Signs of pneumonia are manifested when infection with pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms and the onset of pneumonia. Most often, pneumonia causes the following pathogens: staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococcus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, less often mycoplasma, fungi. Inflammation of the lungs as manifested in people of different ages, diagnosis and complications, we will consider further.
- Primary manifestations in adults
- Manifestations in children
- Asymptomatic inflammation
- Methods of diagnosis
- Manifestations of the disease in pictures
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Primary manifestations in adults
How does it manifest in adults? After getting into the body of the pathogen and destruction of the lung tissue inflammation begins to develop. Transmission can occur by airborne droplets in contact with the carrier or a sick person.
After prolonged stress, hypothermia, hormonal malfunction (with menopause in women), local body defense weakens and does not cope with the pathogen. Happens, it is difficult to suspect pneumonia, it is necessary to know the symptoms of the disease already at the first stages, in order to start treatment on time. The lack of adequate therapy can threaten complications, up to a lethal outcome.
Usually, pneumonia begins gradually, after a flu or ARI.
Manifestation of early pneumonia:
- increase in body temperature to 39-40 ° C, often fever accompanied by chills;
- pain in the chest;
- prolonged cough;
- allocation of mucous or purulent, sometimes with blood streaks, sputum
- general weakness;
- shortness of breath, lack of air.
Manifestations in children
Pneumonia, as manifested in the child? There are some features. Parents need to pay attention to such symptoms as:
- Problems with breathing. The child may have rapid breathing. Very often he involuntarily lays down only on one side. The rhythm of breathing can be disturbed, the frequency and depth of respiratory movements often change. Infants have shortness of breath.
- Body temperature. Body temperature above 38 ° C, lasts more than 3 days, antipyretics do not work or are not effective enough. Hyperthermia can be accompanied by pallor of the skin, a marble pattern on the skin. At the same time there are signs of intoxication: increased sweating, lethargy, poor appetite. In young children imperfect thermoregulation and the immune system is not fully developed, they may not experience large temperature changes.
- Cough. After the beginning of the perspiration in the throat, a slight cough may appear, after coughing becomes dry and painful, intensifying with weeping, feeding. After a while, sputum appears.
- A child with this ailment can become suspiciously moody, sluggish, nervous, sleep disturbances, poor appetite, or refusal to eat at all. Nausea and vomiting appear, infants regurgitate and refuse breast milk.
Important! These signs of inflammation are very important, as soon as the child has the above symptoms, you need to contact the pediatrician.
How does pneumonia occur without fever? Symptoms, such as fever, occur with a decreased activity of the immune system.
The course of the disease may not be noticeable at all, without coughing or other manifestations. Only by some factors can the development of the disease be determined:
- pallor of the skin, especially the nasolabial triangle;
- general weakness.
Sweating can also increase, there may be pain in the chest during breathing. If these manifestations are detected, accurate diagnosis is needed, pneumonia without temperature is an insidious and very dangerous disease.
Methods of diagnosis
Diagnosis is based on external examination, delivery of analyzes and instrumental methods.
Methods of laboratory diagnostics:
- detection of harmful bacteria in smears, sowing culture of infection from sputum;
- biochemistry indicators: acid-base equilibrium shift, increased amount of c-reactive protein;
- increased number of neutrophilic leukocytes in the blood;
- increased ESR.
Instrumental methods for diagnosing pneumonia:
- chest X-ray in different projections;
- computed tomography in high resolution;
Manifestations of the disease in pictures
How does pneumonia look on X-rays? With pneumonia, X-rays are a method of detecting and simultaneously controlling the course of the disease during subsequent treatment. Inflammatory changes are divided into several forms, which are displayed differently on the radiograph.
With this disease in the lungs, so-called blackouts are visible. They are white in the image, since the X-ray diffraction pattern itself is negative.
What are the spots in inflammation:
- small, medium and large focal;
- subtotal and total;
- focal and common.
It is these designations that help to describe the visible spots in a picture of a patient with pneumonia. Decoding also consists of a description of the shadows, they are of different intensity. The more the shadow is intense, the less the airiness of the pulmonary epithelium. With inflammation, the dark areas have a non-uniform shape and blurred outlines.
The disease in most cases is well treatable. But for successful therapy, you must follow all the rules set by the doctor, only in this case you can fully recover.
Very often, patients choose to stop taking medication as soon as the symptoms of the disease pass. A disease that has not been cured to the end can recur, the course will be more acute, and the following complications are possible:
- fibrosis of the lung;
- Chronical bronchitis;
- abscess of the lung;
- purulent pleurisy.
Patients with acute pneumonia need hospitalization. In any form of the disease, the nature of the course is not important, antibacterial agents are used. In addition, detoxification therapy can be used, as well as bronchodilators inhaled or intravenously.
Patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia should be aware of the dangers of self-treatment, it can result in tragic consequences. At the first signs of the disease, you need to see a doctor, get a diagnosis in the clinic and follow all the instructions of specialists.