Gaimorovy sinuses, bone cavity formations to the left and right of the nose in the upper jaw. They are connected to the nasal passages by holes in the bottom wall. Sinusitis is an inflammation inside the maxillary sinus. Distinguish between acute sinusitis and chronic.
The main cause of acute sinusitis is a viral infection (pathogens are respiratory viruses infection, adenovirus, influenza and parainfluenza, children with measles and scarlet fever viruses), much less often - bacterial.
Most often acute sinusitis occurs:
- as a result of complication of rhinitis with respiratory viral disease;
- when the infection spreads from the carious teeth of the upper jaw (odontogenic sinusitis);
- with chronic bilateral tonsillitis and adenoiditis;
- with an allergic rhinitis;
- at a curvature of a nasal septum and other congenital anatomic defects of the top respiratory ways;
- in bacterial carriers of staphylococci and streptococci live normally on the nasal mucosa, but in case of hypothermia they become pathogens of the disease and cause symptoms of sinusitis.
The emergence of acute inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is facilitated by any long-term chronic diseases, transferred stresses, surgical interventions, malnutrition, causing a sharp decline immunity.
In children, the cause of maxillary sinusitis can be chlamydial infection and mycoplasma. This is important to consider for the selection of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment.
Chronic rhinitis causes swelling of the nasal passages and blocks the natural opening for cleansing of the maxillary sinuses, helps the development of infection. Other inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx provoke infection in the maxillary sinuses when coughing, sneezing, blowing.
Sluggish caries of the upper four extreme teeth leads to direct penetration of the infection from the destroyed root, granuloma, fistula, fossa of the removed tooth. In some people, the roots of the teeth grow directly into the maxillary sinus, cause the symptoms of sinusitis. Therefore, the cause of inflammation can be a normal filling material from dental treatment.
SymptomsSymptoms of the disease are most often layered on acute respiratory viral damage and aggravate the course. It is possible to suspect the transition of the process to the maxillary sinuses if:
- there was an unpleasant feeling of raspiraniya or pressure around the nose;
- by the evening disturbing a growing headache, which is worse when the head is tilted forward;
- pain is localized in one half of the face (one-way process) or captures the whole face (bilateral), the area under the eyes hurts, gives into the ears, The symptom of maxillary sinusitis can be defined as a toothache when chewing, a characteristic feature is the reduction of the headache in the prone position back;
- sharply increased body temperature to a value above 38 degrees;
- there was a complete bilateral stasis of the nose or breathing is absent alternately on one side, then on the other, the dense greenish-yellow content rarely leaves;
- the voice becomes nasal;
- growing weakness, fatigue, there is insomnia;
- decreased sense of smell;
- possible reddening and puffiness of the eyelids, lacrimation - symptoms of involvement in the inflammatory process of lacrimal ducts;
- swelling of the face on the side of the lesion;
- photophobia (a rare symptom).
Depending on the nature of the discharge from the nose, sinusitis is divided into acute catarrhal and purulent maxillary sinusitis.
Symptoms of catarrhal and purulent sinusitis
Acute catarrhal sinusitis can be considered an easier form of the disease. Inflamed maxillary sinuses contain serous, liquid contents, which are more easily separated from the nose.
Symptoms of the disease are less pronounced: general malaise, low body temperature, pain in the sinuses and forehead, and shortness of breath.
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis is carried out by conservative methods: vasoconstrictive drops or sprays, inside are prescribed sulfanilamide preparations, in complex treatment physiotherapeutic procedures are widely used, people's funds are recommended medicine. Most often there is no need for antibiotics and puncture (puncture) of the sinus. The course of treatment lasts 10-14 days. With a favorable course of symptoms subsiding, recovery comes.
Acute purulent maxillary sinusitis is characterized by the presence of pus in the maxillary sinuses. Because the purulent content is much thicker than the serous discharge from the sinuses is small. All symptoms are pronounced. Disturbing severe pain in the face, headaches when leaning forward, high fever, general malaise, insomnia.
Treatment of purulent maxillary sinitis is much more complicated: antibiotics are required to influence bacterial infection, it is possible to appoint a short-course physician-otolaryngologist anti-inflammatory hormones. A sinus puncture is suggested with washing and purging of the purulent contents. After the puncture, antibiotics and sulfonamides continue to be administered, anti-inflammatory sprays against the background of vasoconstrictor drugs. Physiotherapy treatment is prescribed when the process abates. Treatment and recovery after a previous purulent sinusitis will take 3-6 months. Folk remedies are indicated for treatment during recovery and for the prevention of transition to chronic sinusitis.
