Many problems, one way or another connected with the eyes, can be cured by resorting to conservative methods of treatment. But sometimes no simple solutions simply do not remain. Therefore, it is necessary to enucleate the eye. What is it, how is it implemented and why is it an extreme measure? Let us consider this in more detail.
- 1Method definition
- 2Application area
Under the incomprehensible ordinary person the phrase "enucleation of the eye" hides a fairly radical procedure - the complete removal of the eyeball.Not a surgical operation that affects it in part, but a complete and irrevocable disposal of this element of the visual system.
This is a very rare procedure, it is performed in no more than 2% of the total number of cases of surgical intervention in the visual system. But although it is rare, it can happen that it is impossible to avoid it.
There are a number of typical cases where enucleation is almost the only solution. These include, but are not limited to:
- unbearable pain of a chronic nature in the eyeball;
- a strong inflammatory process;
- atrophic processes, affecting the eyeball;
- tumor- most often we are talking about malignant variations, sometimes the tumor can be removed, preserving the integrity of the eye, but, unfortunately, not always;
- purulent infection, leading to the threat of infection and a healthy eyeball;
- absolute painful glaucoma(Of course, conventional glaucoma does not require such radical measures);
- cosmetic defects, which do not lend themselves to any kind of conservative treatment;
- severe injuries and damage to the eyeball, which seriously violate its integrity.
The decision on whether to remove the eyeball is taken by a doctor, usually an ophthalmologist. The doctor will strive to minimize the need for such a procedure, but sometimes without it simply can not do.
Most often, this procedure is performed under local anesthesia, for example, a mixture of novocaine and adrenaline.Sometimes other analgesics are used, for example, morphine hydrochloride. The choice of analgesic is based on the patient's characteristics and situation.
Sometimes general anesthesia can be applied, but this is only in the situation when, in addition to removing the eyeball, surgery is also performed on some other organ. Other options for general anesthesia are excessive overexcitation and resistance of the patient or the presence of severe psychiatric disorders.
When the anesthesia began to act, an incision of the conjunctiva in a circle is made using special curved scissors. First it is cut at the limb, then it is separated from the eyeball itself, after which the tendons of the muscles are cut off at the sclera itself.
The tendon of the internal muscle is captured with a special hemostatic tweezers, the eyes turn strongly, while helping with special blunt medical scissors.The same scissors cut the optic nerve. The procedure ends because the eye is withdrawn from the orbit and the strands and untouched oblique muscles are cut off. This completes the bulk of the operation..
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After the procedure, there are usually no serious consequences, for example, heavy bleeding.After draining the wound, a pressure bandage is put on it, but there is no bandage, which should stay there for at least a day.
In some cases, it may be necessary to apply sutures, but this is not always the case. And if they are still superimposed, then usually they are from strength three or four, not more.
The first day after the operation is necessary not to load yourself, but to comply with bed rest.Once the day is over, make the first post-operative dressing. The doctor will specify when the bandages can be completely disposed of.
Often after the procedure has been carried out, antibacterial therapy is additionally prescribed.If you follow it correctly, the wound will not be infected, the infection will not start, and there will be no complications..
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Of course, enucleation of the eye is a very unpleasant procedure, which I would like to avoid in every possible way. But there are situations where the consequences are even more terrible than the fact that the need to remove the eyeball has arisen. Still, it's easier to have one active eye, but do not have health problems and risks, than vice versa. In addition, technology is stepping forward, because artificial eyeballs are more and more available, and then the situation in this direction will only be so that one day compensation for visual opportunities will be as natural as prosthetics of other parts of the body in the present moment.
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