Intestinal flu is an acute viral pathology. The main pathogen is rotavirus and norovirus. For effective therapy, you need to know how to manifest intestinal flu in adults, symptoms and treatment. What measures should be taken for prevention?
- Causes of the disease
- Main features
- Intestinal flu in children and pregnant women
- How to treat intestinal flu in an adult
- Nutrition during treatment of intestinal flu
- Home Treatment and Prevention
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Causes of the disease
Rotaviruses have a unique structure that allows them to constantly mutate, create new antigenic forms. Penetrating into the human body, in the gastrointestinal tract they are activated by means of special proteins, begin to multiply actively. The virus is very tenacious - in the external environment it remains alive for several hours, it perishes only at high temperatures.
How is the infection transmitted:
- from an infected person to a healthy person - by airborne droplets;
- in dirty water bodies, when drinking untreated water;
- through the dirty hands;
- with infected food, most often the viruses live in dairy products.
Important!Especially dangerous is intestinal flu for children under 3 years old, elderly people, pregnant women.
You can get infected in any place of a large crowd of people, if you do not comply with hygienic norms and rules for treating water and products.
The incubation period is 1-5 days, but severe diarrhea can begin in 12 hours. On the third day, the temperature rises sharply, the person is feverish and sick, diarrhea becomes stronger. The disease lasts no more than a week, with norovirus infection - 5 days. The recovery period is 4-6 days.
People who have had ill with intestinal flu develop relative immunity - with each subsequent infection, the disease will take place in a lighter form.
The intestinal flu is characterized by a combination of respiratory and intestinal syndromes.
Symptoms of intestinal flu:
- impairment or total loss of appetite;
- diarrhea frequent, feces have a foamy structure;
- chills, fever, all signs of severe intoxication;
- pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, signs of pharyngitis.
The most common exacerbation of intestinal flu is diagnosed in autumn, winter and summer, the disease spreads very quickly.
The most dangerous complication is dehydration, which is manifested by palpitations, poverty and dry skin. With severe dehydration, consciousness begins to get confused, cramps appear. Another disturbing symptom is the appearance of a blood impurity in the feces and vomit masses.
If norovirus is affected, body temperature may remain within normal limits, but vomiting and nausea are present. Norovirus infection is less pronounced, has fewer complications.
Intestinal flu in children and pregnant women
Children become infected with intestinal infection in preschool and educational institutions, infection occurs due to non-compliance with hygiene rules. The acute phase of the disease lasts up to 4 days.
How does intestinal infection manifest in children:
- diarrhea and vomiting up to 8-10 times a day;
- acute attacks and spasms in the abdomen;
- oppressed state;
- a sharp increase in temperature to 38-39 degrees.
Important!In children, diarrhea and vomiting very quickly lead to a deficiency of fluid in the body. Without timely medical assistance, a lethal outcome is possible.
At home, you should not drink the child forcefully in large quantities, so as not to cause a new attack of vomiting. You can give 5-15 ml of solution every 10 minutes.
With a loss of more than 10% of the child, it is necessary to inject intravenously drugs that help restore lost fluid, normalize metabolic processes - Oralite, Electrolyte.
You can prepare a solution for soldering yourself - stir in 1 liter of warm water 15 g of salt and 30 g of sugar, add the juice of half a lemon.
If the child is not susceptible to convulsions, then the temperature to 38-38, 5 is best not to knock down - the infectious virus does not tolerate high temperature indicators. With critical indicators, you can use Ibuprofen or Paracetamol.
Children under 12 months of age should remain during the illness on breastfeeding. At an older age, it is necessary to completely remove the sour-milk products, juices, fruits, foods with a high carbohydrate content from the baby's diet.
Future mothers often become infected with intestinal flu, as immunity is weakened, and many places with a large population of people have to be visited.
In pregnant women, dehydration and severe intoxication against intestinal flu can cause miscarriages or premature births. The virus does not affect the development of the fetus, the lack of liquid in the body is much more dangerous.
