What are the causes of blood flowing from the nose in an adult?

Any person at least once, but had to face nosebleeds. But not everyone knows why the blood comes from the nose. The reasons for this phenomenon in an adult can be very different: fatigue and fatigue, nose injuries, as well as other more serious diseases.

In cases where bleeding from the nose goes quite often, it is necessary to undergo a medical examination without delay to identify the true cause or disease.

Similar symptoms can signal the disease of various internal organs - liver, kidneys, and blood. In addition, nosebleeds can be caused by cardiovascular diseases, rheumatism and a variety of infectious diseases.

Classification of

The volume of blood leaked from the nose can range from several milliliters to half a liter.

  1. Minor is considered a blood loss of several milliliters. Such bleeding is not harmful to health and does not lead to any consequences. The only negative point may be fright, hysteria or fainting in young children.
  2. As , moderate assesses blood loss if its volume does not exceed 200 mL.Such blood loss causes mild weakness, dizziness, rapid pulse and flashing of flies before the eyes. Possible blanching of the visible mucous membranes and skin.
  3. About massive blood loss is a case in those cases, when total or simultaneous flow up to 300 ml of blood. It is accompanied by more severe symptoms in comparison with a mild degree: weakness, noise in the ears, dizziness, headache, thirst, dyspnea.
  4. Profuse bleeding is characterized by a large volume - 500 ml and more. Massive hemorrhage leads to hemorrhagic shock, manifested in a sharp drop in blood pressure, inhibition, various disorders of consciousness until its loss, insufficient blood circulation in internal organs.

Also, nosebleeds can be divided into local and general. Local ones are those that cause blood with local nasal damage, and general ones that cause bleeding in general.

Why the adult is bleeding from the nose: the causes of

Drops or a trickle of blood emerging from the nasal passages are the result of vascular damage. This happens as a result of either mechanical effects( nasal trauma) or internal processes in the body.

Let's consider in more detail the main reasons why an adult can have blood from the nose, and what to do in this case:

  1. Trauma - the most frequent injuries to the nose are various strokes in the face that can be accompanied by a fracture of its septum with the development of severe bleeding. In childhood, the trauma of the nasal mucosa is caused by the habit of picking your nose with your finger or any objects( pencil, pen).
  2. Environmental impact of .Long exposure to the sun, overwork, physical exertion are factors that can cause spontaneous epistaxis. This is a single phenomenon, it is not a reason for going to the doctor, the blood stops quickly, and the incident is forgotten.
  3. Sunstroke and overheating is one of the main factors of nosebleeds, especially in the summer. Due to high temperatures, the nasal cavity becomes dry, and the vessels become brittle. They easily burst and because of this there is blood from the nose. To protect yourself from heat stroke, you need to wear a hat or hat, more to be in a shady place.
  4. Causing bleeding from the nose can and drying out of the mucous membranes, since the capillaries become brittle .The drying out of the nasal mucosa can be the result of a long stay in a room with dry air or frost.

The second group of bleeding from the nose is caused, as a rule, by far more serious causes, consisting in systemic disorders. In this case, nosebleeds are not a separate pathological condition, but a manifestation of the symptoms of diseases of any organs and physiological systems, most often respiratory and circulatory. This group includes such diseases as:

