Symptoms and treatment of acute laryngitis

Diseases of the throat and respiratory organs - one of the most frequent pathologies, which occurs in children and adults. Acute laryngitis occurs with inflammation of the glottis and ligaments. What medicines and therapeutic agents are effective for treatment?

Content:
  • Acute laryngitis - what is it
  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Acute laryngitis in children
  • Acute laryngitis in pregnant women
  • The main methods of treatment
  • Complications of acute laryngitis
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Acute laryngitis - what is it

Laryngitis is an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs in the larynx, it is acute and chronic, infectious and viral. The acute form is often accompanied by a complete loss of voice, signs of severe intoxication. With proper treatment, the duration of acute infectious laryngitis is no more than 10 days. Code on the ICD 10 - J 04.0.

Forms of acute laryngitis:

  1. Acute catarrhal laryngitis is the easiest and most common form of the disease. The cause of the pathology is infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Is manifested in the throat, hoarseness, coughing attacks.
  2. Osteo-infiltrative form - it is characterized by a strong puffiness, shortness of breath, shortness of breath.
  3. Phlegmous laryngitis is an inflammatory process that spreads to nearby tissues of the larynx, accompanied by purulent discharge.
  4. Chondroperichondritis is a serious form of the disease, the inflammatory process affects the cartilage.
  5. Abscess of larynx - abscess is located on the sight, which is located at the entrance of the larynx.

Acute obstructive laryngitis - croup, false croup, a special form of laryngitis, is often diagnosed in preschool children. It occurs against the background of viral diseases, characterized by barking cough, hoarse voice, hoarse breathing and shortness of breath.

Causes

Most often, the acute form of laryngitis develops as a complication of viral and infectious diseases of the respiratory tract - ARVI, bronchitis, tracheitis, tonsillitis. It can develop against diabetes mellitus, blood diseases, rheumatism and gout.

Main reasons:

  • complication after influenza, measles, rubella, scarlet fever, adenovirus infection;
  • hypothermia of the larynx or of the whole organism as a whole;
  • irritation of the mucosa of the larynx against the background of prolonged bronchitis and dry cough;
  • severe forms of tuberculosis;
  • defeat of the respiratory system fungal microflora;
  • constant load on ligaments;
  • caries.

Chronic laryngitis is often diagnosed in smokers, lovers of spirits, adherents of acute and hot meals. Chronic inflammation of ligaments is a professional illness of teachers, actors, singers.

Important!When inflammation of the vocal cords should not be spoken in a whisper - the load on the ligaments does not decrease. The best method of treatment is to limit the voice load, but you do not need to keep silent.

Symptoms

When acute laryngitis in adults, the pathological processes in the tissues of the mucous membrane of the larynx begin, the protective mechanisms weaken. With the accumulation of pathogenic microflora in a large number of dilated blood vessels, the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes increases in the blood, there is a strong puffiness.

The sore throat loses its ability to pass air in sufficient quantity, the bronchial tree dries up, the vocal cords grow in size - the voice becomes hoarse.

Symptoms of the disease:

  • severe pain in the throat, which increases during a conversation, coughing, swallowing;
  • high fever, symptoms of severe intoxication;
  • frequent seizures of unproductive cough, sputum separation insignificant;
  • rhinitis.

Chronic inflammation of the larynx has a less vivid clinical picture, manifested in the form of a constant sensation of a foreign body in the throat, parched mucous, deaf voice. When exacerbating in the mucus may be present blood clots.

Acute laryngitis in children

Children often diagnosed with a false groin - acute stenosing laryngitis, the disease is characterized by a strong puffiness of the mucosa, blockage of lumens with sputum accumulations, frequent reflex spasms. The attack begins suddenly, most often during night rest.

Degrees of disease:

  1. At the initial stage, the child becomes restless, breathing becomes noisy, a dry cough appears.
  2. In the second stage, dyspnea appears, the nasolabial triangle acquires a cyanotic color.
  3. At the decompensated stage, the skin becomes pale, cold sweat appears on it, the heart sounds are muffled, the pulse becomes more frequent.
  4. Asphyxia - the child can not breathe, there are convulsions, breathing and palpitation cease.

