|Parameter-parameter name||Norm||Notice and deviations from|
|1. Lymphocytes LYM||25-40%||Increased parameter-suspected for: influenza, rubella, hepatitis, toxoplasmosis. Decrease in the indicator - suspicion of AIDS, severe infectious diseases|
|2. WBC counters||4 -9 * 109 / L||Above the norm indicates the presence of infection, below - blood disease|
|3. Red blood cells RBC||11.5 - 14.5%||Percentage ratio of large and small red blood cells|
|4. Red blood cells MCV||11.5 - 14.5%||Percentage of large and small red blood cells|
|5. Hemoglobin HGB|| 140-230 g / L newborn infants; |
100-140 g / l children from one year to 2 years;
110-155 g / l children from 3 to 16 years;
110-170 g / l adults
|Physiologically in women( menstrual cycle) the indicator is lower than in men|
|6. Hemoglobin MCH||25 - 35 pg||GB content in red blood cell|
|7. Hemoglobin MCHC||25 - 375 g / l||Concentration of hemoglobin|
|8. Color index|| 0,7 - 0,95 children under three years; |
0,8 - 1,1 from 4 to 13 years;
0,85 - 1,13 adults
| Increase in hypothyroidism, lack of vitamin B12. |
Less than the norm for anemia
|9. Reticulocytes RTC|| 0.15 - 1.1% children; |
0,25 - 1,8% of men;
0.11 - 2.07% of the female
|Young red blood cells|
|10. Platelets MPV, PLT|| 150 - 385 * 109 / L pregnant women; |
170 - 330 * 109 / L adults;
100 - 425 * 109 / l infants;
185 - 310 * 109 / L Children over 1 year
| Increased rate after bleeding, surgery, with cancer. |
A decrease in the parameter is observed in pregnancy, blood diseases, infections
|11. ESR|| Up to 14 mm / h - women; |
up to 9 mm / h - males
|Increase from plasma norm - inflammatory processes|
|12. Heterogeneity of platelets PDW||10-15%||Deviations in anemia, oncological disease, inflammation|
|13. Thrombocrit( PCT)||0.12-0.0,40||Unstable parameter, depending on the time of day, season, physical activity, hormonal background|
|14. Stabnuclear neutrophils|| 5 - 11% for newborns; |
1 - 5% for children and adults
| Increase in the parameters of the rod - with angina, sepsis, abscess. |
Decrease - anemia, liver disease, kidney
|15. Segmented nuclear neutrophils|| 17 - 70% children of different ages; |
40 - 60% adults
| The indicator is lowered with anemia, chemical poisoning. |
Increased parameter for leukemia, viral diseases, tuberculosis, thyroid disease
|16. Eosinophils||1.0 - 4.9%|| The indicator is below the norm for purulent infections, chronic stress. |
Parameter overestimated for allergy, infectious diseases
|17. Basophils||0,4 - 1,0%|| The indicator is below the norm in pregnancy, stress, hyperthyroidism. |
Above the norm for blood diseases, GIT, allergies
|18. Hematocrit HCT|| 38 - 49% of the male; |
35 - 44% of women
| Parameter below the norm is observed with anemia, before giving birth in women, puffiness. |
The norm for dehydration, burns
|is too high 19. Monocytes MON|| absolute value |
0,0 - 0,09 * 109 / l adults;
0,05 - 1,1 * 109 / L children
| Increase - infectious diseases, tuberculosis, leukemia. |
Reduction - anemia
In medical practice, a blood test is one of the main and common methods of medical examination, helping to establish an accurate diagnosis. Moreover, there are many varieties of this blood test: general( short - 3 indicators and deployed), biochemical, immuno-enzyme, serological, thyroid hormones. Blood is taken for allergens, HIV, pregnancy.
In any case, you see on the form of research results "mute" figures that are understandable only for a specialist, nevertheless, after reading this article, you can independently decipher the blood test, at least beforehand, before going to the doctor.
Of course, the most adequate interpretation of the analysis is subject to a practitioner who deals daily with the same patients as you.
Blood testClinical deployed: how to decipher
At any address to the doctor, most likely to you, will be appointed UAC( general blood test), issued a referral to the nearest clinical laboratory of the local CRH.This blood test is a simple diagnostic method and very informative.
Based on the parameters received, the doctor monitors the patient's present condition and the correctness of the accepted course of treatment.
Blood counts consist of leukocytes, leukocytes with decoding, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, ESR, platelets, coagulogram for coagulation, hematocrit and color index. To understand what the doctor will tell you, you need to have an idea of what all these names mean.