Catarrh of the sinusitis in untimely or incorrect treatment can go into purulent. With the running purulent acute process in the maxillary sinuses, the development of symptoms of severe complications is possible:
- transition of the process to the membranes of the brain and the development of meningitis;
- the spread of infection through the blood vessels leads to an abscess of the brain;
- damage to the vessels on the face contributes to thrombosis and phlebothrombosis;
- inflammation of the trigeminal and facial nerves;
- inflammation of the eyeball and orbit.
Acute maxillary sinusitis can lead to life-threatening severe illness, requiring long-term treatment. Therefore, timely contact with a doctor with the first symptoms of the disease and the full course of treatment is very important.
Similarly, the transition from an acute to a chronic process is undesirable. Health problems for the patient will appear significantly more. Exacerbations after any hypothermia are treated more difficult each time.
Experts advise not to start dental treatment, follow the throat, avoid hypothermia of the legs, to prevent colds, to carry out vaccine prevention against influenza, to carry out advice doctor.
What is catarrhal bilateral sinusitis
Not many people have an idea of what is catarrhal bilateral sinusitis and why it occurs. The pathology of the upper respiratory tract is very common. Often inflamed paranasal sinuses. They are also called the paranasal sinuses.
There are 4 varieties of these anatomical formations:
- paired maxillary sinuses;
- wedge shaped.
Most often, otorhinolaryngologists find inflammation of the maxillary sinuses. In this situation, it is a matter of sinusitis. The inner surface of the maxillary sinuses is lined with ciliated epithelium. In its thickness, there are many special cells capable of producing mucus. The maxillary sinuses perform a number of important functions. They participate in the amplification of voice resonance, warm the incoming air masses, participate in the distribution of weight in the skull. What is the etiology, clinic and treatment of bilateral sinusitis?
Features of catarrhal sinusitisSinusitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the maxillary sinus of the nose.In most cases, this pathology develops against other diseases (influenza, acute respiratory viral infection, scarlet fever). In this case the inflammation can be bilateral and one-sided. Depending on the clinical manifestations and the nature of the course of the disease, acute and chronic catarrhal sinusitis are distinguished. The catarrhal form of inflammation is very common. In this case, it can have a different etiology. Depending on the etiological factor, the following varieties of sinusitis are distinguished:
- allergic nature.
Separately, it is necessary to isolate the genyantritis that has arisen against the background of the use of medications. Catarrhal sinusitis can occur in both children and adults. The highest incidence rate is observed in the autumn-winter period. It is important that bilateral inflammation occurs much less frequently than one-sided inflammation.
The development of catarrhal bilateral sinusitis is due to several reasons. The most important factors are:
- frequent colds;
- inadequate or untimely treatment of influenza, ARVI;
- decreased immunity;
- allergic reactions (polynoses);
- curvature of the septum of the nose;
- the presence of polyps in the nasal passages;
- congenital pathology of the development of the maxillary sinuses;
- the presence of acute or chronic rhinitis;
- traumatic injury to the face.
Important importance is the focus of chronic inflammation (adenoiditis, pharyngitis). As for the infectious agent itself, it can be bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci), viruses, microscopic fungi. Catarrhal sinusitis can be non-infectious. In this case, it provokes an allergic reaction, taking medications. Most often, inflammation and swelling of the sinus mucosa develop in childhood. In this situation, it is an acute form of inflammation. In the absence of treatment, acute sinusitis easily passes into a chronic, which is much more difficult to cure. Often the infectious agent penetrates into the maxillary sinuses through the blood. The most common cause of catarrhal sinusitis is the pathology of the upper teeth.
Bilateral sinusitis has many symptoms. At the heart of their appearance is local mucosal edema and excess mucus production. The latter is produced by goblet cells. Normally, a healthy person develops mucus a little, and it goes through special ducts. With bilateral sinus sinus, the ducts are clogged. A similar condition can cause a secondary infection, suppuration. The most common symptoms of bilateral sinusitis are:
- severity in the region of the maxillary sinuses;
- mucous discharge from the nasal cavity;
- increased body temperature (with acute inflammation);
- soreness in palpation;
- nasal congestion;
- impaired sense of smell;
It is known that the maxillary sinuses are located on the side of the nasal septum at eye level. With bilateral catarrhal sinusitis, reddening of this area and eyelids can sometimes be observed. Some patients develop lacrimation. Acute inflammation develops suddenly. First there is a feeling of discomfort in the nasal area, then a pain syndrome. The pain intensifies in the evening. In the beginning, the pain is localized in one area. As the disease develops, the pain is determined throughout the head. Children may feel weak.