Therapy of expectant mothers does not differ from the usual treatment of adults. But when consuming liquid in large quantities, care should be taken not to develop a strong puffiness. Some doctors recommend to use pregnant Enterofuril - the drug destroys the bacteria, but to treat intestinal flu is useless.
How to treat intestinal flu in an adult
The primary task in the treatment of intestinal flu is the fight against dehydration. The exact scheme of therapy does not exist - use drugs to eliminate signs of intoxication, restore the water-salt balance.
What drugs are used to treat intestinal flu:
- Regridron - a drug to combat dehydration, take it every half hour;
- medicines for non-specific antiviral protection - Cytovir, Kagocel;
- Smecta, Polysorb - enterosorbents, which help to combat the signs of intoxication;
- Enterofuril, Furazolidon - eliminate severe diarrhea;
- Creon, Pancreatin - digestive enzymes to restore normal functioning of the digestive tract.
After the end of treatment, it is necessary to drink a course of probiotics, which will restore a healthy microflora in the intestine - Hilak Forte.
Important!Remantadine and other anti-influenza medicines for intestinal influenza are ineffective. Do not use antibiotics in the treatment of this disease.
With severe pain in the abdomen, you can not take painkillers, you need to call a doctor who can prescribe the necessary medications.
Nutrition during treatment of intestinal flu
Diet is the main component of the treatment of intestinal flu. Take food should be divided, it should be neutral taste, warm. If the appetite is completely absent, doctors allow a two-day fast.
The menu should not contain products that have a diuretic and laxative effect. It is forbidden to eat fatty, fried, pickled, salted, spicy dishes. For a while, you should give up green tea because of its diuretic properties. It is necessary to refuse coffee, cocoa, any juices.
At the beginning of the disease, if there is no aversion to food, it is allowed to consume oatmeal on water and without butter, crackers, dried bread.
What you can eat:
- broth on low-fat meat;
- Boiled rice, rice decoction;
- porridge, except for millet and semolina, pasta;
- lean meat and fish;
- boiled, baked and steamed vegetables;
- Baked peelless apples;
- steam omelette.
After the disappearance of all signs of the disease, the virus is in the body for another 14 days. Therefore, during this period it is necessary to continue to adhere to the therapeutic diet. Completely return to the usual diet can be in 1.5 months.
Home Treatment and Prevention
At home, it is necessary to take the medicines that the doctor has prescribed, eat right, supplement the treatment with folk remedies.
The decoction of St. John's wort destroys viruses, helps relieve pain syndrome. Brew 220 ml of boiling water 1.5 tablespoons. l. dried raw materials, simmer in a water bath for 25 minutes. Strain, dilute with boiled water to the initial volume. Take 75 ml 3 times a day for half an hour before meals.
Useful drinks for the treatment of intestinal flu:
- Dissolve in 15 ml of warm water 15 ml of honey, add 30-40 ml of lemon juice - drink the drink 3-4 times a day.
- Mix in equal parts the fruit of the dog rose, the inflorescence of chamomile and linden, the bark of the willow. Brew 240 ml of boiling water 3 g collection, insist half an hour. Take in a strained form of 85 ml 3-5 times a day.
- Pour 240 ml of boiling water 5 g of pine buds, the mixture to simmer at minimum heat for 30 minutes. Mix the mixture in a closed container for half an hour, filter, take 100 ml after each meal.
As a preventive measure, young children should wash their nose every hour with saline, schoolchildren can irrigate the nasal mucosa with Derinatom, IRS-19.
Important!Vaccination against seasonal influenza does not protect against infection with intestinal flu.
The main prevention of infection - carefully observe hygienic standards, wash your hands as often as possible, use antiseptic napkins and sprays. All the items that the infected person is in contact with must be boiled or boiled.
Intestinal flu is a common disease that is equally common in people of any age. With timely medical assistance, the disease proceeds without any special complications, otherwise serious pathologies may develop, and death can occur.