Treatment of laryngitis in children requires immediate medical attention. Emergency assistance consists in steam inhalation - in 1, 5 liters of boiling water dissolve 15 g of sea or food salt. If the child is very small or weak, it should be carried to the bathroom, fill the sink with hot water, dilute in it 50-60 g of soda - there must be a lot of steam with a clear smell of soda. The child should be given warm milk with Borjomi, tea, and soothing.

Important!For treatment use inhalation nebulizer using Lazolvan, Hydrocartisone.

Acute laryngitis in pregnant women

Laryngitis during pregnancy develops on a background of hypothermia, colds, inhalation of polluted air. The most dangerous for the baby is the viral form of the disease - there may be fetal pathologies, premature birth, fetal fading.

Acute laryngitis is characterized by barking cough, hoarse voice, scratching in the throat, swallowing and talking hurt. When these signs appear, you should consult with ENT.

Treat laryngitis in pregnant women is difficult - most of the drugs are not intended for expectant mothers. Authorized antiviral agents - Viferon, Aflubin. Anti-inflammatory drugs use the topical Miramistin Spray, Efizol lozenges.

With a strong cough in the early stages, it can be eliminated only with the help of a warm abundant drink - milk, broth of wild rose. In the second half of pregnancy, you can use Sinecode to eliminate cough. The main type of inhalation treatment with a nebulizer with Borzhomi, saline, Dekasan.

The main methods of treatment

Than to treat a laryngitis, and whether antibacterial agents are necessary? Bacterial laryngitis is diagnosed in every fifth patient, viral or allergic - every third. The main cause of inflammation of ligaments is bad habits, unfavorable environmental conditions. Therefore, the expediency of using antibiotics can be determined only by a doctor, after receiving the results of a smear from the throat.

If the tests showed the presence of bacteria, then prescribe antibacterial drugs in the form of tablets for resorption, sprays - Strepsils. Tanum verde, Geksoral.

Strong antibiotics can be prescribed if after 5 days of symptomatic therapy the signs of severe intoxication do not disappear. The most effective in the treatment of laryngitis antibacterial drugs from the group of macrolides - Erythromycin, Clarithromycin.

With severe pain in the throat, loss of voice will help non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - Naise, Nimesil. If the laryngitis appeared against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, then in the therapy use antiviral drugs - Viferon, Roferon, Amiksin, Neovir.

Important!With acute laryngitis, you can not gargle with solutions of soda or salt - these substances can further destroy the tissues of the mucous membrane. Contraindicated strongly warm up the throat with the help of ointments and compresses.

Treatment in a hospital of acute viral laryngitis is rare - only if there are purulent foci of inflammation, the threat of developing severe swelling or stenosis. At home, I recommend doing inhalations with a nebulizer - a special device that turns medicines into aerosol.

Medications for nebulizer:

  • antibiotics - Miramistin, Dioxydin;
  • means for liquefaction of sputum - ATSTS, Chimotrypsin;
  • alkaline mineral water to moisten the mucosa, better sputum discharge - Essentuki №4, 17.

Acute laryngitis without coughing does Lazolvan need? Lazolvan - one of the most expectorant, reduces the viscosity of phlegm, contributes to its better separation. If cough is absent, then the use of the drug is inappropriate.

Complications of acute laryngitis

Most often, laryngitis leads to the development of chronic bronchitis and tonsillitis. In the acute stage, the appearance of a strong edema of the larynx, a false groin - a person begins to suffocate, the skin becomes pale, nasolabial triangle acquires a bluish tint. Without timely medical assistance, death can occur within an hour.

Among other complications is a change in the timbre of the voice, the spread of infection to other internal organs, oncological diseases, a strong weakening of the protective functions of the body.

For the prevention of acute laryngitis, contact with all possible allergens should be avoided, the optimal temperature and humidity should be maintained in the room, and the harmful habits should be abandoned. People of voice professions need to regularly unload bundles, breathe the mountain or sea air.