Due to the accumulation of serous or mucous secretions, breathing through the nose is disturbed. With catarrh of the genyantritis, the secret secret is liquid and transparent. If a putrefactive microflora is attached, it acquires a greenish color and a thick consistency. In this situation, there can be an unpleasant smell. Additional symptoms of the disease include sneezing, sore throat. The temperature can rise to 38 degrees or more. It happens in acute maxillary sinusitis. Catarrhal sinusitis is dangerous for its possible complications. They include the attachment of purulent infection, the formation of abscesses in the brain, inflammation of the meninges (meningitis), thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, purulent tissue melting.
Diagnostic measuresTo begin treatment, the doctor must make a correct diagnosis. Diagnosis of catarrhal sinusitis includes a detailed conversation with the patient, examination of the nasal mucosa and the entire face, laboratory and instrumental examination. Inspection should start from the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Often, this determines the soreness. The doctor assesses the mobility of soft tissues and their consistency. Rhinoscopy is mandatory. With an acute form of catarrhal sinus, reddening and swelling of the mucosa in the middle nasal passage is revealed. Additional methods of examining the nasal cavity include diaphanoscopy. This method is based on the transmission of maxillary sinuses. The patient has a darkening.
The final diagnosis is made based on the results of the X-ray study. An alternative option is the use of MRI, CT, ultrasound. With bilateral sinus, the sinus transparency is compared with that in the eye sockets. Computed tomography is indicated in case of traumatic injuries of the facial part of the skull, severe degree of sinusitis. This diagnostic method can not be used for pregnant women. Puncture is used to determine the type of pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics. Manipulation is performed under local anesthesia.
Tactics of treatment
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis has the following objectives:
- the elimination of infection;
- recovery of outflow of mucous secretions;
- elimination of the main symptoms of the disease;
- prevention of complications.
Treatment is often conservative.
Treatment involves drainage of the sinus sinus cavity, administration of antibiotics, the use of various vasoconstrictors (drops, sprays), sinus heating, physiotherapeutic Events.
Treatment is carried out only after consulting a doctor. With catarrhal inflammation, the secret is liquid, therefore surgical drainage may not be used. As antibacterial agents in the bacterial form of the disease, cephalosporins, semi-synthetic and protected penicillins, macrolides are used.
The best therapeutic effect is possessed by "Levofloxacin "Amoxicillin "Amoxiclav "Cefuroxime". Antibiotics are not always used. It is not appropriate to prescribe them for viral etiology of the disease. In this situation, therapy involves the use of steroids, mucolytics. To eliminate the main symptoms of the disease, humidification of the air, normalization of nutrition, elimination of the effects of allergens are carried out. In severe pain syndrome, drugs from the NSAID group are used. Local treatment involves washing the nose with solutions of antiseptics (Furacillin, sodium hypochlorite). In the allergic form of sinusitis, antihistamines are indicated. Thus, sinusitis should be treated timely and thoroughly.
Catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis
Catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis- an inflammatory disease. In the paranasal sinuses of man there are special holes through which slime is excreted. When the mucous membrane swells, the holes begin to gradually close. Because of this, mucus can not go out and accumulates in the maxillary sinuses, and the inflammatory process intensifies.
Causes of catarrhal sinusitis
Most often, the catarrhal form of sinusitis develops against a background of colds that have been cured or not completely cured, and a runny nose. But there are other factors predisposing to the development of the disease:
- Often catarrhal sinusitis develops in people with congenital anatomical pathologies of the nasal cavity structure: a curved septum, dilated inferior shells.
- Diseases are susceptible to people with weakened immunity, whose body receives less than enough vitamins and beneficial microelements.
- In some patients, acute catarrhal sinusitis develops against a background of allergies.
- With extreme care, the runny nose should be treated for those who work in adverse conditions.
One or both maxillary sinuses can become inflamed. If the inflammation spreads to both sides, bilateral catarrhal sinusitis is diagnosed.
To treat such a form of maxillary sinusitis will take longer, but the timely detection of the disease will significantly simplify the treatment process.
Symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis
Catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis is quite sudden. The disease begins acutely and in most cases it is simply impossible not to pay attention to it. One of the most important symptoms is pain in the head region. In the initial stages of pain localized near the eyes. The longer the genyantritis is left unattended, the more painful the sensations become and determine their localization becomes almost impossible.
Other manifestations of catarrhal chronic one- and two-sided sinusitis are as follows:
- a sharp increase in temperature;
- swelling of the orbit;
- deterioration of the sense of smell (and sometimes its complete disappearance);
- sleep disorders;
- deterioration and loss of appetite.
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis
The disease can have quite serious consequences, so treatment should begin as soon as possible. In the early stages, catarrhal sinusitis can be overcome by conservative methods, implying application of vasoconstrictive drops and sprays, administration of antibiotics, antipyretic agents and immunomodulators. Very effective in catarrh of sinusitis and some physiotherapeutic procedures:
- irradiation with ultraviolet rays;
Unfortunately, in difficult cases, the patient can be helped only by surgical intervention. Basically doctors resort to the help of a puncture - a sinus puncture by means of a special needle. Sometimes a more serious operation may be required - a maxillary sinusitis.
Treatment of catarrhal sinus with folk remedies
In parallel with conservative methods, it is possible to treat folk remedies:
- A special ointment from honey, onion juice, milk, dark soap and vegetable oil is poured into the nose for a quarter of an hour. Repeat the procedure should be from two to five times.
- Excellent means - garlic drops.
- One of the most popular means is prepared from aloe and calanchoe. Of several leaves squeezed juice, mixed with honey and a pinch of salt. The product is thoroughly mixed and filtered, and after it is digested twice a day in a nose by a pair of drops.
Causes, symptoms and treatment of catarrhal sinusitis
Catarrhal sinusitis can occur without complications, but it can also cause dangerous consequences in both adults and children. If the acute process can not be cured in time, chronic sinusitis can develop.
Catarrhal sinusitis is an inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses. Normally, on both sides of the nose are the maxillary sinuses, which communicate with the nasal cavity with the help of small holes.
From the inside, the maxillary sinuses are lined with a mucous membrane: it warms and moistens the incoming air. Any external factor (virus or allergy) leads to swelling of the inner shell of the cavity, resulting in the exit of mucus through the holes is blocked. The mucosal discharge is accumulated inside the sinus, which causes inflammation.
The most frequent reason is the penetration of a viral infection into the body, which causes the development of catarrhal phenomena. Influenza viruses and other acute respiratory infections fall into the maxillary sinuses through the nasal passages.
Infection can penetrate into air cavities with blood flow, which happens with measles. The disease often develops with injuries of the nasal region, curvature of the nasal septum. Allergic and vasomotor rhinitis is accompanied by a strong swelling of the mucous membrane of the sinus, which sometimes results in the appearance of sinusitis.
Symptoms of genyantritis
If acute catarrhal sinusitis develops, the patient is disturbed by the following symptoms:
- pain in the area of the cheekbones, cheeks, orbit, which increases with the tilt of the head and when you press your finger on this area.
- pressure from the inside on the eyeballs and the area of the maxillary sinuses;
- pain in the head behind the eyes, which decreases in the supine position;
- mucous discharge from the nose on one side. If the process is bilateral, flows from both nasal passages.
- loss of smell;
- violation of nasal breathing;
- toothache appears due to the proximity of the upper jaw and maxillary cavity;
- increase in temperature, intoxication of the body.
About a genyantritis it is necessary to think, if allocation from a nose does not stop long time. It should be noted that initially the symptoms of sinusitis are very "lubricated and only with the enhancement inflammation there is a feeling of pressure in the nose and cheekbones, headache, swelling of the cheek and orbit of the eye. In those cases when liquid serous discharge from the nose is replaced by thick, viscous and green, this indicates the attachment of bacterial infection and the development of purulent sinusitis.
Types of genyantritis
The inflammatory process can be localized on one side, then the discharge from the nose and the stuffiness are recorded only to the right or left. If the patient lies on the healthy side, there is a copious discharge from the nasal passage. So one-sided sinusitis manifests itself.
Sometimes the inflammation affects both air sinuses, then both nasal passages are laid and the runny nose comes from two nostrils. So shows a bilateral catarrhal sinusitis.
The process can be both acute and chronic. Catarrh of the sinus in late treatment can go to chronic sinusitis, while in the period of exacerbation develop the same symptoms as the acute condition. Chronic sinusitis in a period of calm may not show itself, but often patients complain of a persistent runny nose and cough at night.
