.5-2 liters of clean water. The basis of the diet are carbohydrates, mainly - complex. In addition, it is recommended to consume about 100 g of proteins and 60 g of fats, better than vegetable. Limit sugar consumption, salt should be added to food no more than 8 grams per day. At the same time, the caloric content of the diet should be from 2000 to 3000 calories.
In addition, there are several more rules, compliance with which will help improve the condition of the patient. Food should only be cooked, steamed or stewed. All fried dishes are completely excluded. Solid foods, especially meat and vegetables, must be ground before consumption, preferably to a puree state.
What not to eat
When cirrhosis of the liver is particularly important to know what food should be completely excluded from the diet. After all, without this it will be impossible to stop the destruction of cells. The most important thing is to give up drinking alcohol, which is often the cause of cirrhosis. All fatty meat and fish varieties are contraindicated, for example, pork, lamb, duck, mackerel, as well as animal fat, poultry skin, offal, fish caviar. It is also necessary to exclude all smoked products, salted fish, canned food and sausages.
Completely have to give up alcoholic beverages, fried and smoked products, sweets
You can not use cirrhosis fatty dairy products. Therefore, you need to exclude sour cream, cream, butter, fatty cottage cheese, whole milk, aged cheese. From protein products, you need to give up fried or hard-boiled eggs, meat or fish broths.
It is also necessary to remove from the diet all foods containing coarse fiber or essential oils. This is white cabbage, beans, spinach, radish, radish, horseradish, onions and garlic. Contraindicated as fungi in any form. You can not eat pickled, salted foods, spices, spices, sour fruits.
It is recommended to completely exclude from the diet chocolate, cocoa, sweets, buttery pastries, confectionery, pies, ice cream. Bread can only be consumed dried, fresh contraindicated. From drinks you can not soda, strong tea and coffee.
For cirrhosis, you should consume at least 100 grams of protein per day.
Authorized products of
. At first glance, it may seem that the diet of a patient with cirrhosis is very limited. But the list of what can be eaten with this pathology is also great, so the food can be varied and tasty. This especially applies to the initial stages of the disease.
In cirrhosis, it is important to provide the body with a sufficient amount of digestible protein, which will serve as a building material for the repair of damaged cells. But the protein products should be low-fat. Therefore, the diet includes mainly veal, low-fat beef, rabbit, white poultry meat. Seafood is useful: cod, pollock, zander, squid, shrimp, sea kale. It is allowed to eat soft-boiled eggs or as a protein steam omelet. Dairy products must be low-fat. From them you can eat cottage cheese, unsalted cheese, yogurt, natural yogurt.
The source of energy in this diet is complex carbohydrates. In the diet must necessarily be porridge: buckwheat, oatmeal, rice, barley. From vegetables useful pumpkin, cauliflower, carrots, zucchini, beets. You can tomato juice, salads with vegetable oil, puree from green peas. Fruits are used in limited quantities, non-acidic. You can eat apples, pears, watermelon.
Of the fats, only vegetable oils are included in the diet. It is allowed olive, sunflower, but only without heat treatment. The milk thistle oil is useful, which contains silymarin, which restores liver cells. Drinks in the diet are included necessarily. Basically it's jelly, freshly squeezed juices, broth of wild rose, compote from dried fruits, not strong tea.
All dishes without spices and with a limited amount of salt will be fresh, therefore it is allowed to add bay leaf, basil, cumin, thyme, mint, lemon juice. In limited quantities it is allowed to eat sweets: marmalade, honey, jam, pastille, marshmallow, jelly, dried fruits.
Cirrhotic nutrition should be light but balanced and varied
To ensure that the diet is balanced and provides the patient with all the necessary elements, it is advisable to prepare your diet in advance, preferably for a week. There are many examples of such a menu, with which you can eat deliciously and diversely. First time is better to use the ready menu, then eventually the patient will learn how to make it yourself.
The main thing is to get used to the fact that you can consume a certain amount of protein, fat, salt, sugar and bread a day. You can not eat a lot of meat, butter, no more than 1 egg a day. Bread is allowed only dried in the amount of 200 grams, salt is not more than 8 grams, and sugar is 70 g. You can eat a lot of porridge, stewed vegetables, every day you need to eat cereal or vegetable soup, cottage cheese, fruit. Each meal should include tea, compote, jelly or broth of rose hips.
The approximate menu for cirrhosis of the liver may be as follows:
- for breakfast curd wiped or in the form of a souffle, the next day you can eat porridge with dairy or stewed vegetables, you can drink tea or compote from dried fruits;
- for the second breakfast is more suitable fruit, better baked or in the form of mashed potatoes, it is also acceptable to eat grated cottage cheese;
- dinner should be more satisfying, most often it includes vegetable soup, as well as a dish of meat or fish with garnish;
- for a snack you can eat crackers or cookies with jelly, compote or tea;
- dinner can consist of stewed vegetables, porridge, cutlets or boiled fish, it is also possible at this time to eat curd;
- before going to bed you can drink kefir, jelly or eat low-fat natural yogurt.
Treatment of cirrhosis of the liver is very long and complicated. But accurate adherence to the recommendations of a doctor and adherence to the right diet will help slow the destruction of the liver and prevent exacerbations. And if you start therapy in the initial stages, this process can be completely stopped.