  1. Hypertension. Elevated arterial or intracranial pressure can also cause nasal bleeding. But this is more of a blessing than a disaster, for it is better to lose some blood and lower blood pressure than to get a stroke. By the way, most often pressure drops happen from 4 to 6 o'clock in the morning. This fact explains why some people bleed from the nose in the morning.
  2. Inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa ( rhinitis) or sinuses( sinusitis, frontal sinusitis) - inflammation weakens the walls of the vessels, makes them more fragile. To the development of the inflammatory process can lead to acute respiratory viral infection, allergic rhinitis, bacteria( streptococci, staphylococcus, E. coli).
  3. Papillomas in the nose - proliferation on the mucosa. Are the result of a viral infection, dangerous mutations in malignant formations. Polyps press on the vessels, make breathing difficult, cause frequent bleeding in the morning.
  4. Vegeto-vascular dystonia - accompanied by weak brittle vessels, often causes blood from the nose in an adult or child with a diagnosis of the AV.Additional symptoms - watery discharge, pain in the head, tinnitus.
  5. Atherosclerosis - changes in blood vessels, loss of their elasticity, frequent damage with the occurrence of various bleedings( internal and external).
  6. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland, which increases the level of stress hormones. Because of this, the pressure rises sharply and there is always blood from the nose. Signs of this tumor are frequent nasal bleeding and dryness in the nose. With such symptoms, you should contact the clinic.
  7. Taking medicines .As a rule, bleeding causes drugs aimed at preventing blood clotting. These include heparin, aspirin and others. Blood from the nose can flow with prolonged and uncontrolled application of nasal sprays, drying the mucous membrane.
  8. Oncological diseases .Epistaxis occurs in malignant and benign neoplasm in the nose. In addition to bleeding, there may be a sore on the nasal mucosa, a swelling of the nose, a change in its shape.
  9. Diseases accompanied by with clotting disorders of the , such as hemophilia. Deficiency of vitamin C .As you know, vitamin C strengthens the walls of blood vessels. If it is not enough, the vascular walls become loose and brittle. This fact and can be an answer to the question of why often goes nose blood.

In adults, the most frequent cause of the appearance of blood from the nose is damage to the vessels of the anterior part of the nasal septum( Kisselbach's place), densely permeated with a network of small arterioles and capillaries. Such bleeding, as a rule, does not pose a threat to human health. Blood from the nose flows with droplets or a thin trickle, and, with normal clotting, quickly stops itself.

The situation is worse when the vessels of the upper and posterior parts of the nasal cavity are damaged. The arteries here are much larger than in the anterior part, and therefore bleeding is stronger, can cause significant harm to health and even lead to death due to very severe blood loss. In this case, the blood flows a bright red non-foamy stream, can be seen from the mouth, and practically does not stop by itself.

What to do when the blood flows from the nose?

In the treatment of exclusively symptoms, there is no point, since it is necessary to eliminate the underlying disease. The cause of frequent nasal bleeding is established by the doctor. It is necessary to visit a therapist or pediatrician and an otolaryngologist. For diagnosis, it is required to pass a general blood test and check the indices of its coagulation.

Bleeding from the nose may not be so harmless. Many people do not pay enough attention to this. If the blood from the nose is worried in rare cases and then due to mechanical effects, then you do not need to worry.

If the blood from the nose is troubled often, spurts or bleeding profuse and prolonged - all this is a signal for an early request for help from a specialist.

How to stop the blood from the nose?

If the blood flows from the nose as a result of mechanical damage and there is little of it, but also with a small headache, there is no sign of serious ill health, you can cope with the problem yourself. The sequence of tasks is as follows: first stop the bleeding, then with the help of analgesics you can reduce the intensity of pain.

Take a sitting position and slightly tilt the head back. Loosen the knot of the tie, unbutton the collar. Do not tilt your head forward - this will cause a rush of blood to the nose and increased bleeding. Back to throw back the head, too, can not be - blood will penetrate into the nasopharynx and lead to vomiting.

On the bridge of the nose, you can put a piece of ice or a towel soaked in cold water - for a short while, for about ten minutes. A moistened with cold water napkin can also be applied to the back of the neck. The nostril, from which the blood is drawn, should be pressed for 5-10 minutes, until the bleeding stops. If the bleeding is intense or does not stop, then use tampons. To do this, cotton swabs moistened with hydrogen peroxide are suitable, they need to be inserted into the nose, but not too deep, and sit for 10-15 minutes.

If there is no tampon and hydrogen peroxide, then insert a bandage into the nostril from which the blood is coming, leaving at least 10 centimeters from the outside so that it can be freely extracted from the nostril. This is done in order to prevent the exit of blood from the nose. Also, if you have vasoconstrictors, for instillation of the nose, apply a few drops on the swab and insert it into the nose. These drops will help tighten the damaged vessel, which caused the bleeding. Then place the person in a cool, quiet and dark room. It happens that already these measures are enough.

If the bleeding is abundant and can not be stopped quickly enough at home, the head hurts badly, speech, vision or consciousness as a whole is broken - urgently call for an ambulance.

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