Sinusitis in children
Catarrhal sinusitis in children under 4 years practically does not occur. Air sinuses develop only to 2-3 years, and until this time, the virus disease in infants occurs in the form of catarrhal rhinitis. The risk group includes children with weakened immune system, allergies, adenoids and polyps. To treat the child should only the doctor-otolaryngologist, otherwise the chronic sinusitis develops.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis can be done without taking antibiotics, if the discharge is serous. As therapeutic measures, vasoconstrictive drugs (drops or spray) are used, and then the nasal passages are washed with antiseptic solutions. A good warming effect on the sinuses is provided by physiotherapy procedures: UHF, ultraviolet irradiation.
Catarrhal sinusitis: varieties, causes and main symptoms
Most people at least once in their life faced such an unpleasant disease as sinusitis.
Sinusitis is called inflammatory diseases affecting the sinuses of the paranasal sinuses.
Diseases of the paranasal sinuses caused by a viral infection are called catarrhal sinusitis.
Catarrhal sinusitis is usually divided into localization of the pathological process into the following categories:
- Catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis(affects the maxillary or maxillary sinuses);
- Catarrhal frontal(inflammation of the frontal paranasal sinuses);
- Catarrhal ethmoiditis(affects the mucosa located in the trellis bone);
- Catarrhal sphenoiditis(inflammation of the sphenoid sinus);
At the same time, catarrhal sinusitis can be either unilateral or bilateral, involving several paranasal sinuses at once into the pathological process.
In this article, we will dwell on catarrhal sinusitis, symptoms of sinusitis in adults, treatment, the causes of its occurrence and prevention.
What is catarrhal sinusitis?It is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses, accompanied by swelling, redness, and an increase in mucous secretions. At the same time, the discharge is not of a purulent nature. The name of this disease is formed from the outdated term "Qatar which means the inflammatory process of the upper respiratory tract.
This type of catarrhal sinusitis is considered the easiest to treat. However, in particularly difficult cases of this disease, without timely treatment, inflammation can spread to the periosteum or even bone. That is why it is so important that the patient comply with all the recommendations prescribed to him by the attending physician-otolaryngologist.
Why develop catarrhal sinusitis?
The prerequisites for the development of catarrhal sinusitis are usually the following:
- Not treated on time ARVI.
- Prolonged rhinitis.
- Injuries of soft tissues and bones of the nose and upper jaw.
- Curvature of the septum of the nose, congenital or resulting from trauma.
Symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis
Symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis are not so pronounced that the diagnosis can be put to yourself at home. Nevertheless, below we list the symptoms, finding that you need to seek advice from a qualified otolaryngologist:
- elevated temperature (from 3, degrees Celsius);
- unpleasant sensations in the region of the maxillary sinuses;
- severe nasal congestion;
- swelling of the eyelids and face;
- decreased performance, lethargy.
Methods of treatment of catarrhal sinusitisTo start treatment of catarrhal sinusitis is necessary only after the diagnosis is specified, since there is a huge number of similar diseases.
Most often, with catarrhal sinusitis, medication or physiotherapy is prescribed.
The methods of treatment of catarrhal sinusitis, as a rule, are aimed at freeing the nasal canals from mucous secretions and reducing puffiness.
It should be noted that the use of antibiotics is not used to treat viral sinusitis, since they do not affect the virulent infection and do not alleviate the acute symptoms disease. In this case, it is advisable to follow an active wait-and-see tactics until there is a suspicion of joining a bacterial infection or a risk of developing serious complications.
In any case, treatment with antibiotics should be prescribed exclusively by the attending physician-otolaryngologist, based on results of a laboratory study of the biomaterial from the paranasal sinuses or in the case of complications.
It is important to know
In no case can not arbitrarily decide on the treatment of antibacterial drugs in catarrhal sinusitis! Failure to comply with this rule can lead to serious consequences, such as the emergence of resistant strains of the disease and the development of superinfection.
To improve drainage and air permeability in the paranasal sinuses, patients suffering from catarrhal sinusitis are advised to perform a systematic daily nasal wash. In the case of bilateral catarrhal sinusitis, it is recommended to perform alternate irrigation treatment, in which one half of the nose is washed first, and then the other.
To eliminate edematous processes with catarrhal sinusitis, vasoconstrictive agents of local or systemic influences are used.
