Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory process in the kidneys that can cause a variety of infections. Most often, the disease affects children at different ages, newborn babies also fall into the risk zone. As a rule, the disease is always accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, but in rare cases it can develop without visible manifestations. In any case, it is important for parents to closely monitor their child's health and regularly show it to the pediatrician. Such prevention will allow timely diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children, identify symptoms and prescribe treatment.
- Brief information about the disease
- Classification of pyelonephritis in children
- Varieties of the disease and their symptoms
- Acute pyelonephritis
- Chronic pyelonephritis
- Diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children
- Treatment of pediatric pyelonephritis
- Prevention, Komarovsky's recommendations
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Brief information about the disease
In the body, bacteria can get from the environment, as well as from the gastrointestinal tract. As a rule, harmful microorganisms include staphylococci, enterococci, Escherichia coli and Proteus. First of all, they affect the channels through which urine passes and is filtered. Violation of the work of this important organ leads to serious complications that cause severe symptoms.
At birth, each kidney has a size of about 4 cm. However, as the child grows, they increase. At the age of 6, these organs are already about 12 cm. In the human body, the kidneys have a very important role:
- Saline homeostasis in the body;
- removes harmful substances along with urine;
- regulates water-salt metabolism;
- produces hormones that regulate the level of hemoglobin;
- produces active substances that form vitamin D, as well as calcium and phosphorus.
If the kidneys are disturbed, the general condition of the body also naturally worsens. It starts to accumulate harmful substances, the salt level rises and water drops, and also important components for the body are not produced.
Classification of pyelonephritis in children
In medical practice, children's pyelonephritis is divided into two types. They differ in their symptoms, duration and characteristics.
- Primary pyelonephritis. As a rule, the ailment appears because of the changing flora, in the intestines of the baby. If a child's immunity is weakened, and he often suffers from cold illnesses, then a dysbacteriosis develops in a weak body. Also, urologists identify another group of pathogens, these are various cocci. They develop against the background of infectious diseases, and also because of dermatological problems. In addition, the cause of the primary ailment, can be cystitis.
- Secondary pyelonephritis. This disease is chronic, it occurs against the background of congenital disorders of the structure of the kidneys or ureters. Because of improper operation, urine can return back to the kidneys, which violates its normal outflow. Together with the processed urine, the kidneys get an infection that provokes inflammation.
In some cases, the development of the disease provokes an underdevelopment of one or both kidneys. At the initial stage, the pathology may not be noticeable. However, with the growth of the child, the body is under increasing pressure and the kidneys simply can not cope with the tasks.
Varieties of the disease and their symptoms
Depending on the course of the disease, it is divided into two types. They differ among themselves symptoms and duration of the disease.
The disease in its symptoms is very different, for every child. So these factors affect the age of the baby, as well as the causative agent of the disease. However, doctors identify some of the main signs that should encourage parents to show the child to the doctor. Symptoms in children are as follows:
- a causal increase in temperature (up to 40 °), which is accompanied by a fever;
- drowsiness and decay, nausea accompanied by vomiting;
- decreased appetite;
- pallor of the skin, cyanosis and bags under the eyes;
- severe pain in the lower abdomen and in the lower back, sometimes urinary incontinence;
- small swelling of the extremities;
- urine acquires an unpleasant odor and becomes turbid.
Acute infection in the kidneys can occur in newborn infants. Kids can not say about their problem, so they behave restlessly and cry. Before urinating, the baby can blush and make special sounds. As soon as the child begins to behave restlessly, this is the first sign of a mother, to pay special attention to the health of the child. Symptoms in children up to the year:
- a sharp increase in temperature (up to 40 °), which can develop into convulsions;
- frequent regurgitation and vomiting;
- abandonment of breast or baby food;
- the skin becomes pale;
- weight is reduced;
- Dehydration, which is manifested by the drying out of the skin.
At the first symptoms of the child it is important to show the doctor, he will explain how to treat the baby. Timely diagnosis of the disease and the correct treatment regimen will restore the health of the crumbs within 1-2 months.
Chronic disease is characterized by the manifestation of symptoms for 6 months. Or if several complications are observed during this time. Infection of the kidneys occurs in two stages:
- complete remission when there are no symptoms and urine tests are good;
- exacerbation, which manifests itself with vivid signs (severe back pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever).
Children who suffer long enough for this disease, feel the signs of infectious asthenia. In other words, they become irritable, quickly get tired, they have dramatically reduced school performance. If pyelonephritis developed at an early age and was not treated, it always leads to a delay in mental and physical development.
The urinary system is not sterile, so it is natural that various infections can enter it. However, with good immunity and proper functioning of the urinary system, harmful bacteria are destroyed and do not develop. Unfortunately, not always these two functions can work together smoothly. The development of the disease contributes to many different causes:
- abnormal development of the kidneys;
- stones in the urinary tract;
- violation of the outflow of urine, which leads to stagnation;
- non-observance of personal hygiene;
- misuse of girls;
- acute and chronic ailments affecting the immune system;
- hypothermia of the body;
- presence of helminths;
- in children up to a year, the disease can develop because of the transition to artificial feeding, the introduction of complementary foods or when teething.
Diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children
As a rule, some symptomatic complaints are not enough to establish an accurate diagnosis. Doctors are always advised to take laboratory tests and undergo instrumental examination. Among mandatory procedures, the patient must undergo:
- to submit a general and biochemical analysis of urine and blood;
- accumulation assays by Nechiporenko;
- sow urine for sterility;
- Zimnitsky's trial;
These tests are sufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis. However, if necessary, a specialist can recommend an additional examination.
Treatment of pediatric pyelonephritis
Based on thorough examinations and diagnosis, the doctor will choose an individual course of therapy. As a rule, treatment includes, such medicines:
- Initially, a strict bed rest is prescribed, when the temperature returns to normal, it is recommended to walk in the fresh air, but not more than 30 minutes;
- a diet with pyelonephritis in children will reduce the burden on the kidneys. Daily salt regime should be minimized (up to 8 g), drink more water (2 liters), give up fried, smoked, fatty and spicy food;
- treatment of pyelonephritis in children with antibiotics is mandatory. The drug is chosen depending on the severity of the disease. As a rule, prescribe antibiotics such as Amoxicillin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, Cefepime. The course of treatment lasts from 7 to 21 days;
- prescribe uroantiseptics, they effectively disinfect the urinary tract and kill harmful bacteria (Nitroxoline, Nevigramon, Palin). The course of therapy is held for 14 days;
- recommend taking medications that reduce unpleasant symptoms (antipyretic antispasmodics, vitamins and anti-inflammatory pills).
Prevention, Komarovsky's recommendations
To avoid pyelonephritis, a practicing pediatrician Komarovsky recommends increasing the immunity of a child. To do this, you must follow simple rules:
- often walk with the child in the fresh air;
- wash the baby in water, at room temperature;
- allow walking without shoes;
- Comfortable temperature and humidity in the room.
If the child is diagnosed with pyelonephritis, do not panic. It is important to start treatment in a timely manner, follow the recommendations of a specialist and monitor the personal hygiene of the child.