Hypotension: causes, symptoms and treatment of hypotension

Hypotension- thislow blood pressureconcerning the age norm. Has certain causes and symptoms of manifestation. It can occur with acute blood loss with internal or external bleeding, with loss of consciousness, very high body temperature.

Reduced blood pressure is typical for heart weakness, anemia (anemia), as well as lowering the tone of the tissues of organs. Hypotension occurs in all: in women and men, in children. It is necessary to be able to provide first aid and treatment at home with a sharp drop in blood pressure in the vessels.

We will consider in the article the causes, symptoms and treatment of hypotension with medical preparations and folk treatment of low blood pressure.


Causes and Symptoms

The main manifestations of hypotension:

  1. headache;
  2. dizziness with general weakness;
  3. sometimes - darkening in the eyes, noise in the ears, loss of consciousness;
  4. increased sensitivity to bright light;
  5. sweating;
  6. pain in the heart;
  7. insomnia;
  8. lethargy and irritability.

It is clear that the main symptom of hypotension is low blood pressure - below gold values ​​of 120/80 mm Hg. Art. The pressure in hypotension can be even lower than 100-90 at 70-60.

Hypotension is divided into two types - physiological and pathological.

Physiological hypotensionis not a symptom of any disease and is due to heredity, significant physical exertion (professional sports, job as a loader).

Pathological hypotensioncan be a consequence of heart failure and anemia, acute infections, as well as violations in the endocrine system (for example, with hormonal deficiency). Pathological hypotension can lead to loss of consciousness, fainting and shock.

Attention!If the blood pressure is lower than 80/50 mm Hg. art., call an ambulance! With further lowering of pressure, acute renal failure may develop, and this poses a threat to life.

Hypotension often develops after infectious diseases, as a result of neuropsychic overstrain or mental trauma.

People with low blood pressure tend to suffer worse in hot weather than cold, feel bad in the bath, sometimes experience darkening in the eyes (until fainting) when suddenly switching from horizontal to vertical position, especially on an empty stomach.

Treatment of arterial hypotension and prevention

Before proceeding with the treatment of hypotension and taking measures aimed at normalizing blood pressure, it is necessary to establish the cause of its reduction. If arterial hypotension is associated with organic lesions of the nervous system or with somatic pathology, then the risk of possible complications can be reduced only with active treatment of the underlying disease.

Emergency assistance with a sharp drop in pressure

If a person suddenly turned pale, his head began to spin, darkening in his eyes, coordination of movements was disturbed (with hypotension, unfortunately, this sometimes happens, especially in a stuffy room, in the sun, in a crowded subway car), then the following measures must be taken immediately.

If possible, the person to lay, since in the horizontal position the blood supply of the brain improves. It is the violation of blood circulation in the cerebral vessels that leads to dizziness, darkening in the eyes. The head should be located as low as possible, do not put anything under it.

If there is no possibility to lay the person, then it is necessary to plant it so that the head is between the knees and was lowered.

You can enter 2 ml of a 20% solution of caffeine-benzoate sodium subcutaneously, or give a cup of strong coffee or tea. These drinks contain caffeine, which increases the tone of the veins and slightly raises blood pressure.

Acupressure specialists advise at dizziness, darkening in the eyes to influence the points of "first aid".

Point 1 - located at the base of the nail bed of the little finger on the side of the ring finger; point 2 - at the base of the nail bed of the index finger from the middle finger; point 3 - in the fovea above the upper lip (pressing on it can bring even the unconscious person to consciousness). Press down with the tip of the thumb for 10-15 seconds. It also helps massage the earlobes (press and massage intensively, painfully).

In a critical situation, a couple of essential oils are relieved. It is enough to bring to the nose a bottle with a mixture of essential oils of rosemary and camphor or with essential oil of mint. To restore normal health, you usually have a few breaths. You can put a few drops on the handkerchief and periodically bring it to the nose.

Drugs used in the treatment of hypotension

One of the most popular means used to increase the pressure and excitation of the nervous system -caffeine. As a rule, it is prescribed in the composition of tablets -citramone, pyramine, cofetamine, ascocene.

Citramontake with various pains (head, dental, menstrual, joint). It is effective in cases where the headache is caused by an impaired outflow of venous blood from the vessels of the brain due to their decreased tone. The composition of citramone also includes acetylsalicylic acid, phenacetin and citric acid. Due to acetylsalicylic acid, it has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect. Fenacetin is also an antipyretic and analgesic substance.