In the event that painful symptoms in catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis are pronounced and significantly affect the quality of life of the patient, it is advisable to use analgesics. Pain management is recommended for use with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, Ibuprofen and Paracetamol. The most optimal one can be considered the reception of pain medications no more than twice a day, lasting three to four days.
Treatment of sinusitis should be approached with seriousness. At the first symptoms of this disease it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Manifestations of catarrhal sinusitis and its treatment
The paranasal sinuses of a person have special holes through which slime is excreted. Mucous membranes of the sinuses can swell, and catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis occurs. This disease has an inflammatory character.
In the normal state, the maxillary sinuses should be filled with air. Their main functions are as follows:
- to form nasal breathing;
- form a resonance in the formation of the voice;
- to form an olfaction.
The sinusitis is classified as follows:
1. According to the duration of the disease:
2. By the nature of inflammation:
Appearance of sinusitisThe following factors predispose to the development of the disease: vasomotor rhinitis, adenoids, curvature of the septum of the nose, hypertrophy of the nasal apertures, caries, chronic tonsillitis.
Under the influence of infection, swelling of the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinuses occurs. They are located between the eyeballs and teeth. Shells thicken, the volume of mucus released increases. Her outflow is hampered, catarrhal sinusitis begins to develop. It is caused only by the presence of viruses.
If you do not start treatment, then bacteria will join. In the sinuses will begin the formation of pus. Genyantritis will go to the stage of purulent disease. Improper treatment will lead to the recurrence of the disease. Over time, it will become chronic.
Diagnosis of genyantritisDiagnosis is established in the clinic on the basis of laboratory-instrumental studies.The main method is the x-ray of the maxillary sinuses of the nose.The doctor sees the changes taking place in the sinuses that point to the sinusitis. This allows you to quickly eliminate the onset of a purulent flow. Computed tomography is also performed for this purpose.
An effective method of establishing a diagnosis is an endoscopic examination of the sinuses. In advanced cases, a puncture of the maxillary sinuses is performed. The resulting pus is subjected to bacteriological examination, the cause of the disease is established.
A general blood test can detect only inflammatory changes in bacterial sinusitis when symptoms of body intoxication are expressed (weakness, headache, lack of appetite).
Treatment of the disease
Methods of treating sinusitis depend on the cause of the disease. Catarrhal sinus is more likely to develop on the background of respiratory diseases, but it also has the following reasons:
- anatomical pathology of nasal cavity structure;
- curvature of the septum of the nose, widening of the lower shells;
- weakened immunity;
- inflammation in the background of allergies.
Inflamed can one sinus or both. In this case, the treatment will be longer.
Acute catarrhal sinusitis has significant signs. Intensive pain, high body temperature, impaired well-being always accompany this disease. The acute form is accompanied by abundant mucous discharge from the nose. They can be transparent or greenish in color, but always with an unpleasant odor.
The treatment consists in removing the edema of the mucous membranes of the nose and restoring air passages through the nasal passages. Assign: antihistamine and vasoconstrictive drugs, antipyretic drugs and immunomodulators. Antibiotics patient will receive a bacterial infection, antiviral drugs are prescribed for a viral infection.Sinus catheters are used to drain sinuses. A puncture can be performed to administer antibiotics.
Physiotherapeutic procedures are highly effective:
- UFO (ultraviolet irradiation).
It happens that the patient can be helped only with the help of surgical intervention. Surgeons perform a sinus puncture using a special needle. In some (neglected) cases, a complex operation is performed - a haymorotomy.
Cure sinusitis can and yourself. There are many recipes for the treatment of sinusitis. Some of them:
- Juice potatoes, honey and blue onions in equal proportions. Bury in the nose during the day. Nasopharynx rinse with water, which is added salt and beet juice.
- In the container put 3 bay leaves, pour them with water, bring to a boil. Warm the broth soak a natural napkin and put it on the bottom of the forehead and the bridge of the nose. When the napkin has cooled down, it will have to be replaced with a new one. So do it 6 days before bedtime.
- In a cup of boiling water, add an hour. l. tinctures of propolis. Take shelter with a thick towel and breathe the steam.
- Black radish grate, shift a bit on the bandage and attach to the bridge of the nose. Hold for 10 minutes. Do the procedure before going to bed.
Treatment of sinusitis often takes a long time.
In winter and autumn, sinusitis can exacerbate.
It will be necessary to repeat the course of treatment. We must remember about prevention, avoid the occurrence of diseases of the upper respiratory tract, timely sanitize chronic foci of infection in the body, avoid hypothermia.
