More than 80% of information about the world around the person perceives it through the organs of vision.The eye is a complex anatomical structure, even the smallest changes in which can lead to irreversible consequences. If you spend a lot of time at a computer, do not do preventive gymnastics and ignore the need for regular visits to an ophthalmologist, problems can not be avoided. Deterioration of visual function rarely occurs dramatically.While the changes are insignificant, we do not give them the proper value, and at the advanced stage the disease is much more difficult to cure.In this material, we will tell you about the main violations of the visual function and how to correct them.
1Types of abnormalities in vision
- 1.5Peripheral vision disorders
- 3.1Laser correction
- 3.2Operations to replace the lens
Types of abnormalities in vision
Variations in vision can manifest themselves with different symptoms.The most frequent - loss of clarity (partial or complete), drop in visual acuity, burning, itching, pain.About the most popular types of diseases of the visual system - more.
With myopia (or myopia), a person loses the ability to clearly see the removed objects.The higher the degree of disease, the worse visibility is in the distance.
With myopia, a person does not see the removed objects well. Another name for pathology is myopia.
In myopia, the image is projected not on the retina of the eye (as it should), but in front of it.This occurs as a result of the lengthening of the shape of the eye or the curvature of the cornea. Schoolchildren, students and those people who constantly work at the computer most often complain about myopia. The main methods of treatment - correction with the help of lenses or glasses, laser surgery.
At the initial stage of myopia development, special gymnastics, intake of vitamin preparations and hardware treatment give good results, but with a significant "minus" they are useless.
Another name for hyperopia is hypermetropia.The disease develops as a result of a pathological decrease in the diameter of the eyeball or curvature of the cornea.The distance between the retina and the cornea with farsightedness is less than it should be, and the image is focused behind the retina.
Although many people think that with hypermetropia, a person in the distance sees well, this is not so. At an average and high degree of disease indistinctly displayed objects located both at close and long distances.
Pediatric farsightedness is caused by the immaturity of the eyeball and often passes by itself.In adulthood, it is necessary to treat pathology in any case.
AStigmatism develops as a result of a deterioration in the focusing function.The shape of the eye becomes oval (and should be rounded) - and the rays that fall into it are reflected in two places. The result is a blurred image. Astigmatism can develop independently or in combination with myopia, hyperopia. Methods of correction - special optics and laser surgery.
In the absence of proper treatment of astigmatism, vision begins to fall sharply, or strabismus generally develops.
Presbyopia (or age-long-sightedness) is diagnosed in many people over the age of 40.The fact that the lens loses its elasticity over time, and the muscles that support it, noticeably weaken. As a result, the sharpness of the near vision decreases noticeably. Correction - glasses, contact lenses, surgery.
If you do not treat presbyopia, you will soon face increased eye fatigue and severe headaches.
Peripheral vision disorders
Disorders of peripheral vision develop as a result of dysfunction of certain parts of the retina.In this case, a separate area with a loss of vision is formed, and dark spots appear in the field of view.Another option is that the field of view simply narrows, and in the central part of the eye a small "island" appears.
Falling out of sight is usually partial - that is, peripheral vision is reduced by half, third, and so on.
In ophthalmology, various ways of restoring vision are used. The main ones are taking vitamins, gymnastics, replacing the lens and laser correction.
Special gymnastics is an effective way to improve eyesight with relatively small deviations and the main preventive tool.Exercises should be performed smoothly, without jerks, for 20 (approximately) approaches. Most Popular:
- Curtains - just blink quickly for two minutes.
- Look at the window - stick a small dot of plasticine on the glass, and then look alternately at it, then into the distance.
- Big eyes - sit flat, squeeze as hard as possible, hold your eyes for 5 seconds, and then open it.
- Massage - gently press the upper eyelids gently with three fingers.
- Hydromassage - rinse your eyes alternately with warm and cold water twice a day.
- Draw a picture - close your eyes, imagine something beautiful.
- Shooters - look up and down with the maximum amplitude, make the eyes diagonals, draw circles, squares, rhombs and so on.
The main disadvantage of gymnastics is that if the pathology of the visual system is seriously improved, it will not help.
In the early stages of eye diseases, taking vitamins can slow the development of pathological changes.You can take them in a synthetic and natural form - that is, in the form of a special preparation or together with food.
The following micronutrients are needed for eyes:
- vitamin A;
- vitamin C;
- vitamins of group B.
What is better - synthetic drugs or vitamins in kind? It is difficult to say unambiguously, because it is not always possible to use a full set of trace elements to a modern person, and dietary supplements need to be selected correctly.Choosing pharmacy vitamins, look at their composition and watch your health - when you find "your" complex, experiments can be stopped.
Laser vision correction is the most effective and safe way to restore vision with astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness.With favorable predictions, the patient will be able to completely get rid of glasses or lenses. The essence of correction consists in the effect on the cornea of the eye of the "cold" laser beam in order to change its curvature. As a result, the doctor sets the necessary parameters for the refraction of the light beam in the eye, and the patient again begins to see the objects clearly.
The most popular methods of laser vision correction are Lasek and Lasik.
Operations to replace the lens
Lens turbidity in most cases occurs with age or is a complication of eye trauma, irradiation, develops as a result of diabetes mellitus, severe stress, transferred autoimmune diseases.The most effective method of treatment is the replacement of the lens.During the operation, the eyeball is anaesthetized under local anesthesia. In the cornea, microscopic incisions are made to remove the lens. The bag (capsule) is thoroughly cleaned, after which an artificial lens is introduced into it.
Vision is the main source of information about the world around us.The most frequent pathologies are short-sightedness, hyperopia, astigmatism, violation of visual fields. To correct these diseases, special gymnastics, glasses and lenses, vitamin therapy, laser surgery are used, in some pathologies such as cataracts, the replacement of the lens is shown.