Attention!Citramon should not be used for people suffering from peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, especially at the stage of exacerbation, as well as those who have ever had gastrointestinal bleeding. This is due to the irritating effect of acetylsalicylic acid on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. Do not use tsitramon and with a marked violation of the liver and kidneys, as well as hemorrhagic diathesis. Care should be taken for this medicine and people suffering from gout. With bronchial asthma, taking acetylsalicylic acid can trigger an attack of suffocation.

Regultontake with hypotension, accompanied by a state of anxiety, fear, as well as mental overload, insomnia, dizziness. The drug is contraindicated in thyrotoxicosis, complicated glaucoma, as well as in the first trimester of pregnancy.

SaparalIt is used as a tonic for asthenic and depressive conditions, neurasthenia, hypotension, and also for the prevention and treatment of mental and physical overwork. Contraindicated in epilepsy and increased excitability, it is not recommended to take in the evening hours.

In case of memory disorders and a decrease in concentration of attention, with vascular diseases, after trauma, with mood changes related to brain damage, drugsnootropic series. This group includes more than 30 drugs, includingnootropil, aminalon, phenibut, picamilon, vinpocetine, cavinton, niceroglin, xanthinal nicotinate.These drugs restore the balance between the processes of excitation and inhibition in the brain, activate the processes of metabolism and energy in cells, relieve spasm of cerebral vessels. With insufficient blood supply to the brain cells, which is observed at a lower arterial pressure, nootropic drugs reduce the need for cells in oxygen, thereby increasing the resistance of the brain to its deficiency, activating the synthesis of proteins and other substances essential for the life of cells.

Nootropil (piracetam)stimulates energy processes in brain cells, improves cerebral blood supply. Due to the normalization of blood circulation, dizziness, disturbance of attention are eliminated, intellectual and emotional processes are stabilized.

Encephabol (pyriditol)for its therapeutic effect is similar to nootropil. It activates metabolic processes in the nervous system, promotes better penetration into the brain cells of glucose, which is the main energy supplier for the brain. This drug is prescribed for migraines, cerebrovascular disorders, depression, which are accompanied by inhibition, as well as with asthenia. Contraindicated in epilepsy, motor and mental arousal.

Cinnarizineis used to improve cerebral circulation. Normalizes not only blood circulation in the vessels of the brain, but also in the heart muscle, as well as in other organs and tissues. Used for disorders of cerebral circulation, which are accompanied by headache and noise in the ears.

Tanakanrefers to herbal preparations that are used under reduced pressure. It is used for disorders of blood circulation in the vessels of the brain (consequences of injuries, stroke, in old age). The drug prevents the formation of edema, improves blood properties, normalizes blood flow, especially in the vessels of the brain; effective for asthenia, depression, as well as with dizziness, memory and attention disorders, sleep disturbance.

To facilitate the work of the brain in conditions of low blood pressure, drugs containingamino acids.

Glycine -an amino acid that is one of the neurotransmitters. It is used to improve metabolic processes in the brain tissues, which leads to a reduction in depression and increased irritability, normalization of sleep.

Cerebrolysin -complex preparation, which includes amino acids and proteins necessary for brain function. It is used for autonomic dystonia in the hypotonic type, with diseases accompanied by a disorder of the nervous system (after trauma, hemorrhage and inflammatory processes of the brain);contraindicatedat pregnancy, expressed disturbances of work of kidneys.

Citrulline -amino acid, which helps to normalize the metabolism and activates the body's defenses. Apply for symptoms of fatigue, lethargy, reduced performance, asthenia, as well as in the recovery period after injuries, operations, severe infections, with increased physical exertion in athletes.

In order to maintain the normal functioning of the body, under reduced pressure,vitamins, both separately and as part of complex preparations.

Anerion- a synthetic drug, close in structure to vitamin B1 (thiamine). Eneryon is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and easily penetrates into the brain cells where it can accumulate. It is prescribed for asthenia, which is accompanied by weakness, decreased tone, efficiency and attention. It can be hypo-and avitaminosis, long-term diseases, the recovery period after the operations carried out. Contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation, not prescribed for children.

Now in pharmacies are widely represented a variety of complex products, which, along with vitamins aremicroelements. The combination of vitamins and trace elements in them is selected in such a way as to ensure the daily needs of the organism in these substances.

What to do with physiological hypotension

If low blood pressure is your constant companion, then it's worth thinking about your lifestyle, about nutrition and other vital factors.

If you are sometimes concerned about headaches, drowsiness, you quickly get tired, then the most effective means - is compliance with the regime of the day, building an optimal diet and physical activity.

Daily do morning exercises (below is offered a set of therapeutic gymnastics "Vessel training").