Acute antritis: purulent, chronic, catarrhal and bacterialAcute sinusitis, the symptoms and treatment of which are well known to modern doctors, is, in fact, an inflammatory process with a characteristic localization in the sinuses of the jaw. These are sinus paired, normally filled with air. However, it may also happen that slime (liquid secret) accumulates in them, which is a very good medium for various microbes that cause infectious damage.
In clinical practice, there are two types of this ailment: acute catarrhal sinusitis and a purulent form of the disease:
- The first is characterized by the presence of a transparent serous content, the main sign of the second is the accumulation of pus. In both cases, the process can be either one or two-way.
- Acute purulent maxillary sinusitis is dangerous because the pathological process can pass into the orbit or skull cavity.
Causes of acute sinusitis in children and adults
The described ailment can arise as a complication of acute respiratory infections, can develop in result of allergy, as well as in the presence of infectious foci of the nasopharynx and against the background of diseases teeth.
A predisposing factor in the development of the disease is seasonal hypovitaminosis, which occurs, as a rule, in the autumn-winter period.
Causes of acute maxillary sinusitis are reduced to three main factors:violation of sinus drainage, dysfunction of the cilia and changes in the quantity and quality of mucus.
Drainage of the sinuses is disrupted mainly because of the mucosal edema, which at the same time blocks the opening that connects the sinuses with the nasal cavity. It happens quite easily, because the diameter of this hole is only 3 mm.
Violating the outflow of mucus can also mechanical obstruction: polyps, foreign body, displacement of the septum.
Normal work of the cilia of the epithelium ensures the excretion of mucus. Therefore, any violation of their work leads to the accumulation of this mucus in the sinuses. Problems with cilia can occur under the influence of viral and bacterial toxins, inflammation or the syndrome of Kartagener. Contributes to the violation of cigarette smoke, as well as cold air.
In terms of the development of the disease, acute sinusitis is an important role played by the degree of viscosity of the secretions, their volume and concentration. If the viscosity of the mucus rises (for example, with cystic fibrosis), then its removal also slows down.
Signs that characterize acute sinusitis
Accompanying acute sinusitis symptoms, as a rule, are characterized by brightness and usually do not go unnoticed neither by the doctor, nor by the patient himself.
One of the most frequent manifestations is pain, which can occur in the cheek and give to the area of the superciliary arches or teeth. At the same time, a characteristic feature is the intensification of pain with a sharp slant downward.
Pain can also occur in the temples, occiput or in the ear, and also be felt when pressing on the inner corner of the eye gap.
Characterizing acute sinusitis signs can also be expressed in the form of nasal congestion, accompanied by secretions and hyposmia, until the complete loss of smell.
Nasal breathing in this disease develops as a result of the edema of the mucous membrane, which even the medicines can not fully cope with. Edema together with inflammation prevent the entry of substances to the olfactory epithelium, as a result the patient ceases to sense smells.
Discharge from the nose is mostly transparent, and with a bacterial form of the disease - purulent, thick and unpleasantly smelling.
The increase in body temperature is characteristic only in the event that there is an acute bacterial sinusitis. The fever is usually high: 38-39 ° C or more. In such situations, antibiotics should be administered as soon as possible to the therapy regimen.
Another manifestation of the described disease is the so-called postnasal sinking syndrome or simply postnatal syndrome. It consists in the appearance of dry, and sometimes even painful cough, caused by the irritating effect of nasal secretions draining along the back wall of the pharynx.This sign often appears at night: at this time the person is in a horizontal position, so the mucus remains in the nasopharynx for a long time and irritates the mucous membrane.
And, in addition to all the symptoms described above, acute and chronic sinusitis are also characterized by the appearance of fatigue and weakness, which makes it impossible to perform the usual duties.
Some doctors note the redness of eyelids, cheeks or nose for a given ailment. However, this is not a specific symptom, which can be a manifestation of conjunctivitis, runny nose or other pathological conditions.
Complications of acute sinusitisIn clinical practice, complications of acute sinusitis are not so common. However, in the event that they nevertheless appeared, very life-threatening situations may arise, which often require thorough, including surgical, intervention.
The disease described can cause contamination of neighboring organs. One of the most serious in this regard is the penetration of the infection into the cranium with the development of meningitis. Fortunately, this is very rare.
More likely is another outcome, which may result in an acute form of sinusitis:the transition of the inflammatory process from the maxillary sinuses to the orbit. It is manifested by the development of the puffiness of the eyelids and the appearance of a certain degree of puerpergia, accompanied by considerable morbidity.
