Hemoglobin is a complex chemical compound of a protein with an element of iron, which is present in red blood cells.The function of hemoglobin in the human body is one of the most important - it is involved in the delivery of oxygen molecules to all tissues and organs of the body.
Oxygen is indispensable for providing the vital activity of a living being with an element, it takes part in obtaining and exchanging energy and carrying out restorative reactions. The effect of hemoglobin is based on the capture of oxygen in the lungs, carrying out further oxidation and transferring it to all structures of the body.
When hemoglobin is lowered, it means the onset of oxygen exhaustion of all cells of the body and weakening of immunity. To prevent a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood below the norm, you need to know what to do if there is a lack of iron in the body. Let's understand, in what cases the hemoglobin level in the blood decreases, what are its norms in different people and what ways to increase the lack of this substance in the home.
The norm of hemoglobin
From the level of hemoglobin in the blood depends well-being and human health. If the hemoglobin is below normal, then it is an anemia, which is considered a rather formidable and dangerous disease.
The norm of hemoglobin in the blood depends on the sex of the person:
- Childrennormal content of hemoglobin, as in adults: before birth, HbA is already being synthesized, which by the year of life it practically replaces fetal hemoglobin, which served the child during intrauterine development.
- Among womenfrom 115 to 145 g / l (with pregnancy from 110 g / l);
- In menfrom 130 to 160 g / l.
By the volume of decrease in hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia can occur in several degrees:
- light(hemoglobin content from 110 g / l to 90 g / l);
- medium(hemoglobin content from 90 g / l to 70 g / l);
- heavy(hemoglobin content less than 70 g / l).
There is also latent anemia (latent). It is characterized by the normal presence of hemoglobin in erythrocytes against the background of a decrease in serum iron. At the same time, the symptoms of its lowering appear rather brightly. This condition is often inherent in women during pregnancy.
Symptoms of low hemoglobin
In addition to the blood test, which immediately reveals the lack of this important protein in the body, there are a number of symptoms: it can be assumed on their own that hemoglobin is low in the blood.
In men and women, these are the signs:
- general weakness of the body, drowsiness;
- pale skin, sometimes it even seems "transparent";
- lips of a bluish color;
- the skin becomes dry and begins to peel off;
- in especially neglected cases, nails begin to break and hair fall out;
- for children, the main symptom of hemoglobin deficiency are frequent illnesses.
While recognizing the symptoms of low hemoglobin in adults, you can successfully bring it back to normal without resorting to the help of doctors. But before, it is necessary to know the causes that reduce the content of this important element in the blood.
Causes of low hemoglobin
Why is hemoglobin lowered in adults, what does it mean? The body can lose hemoglobin for various reasons. Most quickly this happens when blood loss - both explicit and hidden. Explicit bleeding occurs with heavy and prolonged menstruation in women (more than five days), hemorrhoids, various injuries, injuries or surgeries.
Poor nutrition with an insufficient number of animal proteins, vitamins and trace elements leads to iron deficiency anemia. Often, low hemoglobin occurs in people who promote vegetarianism or who are on a diet for a long time. In childhood, anemia develops with unbalanced or inadequate nutrition.
Hidden bleeding is possible with some gastrointestinal diseases, pathologies of the female reproductive system (ovarian cyst, uterine myoma, etc.). To reduce hemoglobin and short life of red blood cells can lead to autoimmune diseases, infections or hereditary diseases.
In adults, a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin leads to the fact that the body receives less than the required amount of oxygen. The general condition of patients is broken and the above complaints appear.
- The consequence of this may be a decrease in immunity and, as a result, an increase in the incidence of infectious diseases.
- In most cases, rapid fatigue of the person and constant weakness are observed.
- Anemia can cause deformity in human epithelial tissues - the mucosa of the respiratory tract, the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract and the upper protective layers of the skin.
- Often, anemia becomes the cause of nervous system disorders: irritability appears, causeless mood swings, concentration of attention decreases.
In addition, with anemia can be such manifestations as cracks on the lips, a sharp muscle weakness, loss hair, fragility of nails and addiction to special smells that other people seem unpleasant.
Low hemoglobin in pregnancy
Reduced hemoglobin during pregnancy is a common occurrence for expectant mothers. A significant deviation from the norm can negatively affect the health of both mother and baby. This is fraught with the following complications:
- hypotension of the uterus (decrease in the contractility of its muscles);
- hypoxia (oxygen starvation of the fetus);
- delay, or even termination of growth and development of the fetus;
- low birth weight;
- disturbances in the work of the respiratory and nervous systems.
In addition, many doctors believe that a lowered hemoglobin in a woman during childbirth can negatively reflect on the health of the child in the future. Such children do not study well at school, they often get sick, suffer from various pathologies of internal organs. Therefore, if during pregnancy it is below the norm, treatment under the supervision of a doctor is extremely necessary.
How to increase hemoglobin?
What to do? In order to increase hemoglobin in the blood, you need, just in case, to know the cause of its fall. You can consume any amount of foods that increase hemoglobin (iron, B vitamins), but if they are not properly absorbed into the digestive tract, then success can not wait.
The main pathogenetic method of therapy is the intake of iron-containing preparations (Heferol, Ferroplex, Ferlatum and others). As a rule, oral forms are prescribed, but in severe cases it is recommended to administer the drug parenterally. Treatment of patients prone to bowel dysfunction, provides for the parallel assignment of enzyme and enveloping drugs.
If the prescribed drugs are well tolerated, they are used at the maximum doses with subsequent maintenance therapy with a reduction in dosage for several months. At the same time, the level of iron in the erythrocytes and serum is monitored. If necessary, also prescribe vitamin B12, B9 and ascorbic acid. In severe cases, a whole blood transfusion or erythrocyte mass is used.
Iron preparations for low hemoglobin in adults
Preparations for hemoglobin increase are prescribed only by a doctor and, naturally, under his strict control. This is due to the presence of side effects after taking medications, among which are: nausea, a feeling of irritability of the stomach, diarrhea, constipation and vomiting.
Very popular and popular are the following drugs that increase hemoglobin in the blood:
- Sorbifer Durules;
- Ferrum lek;
- Hemofer drops;
The course of treatment lasts from two weeks to three months. In this case, the visible result occurs approximately after 2-3 weeks of taking the medicine. If the composition lacks ascorbic acid, then you must additionally take vitamin C to 0.3 g per day.
If low hemoglobin is detected and tablets are treated, it is not allowed to drink calcium-containing products at the same time, since they are antagonists. Therefore, drink iron with milk, green than coffee and can not.
To products that promote alimentary therapy with reduced hemoglobin, include:
- Varieties of red meat - rabbit, beef.
- White chicken meat.
- Beef tongue, beef liver.
- Egg yolks.
- Seafood, fish.
- Buckwheat and other cereals.
- Carrots, beets, dark green vegetables.
- Pomegranate, apples and berries with a high content of vitamin C.
In no case should you take such a diet with low hemoglobin too literally and switch to one protein - the body is difficult to understand everything. Be sure to garnish the meat with vegetables and herbs, and for breakfast eat cereals of coarse grinding. As a supplement to nutrition for increasing hemoglobin, you can advise drinking juices - grape, pomegranate, carrot, beet, apple.
At the same time to improve the absorption of iron should be minimized consumption of dairy products, fatty foods, flour products, green tea and coffee.
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