In the morning, take a contrast shower, followed by rubbing the body with a soft linen towel.

In the evening, perform the following procedure: fill the tub with cool water 1/3 (water temperature 10-18 ° C) and walk for 1-3 minutes on the water. Then wipe dry your feet, put on woolen socks and move vigorously - until your feet get warm.

There should be small portions, 4-5 times a day. Give preference to foods rich in vitamins (especially A, C and P), which have a positive effect on the work of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The sources of vitamins are not only fruits, berries and vegetables (especially black currant, lemon, rose hips, sorrel, sea-buckthorn, carrots), but also beef liver, butter, eggs, ket and sturgeon caviar. Try to keep the menu balanced. Include in the diet of foods rich in iron: liver, buckwheat, spinach, apples, walnuts and pomegranates. Very sour-milk products are very useful, especially yoghurt. Excellent stabilizes blood pressure grape juice.

Well toned vessels natural stimulants: lemongrass, levzeya, rhodiola rosea, ginseng. Take tincture from any named plant 2 times a day (30 minutes before breakfast or lunch) to 20 drops, diluting them in 1/4 cup of water. Do a course of treatment for 2-3 weeks, then take a break for 1 month and then repeat the course.

Strong tea and black coffee are traditional invigorating means, but do not abuse these drinks: excessive caffeine consumption (more than three cups of coffee a day) can give the opposite effect, that is, instead of the expected surge in energy, drowsiness will appear. By the way, the tonic effect of a cup of tea persists much longer and does not cause tachycardia.

Try to find time for rest - do not allow fatigue.

As often as possible, go out into the open air and walk as much as possible.

Find the opportunity to do swimming, running, learn a bicycle, and in winter do not forget about skiing.

Sleep at least 8-9 hours a day. It is advisable to go to bed and get up at the same time, so as not to disturb the biological rhythms of sleep and wakefulness. If insomnia hurts, try before going to bed to take evening walks in the fresh air, take a warm bath, do not eat at night. Ask your doctor about the choice of sedatives, especially soft, vegetable origin.

Improve the state of health and promote the normalization of blood pressure phytoncides of poplar pyramidal and lilac. You can create a favorable microclimate for yourself, planting these plants in the suburban area.

The French have a joke: "Wine treats all diseases except alcoholism." So: for hypotension, for example, a glass of dry red wine over dinner or a glass of cognac will not cause harm, as alcohol expands the blood vessels and strengthens the blood flow. The main thing is to know the measure. It is also useful to drink a glass of cranberry or cowberry tincture before eating (pour 2 cups of fresh berries with 0.5 liters of vodka, add 1 cup of sugar and insist in a dark cool place for 3 weeks).

Vessel training: exercises from low blood pressure

  1. Starting position (PI) - lying on the back, arms stretched behind the head, legs together. Stretch, strongly straining your knees, feet and hands, then relax. Repeat 2-3 times.
  2. IP - sitting, hands on his knees. Bend your elbows with the tension alternately lift up. Then relax and lower your arms. Repeat 2-4 times. If you want to yawn during the exercise, yawn. This means that your lungs began to work more intensively, supplying blood with oxygen.
  3. IP is the same. Perform with maximum amplitude circular motions in the shoulder joints. At an average pace, make 5-7 rotational movements forward and the same number - back. Keep your back straight.
  4. PI is the same, legs are shoulder-width apart. On exhalation grasp with both hands the knee of the right leg and slowly, straining the whole body, pull it to the chest. On inspiration, return to and. P. Do the same exercise by grasping the left knee with your hands. Repeat 2-4 times.
  5. FE - standing, legs shoulder-width apart, arms lowered. Relax, then strain the abdominal muscles, buttocks, spread your shoulders, raise your head. Stay in this position for 7-10 seconds, then relax again. Repeat 3-5 times. Exercise can be done by moving around the room to the music.
  6. IP is the same. On inhalation, set aside the extended toe of the right foot, raise your left hand, pull your right arm forward, slightly bend back. On exhalation, return to the FE. Execute the exercise, setting aside and back the left leg and raising your right arm. Watch for smooth movements. Repeat 4-6 times.
  7. PI - the same, hands on the belt. On the inhalation, straighten the shoulders, slowly lift and take the left leg to the side. On exhalation, return to the FE. Keep your back straight. Repeat 4-6 times.
  8. PI - the same, hands are omitted. On inhalation gently raise your arms up, while turning the body and head to the right. On exhalation, as smoothly return to the FE. Do the same exercise with a left turn. Make sure that the hips and feet remain stationary. Repeat 3-5 times in each direction.
  9. PI - the same, hands on the belt. Do squats, spreading your knees to the sides. Keep your back straight. You can stick with your hand for support. Repeat 4-8 times.