The most frequent complications of the described disease are lesions of other organs of the ENT region (for example, angina), pneumonia, dental diseases, as well as increased asthmatic manifestations.
Treatment of acute purulent sinusitis in the homeTreatment of acute sinusitis has three main objectives:First, it is necessary to destroy the infection; secondly, therapy should reduce severity and reduce duration of manifestations of the disease; thirdly, with its help it is necessary to warn all possible complications.
Similar goals are achieved by systemically treating bacterial infection and providing adequate drainage.
If there is acute purulent sinusitis, the treatment is usually supplemented by irrigation with antiseptic solutions. Such preparations include, in particular, Dioxydin. It is sold as a 1% solution in ampoules, which should be opened and poured into a more convenient container for irrigation. Chlorhexidine and Miramistin are also well suited in this case.
Treatment of acute sinusitis with antibiotics
Thinking about how to cure acute sinusitis the first thing that can come to mind is antibiotics. However, the need for their use in this disease should be weighed very carefully.
It should be remembered that in many cases, the cause of acute sinusitis are viruses. And these drugs do not act on these microorganisms at all. This fact is confirmed by research and is one more confirmation of the fact that in any illnesses it is better to apply to doctors, rather than engage in self-medication.
Antibiotics for acute sinusitis should be used only when there is an accurate confirmation of the bacterial form of the disease.But here you need to be careful. Physicians have long known that almost half of the hemophilic rods and almost all Moraxella are bacteria that are capable of causing sinusitis - produce a special enzyme that destroys penicillin drugs and some cephalosporin antibacterial agents.
The conclusion from this is simple: when prescribing drugs, it is necessary to take into account the resistance of microbes to them, and only specialists can determine it.
In patients with a diagnosis of acute sinusitis, treatment with antibiotics is selected individually and lasts, as a rule, at least 14 days.
One of the most prescribed in this case are preparations of the penicillin group. In particular, Amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid in the form of preparations such as Amoxiclav or Flemoxin soluteba, according to experimental data, has an efficiency of over 90%.
Preparations related to macrolides are also used quite often. Their effectiveness in this disease is 70-80%. This includes Azithromycin, Clarithromycin and other medications.
In third place in terms of efficiency (50-60%) are cephalosporins. About them, too, do not forget, solving the question of how to treat acute sinusitis. Of the first-generation drugs, this is Cefuroxime, and from the third generation - Cefaclor.
In severe cases, carbapenems are prescribed, for example, Imipenem, as well as aminoglycoside antibiotics in injections (Gentamycin, etc.)
In the described disease, it is possible to use fluoroquinolones, of which representatives are Levofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin (Cyphran).
However, it should be remembered that these medications can interfere with the formation of cartilaginous tissue, on the basis of which acute sinusitis in children with such medicines is forbidden to treat.
How to cure acute sinusitis by symptomatic meansIn contrast to the chronic form of the disease in an acute process, as a rule, only two groups of symptomatic agents are used:these are the so-called decongestants, as well as preparations for irrigation of the nose.
Decongestants improve drainage and reduce the intensity of inflammation processes. Therefore, without them, usually there can not be a single therapy scheme for the described disease, especially if it is a question of how to treat acute sinusitis at home.
The effectiveness of such drugs is provided by their ability to narrow the vessels of the nasal mucosa. This contributes to the rapid reduction of edema and, accordingly, the restoration of nasal breathing. Also, the size of the holes leading to the maxillary sinuses increases and, as a consequence, the outflow of mucus from them increases.
One of the most popular drugs from this group are Naftizine and Sanorin, as well as Galazolin and Otrivin. In pharmacies, you can find and quite a lot of other drugs. They are usually used in the form of drops or sprays and are prescribed for a course of no more than 7 days to avoid the side effect in the form of drug rhinitis.
How to treat acute sinusitis at home by irrigationFor patients with a diagnosis of acute sinusitis treatment at home implies irrigation of the nasal cavity with various solutions.
Well moisturize the mucous membrane, reduce swelling, dilute the secret and improve drainage saline solutions. The most famous of them is the physiological one. It is sold in pharmacies in containers of 200 or 400 ml.Although it is quite possible to cook at home: the concentration of the solution must be,%.
You can use and preparations of sea water (Dolphin, Aqua Maris, etc.), as well as products containing a physiological solution (Nazol-Aqua).