We decipher the name and value of the parameters of UAC:
- white blood cells( WBC) - white blood cells, designed to perform body protection;
- immature granulocytes( IG) - a group of leukocyte cells that has specific granules in its structure;
- leukoformula - the ratio of leukocytes of different kinds among themselves;
- red blood cells( RBC) are red blood cells that feed organ tissues with oxygen;
- coagulability is the rate of formation of a blood clot in the site of unauthorized damage to the blood vessel;
- platelets( PLT) - blood plates;
- ESR is the rate at which erythrocytes settle;shows how many proteins are contained in the blood plasma;
- hematocrit( NST) - the percentage of red blood cells;
- lymphocytes( LYM) - a kind of leukocytes responsible for the state of immunity;
- color index - reflects the hemogram, how much hemoglobin is in the red blood cells;
- hemoglobin( HGB) is an animal protein found in red blood cells, which is an oxygen carrier in the body. For women( 115-145 g / l), this figure is lower than for men( 130-170 g / l).Women who are in an interesting position have an average rate slightly lower( 110-120 g / l).
Blood test: table - norm and deviations
The combined data of the norm of the blood counts are given in the table:
Biochemical blood test: decoding table
Blood from the vein for biochemistry is taken in the morning, with the condition that the patient for the last 8-10 hours did not take anythingfood. Indicators of biochemical analysis will allow the doctor to judge the presence of inflammatory processes in the whole body, violations of the percentage of trace elements.
The assay rates are shown in the following table:
|Parameter-parameter name||Norm||Note and deviations from the norm|
|1. Protein total||62 - 87 g / l||Deviation from the norm - oncology, rheumatism|
|2. Glucose( analysis for c-peptide)||3,1 - 5, 4 mmol / l||Increase in the sugar norm - a predisposition to diabetes|
|3. Nitric acid||2.4 - 8.4 mmol / l||Increase in residual nitrogen - heart failure, kidney disease, tumors|
|4. Creatinine|| 52 - 98 μmol/ liter of women; |
60 - 116 μmol / l male
| Increased indicator for dehydration, excessive consumption of meat, hyperthyroidism. |
The parameter is decreased with a strict diet, vegetarians, liver diseases
|5. Cholesterol||3,4 - 6,5 mmol / l||The disease with liver disease, cardiovascular system|
|increased 6. Bilirubin||5.0 - 20,0 μmol / l||Increased parameter for hepatitis|
|7. Alpha-Amylase|| 5.0 - 60 units / l children from birth to 2 years; |
25 - 130 units / l adults and children over 2 years of age
|Increased indicator for pancreatitis|
|8. ALT( ALT)|| Up to 30 U / L in women; |
up to 42 units / l in men
|Increased indicator for liver disorders|
|9. Alpha lipase||27 - 100 units / l|| The index for diabetes mellitus, peritonitis, renal diseases is too high. |
Reduced parameter for hepatitis
|10. Gamma-glutamyltransferase( GGT)|| Up to 48.5 U / L in women; |
to 33.4 U / L in men.
|Increased in diseases of the liver, pancreas|
|11. Aspartate aminotransferase( ASAT)||Up to 38 units / l||Excess of norm in case of damage to the heart muscle, cirrhosis|
|12. Phosphatase( alkaline)||Up to 245 units / l - women;up to 275 units / l - men||Excess of norm with a heart attack of the lungs, kidneys, with metastases of bone cancer|
Blood for HIV: interpretation of the analysis
You know that the final diagnosis of the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus( HIV) can only be established when from the time of infectionwill take at least three months.
For reliable diagnosis, a second blood test is scheduled after six months. The results of the indicators will be reliable provided that the contact with the infected person was not repeated at a later time.
The PCR method( polymerase chain reaction) is used to determine the DNA of a virus. If an infection is detected, the result is indicated by a deadly "positive reaction" phrase, if no HIV is detected - "negative reaction".
Sometimes, with a low qualification of laboratory technicians or using not modern equipment, "false positive results" can be obtained. To confirm or disprove these statements, there is an analysis of F-50, which finds certain antibodies only in case of HIV infection in the body.
With the help of a specific ELISA analysis, diseases such as HIV, herpes, hepatitis, atypical pneumonia, and sexual infections are identified. The immunological method shows the composition of antibodies and antigens in a quantitative and qualitative measurement. ELISA - a common blood test for the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, which gives an accuracy of up to 90%.
Detection of antibodies of immunoglobulins of class M, G, A will help correctly diagnose the presence and stage of the disease. The ELISA analysis will help to detect a Helicobacter pylori wand that provokes gastrointestinal tract diseases and creates general discomfort. Rheumatoid factor G should not exceed the norm of 30 honey / ml. Immunoenzymatic analysis can be used in diseases associated with allergic reactions.