Phytotherapy for hypotension

When hypotension prescribe medicinal plants, given their toning, restorative, vasopressor effect. The fees recommended for low blood pressure include aralia, aloe, root of aira, ginseng, St. John's wort, Chinese magnolia vine, tansy, tartar, yarrow, sage, dog rose. However, we should not forget that the use of any treatment, including phytotherapy, requires the advice of a doctor.

The aralia is high, or Manchurian.Pour 1 tablespoon of ground roots with 5 tablespoons of 70% alcohol. Insist 7 days in a dark place, drain. Take 3 times a day for half an hour before meals for 30-40 drops. The course of treatment is 1-2 months.

Attention!Contraindicated with increased nervous excitability and insomnia.

Ginseng.Pour 1 teaspoon of ground root 0,5 liters of alcohol. Infuse in a dark place for 10-12 days, drain. Take 1 teaspoon on an empty stomach. After a week, increase the dose to 2-3 teaspoons. As soon as you feel the improvement, you should stop taking the tincture.

Leuzea safflower (maral root).Pour 1 tablespoon chopped root 0.5 liters of vodka. Infuse in a dark place for 2-3 weeks, then drain. Take 3 times a day for half an hour before meals for 20-30 drops. The course of treatment is 2 weeks.

Schisandra chinese.Pour 1 tablespoon chopped fruit or 2 tablespoons of seeds 100 ml of alcohol and insist 10-15 days in a dark place, drain. Take 20-30 drops 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment is 2 weeks.

The radio is pink, or golden root.Pour 2 tablespoons of raw 1/2 cup of vodka and insist 10 days, drain. Take 2-3 times a day for half an hour before meals for 5-10 drops. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks.

Saint John's wort.Pour 1 tablespoon of dry herbs 1 cup of boiling water, leave for 1 hour, drain. Drink 1/4 cup daily before meals.

Arnica mountain.Pour 1 tablespoon of flowers 1 cup of boiling water, after 1 hour drain. Drink infusion during the day.

The Tartar is thorny.Pour 1 tablespoon of dried and crushed flowers and leaves 1 cup of boiling water, 4 hours, drain. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day.

Tansy is ordinary.Pour 1 tablespoon of flowers 2 cups of cold boiled water, infuse 4 hours in a closed vessel, then strain. Drink a cold infusion of 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day for 20-30 minutes before meals.

Attention!Contraindicated in pregnancy. Long-term use (more than 2 weeks) is unacceptable, since tansy refers to poisonous plants.

Rosemary officinalis.Pour 1 tablespoon of dry raw material 1 cup of boiling water. Infuse for 30 minutes, then strain and squeeze. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day for half an hour before meals.

Lemon.Pour 1 tablespoon of dry minced raw material with 200 ml of vodka and press for 2 weeks. Take 20-25 drops 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.

Juice of Chinese magnolia fruit.Take 2-3 times a day for 1 teaspoon per glass of tea, adding sugar or honey to taste.

Pharmacy tincture of hawthorn.Take 3 times a day for half an hour before meals for 20-30 drops.

Pharmacy tincture of Eleutherococcus.Take 3 times a day for half an hour before meals for 20-30 drops.

Prevention of hypotension

Prevention of hypotension is a healthy lifestyle, a reasonable alternation of work and rest, full sleep and outdoor activity, moderate exercise, a variety of water procedures, especially important - a full-fledged diet rich in vitamins and minerals. Staying in the sun should be minimized. In the absence of contraindications, you can drink strong blood and tea to raise blood pressure.

After sleep is not recommended to stand up sharply. When you wake up, you must first do a few exercises - stretch, raise your hands, make several head inclinations in different directions, then slowly sit down, sit for a minute and only then get up. When walking and playing sports, hypotension tend to feel good.

It is necessary to periodically measure the pressure to prevent a hypotonic crisis. Hypotonia is treated under the supervision of a doctor, so you should consult a therapist at the first suspicion of the disease.

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Low blood pressure: treatment of hypotension

Most people who are sure that they have "low blood pressure" are mistaken! This conclusion was reached by the experts of the program "To Live Healthily!", Having checked the indices of arterial pressure in the audience in the studio. How to determine what pressure is normal for you, and what are the health risks of this hypotension?

Source: "Home medical encyclopedia. Symptoms and treatment of the most common diseases »: AST, Owl; Moscow, Saint Petersburg; 2010 (fact sheet)