Blood test for thyroid hormones
Define.how well the thyroid gland functions correctly, laboratory tests for thyroid hormones will help. There are several main parameters by which you can judge whether there are glitches in the thyroid gland.
See the analyzer of the abbreviations of the main analyzes handed over to thyroid hormones:
- TTG is a thyroid-stimulating hormone. It is produced in the brain( pituitary gland) and controls the functioning of the thyroid gland. The norm is 0.45-4.10 mU / l.
- TK general - triiodothyronine. The analysis is carried out with hyperthyroidism( excess thyroid function).The rate of 1.05-3.15 nmol / l. In the elderly, the norm is understated.
- TT4 - thyroxine common. Deviation from the norm indicates a decrease or increased metabolism in the body. The norm for women is 71.2 - 142.5 nmol / l, for men 60.74 -137.00 nmol / l.
- TG - thyroglobulin. The protein level in the mass of thyroid tissue should not exceed 60.00 ng / ml.
- AT-TPO is an antibody to thyreperoxidase. The norm is not more than 5.65 units / ml.
Laboratory tests of a serological blood test taken from a vein show the presence of antibodies to a specific group of viruses and bacteria. This often refers to infections that are transmitted through sexual contact, HIV infection, chlamydia, measles, hepatitis, herpes.
The absolute absence of antibodies of any infectious disease is considered the norm.
Oncomarkers: a transcript of the blood test
Blood on oncomarkers is taken when a cancer is suspected.
Any new formation is formed on the basis of normal cells, but the rate of their division exceeds the permissible norms, they begin to "live their own lives," while allocating the products of the protein metabolism.
The task of decoding the blood test reveals the presence( presence) of one or another oncomarker, which indicates the presence of a cancerous tumor.
The list of main oncomarkers:
- CA 15-3.Exceeding the norm of 26.9 units / ml can testify to oncology in the mammary gland.
- CA - 125. If the indicator exceeded 35.0 units / ml, then an additional examination of the ovaries should be performed urgently.
- CA 19-9.Exceeding the norm of 500 U / ml signals a problematic change in the pancreas.
- PSA.The index is less than 4.0 ng / ml - the prostate gland is healthy.
- AFP.Hepatic oncomarker. When the result exceeds 15.0 ng / ml, a neoplasm in the liver may have appeared.
- C-reactive protein. The norm is not more than 5 mg / l. Strongly expressed indices are higher than normal for tumors in different parts of the body, rheumatoid arthritis( rheumatropium is additionally taken).
- NSE.Exceeding the norm of 12.5 ng / ml testifies to oncological diseases of the skin, lungs.
- REA.At rates more than 5,0ng / ml several additional examinations will be required. This oncomarker exceeds the norm for cancer of the stomach, urinary ducts, lungs, intestines.
Analysis of blood for allergens
With increasing growth in the treatment of patients with allergic reactions of the body and rashes on the skin and mucous membranes, there was a demand for an immunoglobulin assay, by which allergens are determined.
In a healthy body, the immunoglobulin has a minimal amount. Antibodies, which the body produces, detect and neutralize foreign cells. When antigens are attached to antibodies, a reaction occurs in the form of a rash, itching, as serotonin and histamine begin to be produced.
Increased IgE immunoglobulin indicates a tendency to allergies. After taking a sample for analysis, determine the rate, which directly depends on the age category of the patient. They look like this:
- 0-200 units / ml - adults and children 10-15 years;
- 0-95 units / ml - from 6 to 9 years;
- 0-65 units / ml - from year to 5 years;
- 0-12 units / ml - infant of the infant.
Pregnancy blood test
Women who have a delay in menstruation receive a pregnancy test and a rapid urine test does not show a positive result.
It is necessary to check the presence of a hCG hormone in the blood, in parallel taking a swab from the vagina. To exclude ectopic pregnancy, a gynecologist appoints to take a blood test for chorionic gonadotropin.
In the presence of an embryo in a woman, the hCG hormone begins to be released, which indicates 100% pregnancy. At different times the norm of the hormone will differ:
- 0-5 me / ml - absence of pregnancy;
- 25-300 IU / ml - 2 weeks;
- 1500-100000 me / ml - 3-9 weeks.
Dr. Komarovsky tells what a clinical blood test is
The most common and demanded blood test - common or, as doctors call it, clinical, was given by any person at least once in his life. What can you learn from its indicators from the sample, what is it for, what are the differences between the norms of adults from children's and men's from women's, what is the leukocyte formula? About this and many other interesting video in the interpretation of Dr. Komarovsky with information about the general clinical analysis of blood.
You should understand, everything presented in the article serves for informational purposes. Only a professional doctor will help you correctly and correctly decipher the tests, set the right diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment based on the individual characteristics of the patient.