Why do X-ray photography?
X-ray examination, in which the chest is photographed and the image is imaged on a special fluorescent screen, is called fluorography. This diagnostic method was developed after the discovery of X-rays. The image is obtained due to uneven absorption by the tissues and organs of the rays as they pass through the body. Other names of this examination are X-ray fluorography, radiography, X-ray photography.
Separate the small-frame( image size 35 * 35 mm, 24 * 24 mm) and large-scale( up to 100 * 100 mm) fluorography methods. This type of diagnostic study is used as part of a comprehensive examination of the organs of the chest( lungs, heart), mammary glands, bone system. Due to the fact that the tissues have different density, seals, fluid accumulations and other structural pathologies can be seen on the photographs. From radiography, fluorography is characterized by a lower radiation dose, worse resolution quality of the resulting image.
Fluoroscopy of the lungs and other organs allows you to see them in motion, track changes in real time. This type of examination is decisive in complex clinical cases with difficult diagnosis. In fluorography, the picture is taken in a static position. The radiation dose received by a patient in one X-ray fluorography procedure is approximately equal to a ten-day dose from natural radiation sources, so the method is used for a screening( mass) population survey to detect tuberculosis.
Purpose of the study
Fluorography is used to diagnose a wide range of diseases of the respiratory system. Regular pulmonary fluorography is the main method of detecting tuberculosis in the early stages, when the disease occurs without symptoms. Pathological conditions that can be detected using the fluorography :
- musculoskeletal abnormalities;
- obstruction in the bronchi;
- presence of foreign objects in the respiratory tract;
- foci of inflammatory processes in pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis;
- pathological cavities of different etiology( cysts, abscesses);
- presence in cavities of infiltrates or gases;
- fibrosis( connective tissue seals);
- Vascular sclerosis;
- adhesions, pleural layering( membranes covering the lungs);
- cardiovascular diseases;
- hernia diaphragm.
The results of a survey of light smoking people differ from those of patients who are not affected by this harmful habit. The lungs of smokers with experience have an increased width of the walls, tight( with a modified pattern of lung tissue) roots. Identification of such changes in the body of a person who smokes is not evidence of the development of a dangerous pathology and does not require additional research.
There are three types of X-ray examination using a fluorograph( scanner).Techniques differ from each other used in their implementation of equipment and the quality of the images obtained as a result of the research. There are the following types of fluorography:
- Film fluorography. This is an outdated method, in which the rays transmitted through the body fall on a cassette with a sensitive film. The appearance and drying of the picture takes time, and the quality of the image obtained is lower than that of the digital one, but this type of equipment is cheaper, so most of them are equipped with polyclinics and hospitals.
- Digital fluorography. A modern matrix system is used in the equipment used for this type of survey, and the quality of the resulting images is high. The received data can be stored for a long time on the computer.
- Digital scanning. With this method, the examinee receives the lowest radiation dose, but the image quality is significantly worse than in the images obtained with other types of research.
This type of diagnosis is used for a comprehensive examination of the lungs, heart, mammary glands, less often - to study bone tissue. Fluorography is used to examine people with mandatory examinations and annual medical examinations. Such diagnostics helps in time to detect tuberculosis, malignant neoplasms of the chest or lungs and other diseases of the chest, to identify them in the early stages of development.
Fluorography of the chest is prescribed if the patient has a strong prolonged cough, shortness of breath, chest pain of a different nature. The examination helps to identify:
- is an inflammatory process;
- benign and malignant lung tumors;
- emphysema( swelling and destruction of the alveoli of the lungs);
- pleural effusion.
An out-of-schedule passage of fluorography can be assigned to a conscript of the military commissariat, relatives and other persons living with a pregnant woman or a newborn child, if the following diseases are suspected:
- of tuberculosis;
- heart and vascular disease;
- of pneumonia and pleura;
- neoplasms in the lungs and organs of the mediastinum.
How often do
For preventive purposes, the survey is conducted once in two years, but it is better once a year. Some categories of citizens must undergo an annual medical examination, including a fluorography. These include:
- patients who received a course of radiation therapy or who have been treated with corticosteroids;
- patients suffering from chronic diseases of the respiratory system;
- patients with diabetes mellitus;
- employees of educational, upbringing, health and treatment and prevention institutions.
Individual categories of citizens should do chest X-ray fluorography twice a year. This procedure for the examination is valid for:
- patients who have been ill with tuberculosis;
- of HIV-infected citizens;
- convicts serving sentences;
- of maternity hospital workers;
- staff of tuberculosis dispensaries;
- military personnel.
Fluorographic examination is contraindicated in women during pregnancy( especially in the first trimester), children under 15 years of age. During lactation, the procedure is safe, the minimum doses of radiation do not affect the composition of breast milk. Relative contraindications are:
- severe somatic condition - the patient's inability to be in an upright position;
- severe dyspnea;
- Decompensated respiratory failure.
How to make fluorography
Special preparation for fluorography is not needed. The procedure is carried out in special mobile or separate stationary rooms equipped with the necessary equipment - in district clinics, hospitals, medical and preventive institutions, where it is necessary to arrive at the appointed time. The examination takes two to three minutes, the picture is taken in two, sometimes three projections. For the passage of fluorography, the patient must perform the following actions:
- Undress to the waist, remove from the chest all metal objects or jewelry.
- To lean chest against the fluorograph monitor, place the chin on a special stand.
- At the command of the doctor, take a deep breath, hold your breath and stand for a few seconds.
The initial decoding of the fluorography of the lung is done by a radiologist. If pathologies are found, the patient is sent for additional examinations( for example, a radiograph of the lungs is appointed) and a consultation with a specialized specialist. The presence of focal blackouts with a diameter of up to 10 mm indicates problems with the vascular system, possible oncological pathologies, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction, and requires a specification of the diagnosis. The images show and other symptomatic complexes :
- In inflammation and tumors, vascular sclerosis - intensification of pulmonary pattern.
- In acute or chronic pulmonary pathologies( bronchitis, inflammation) - expansion and consolidation of pulmonary roots, their tightness. The condensed roots testify to edematous phenomena in large vessels and lymph nodes.
- After injuries, surgical interventions, severe lung diseases - fibrotic changes in tissues.
- After the transferred tuberculosis - adhesions, pleuroapical layering( thickening of tissue in the upper part of the lungs).
- After the introduction of a tubercle bacillus or nonspecific infections - calcinates. In the picture they have the form of rounded shadows, in density resembling bone tissue.
- With pleurisy and similar pathologies - accumulation of fluid in the sinus.
- With increased heart size as a result of insufficiency or hypertension - a change in the shadow of the mediastinum. Shadow displacement is evidence of an uneven accumulation of pleural fluids.
- With obesity, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, hereditary pathologies - changes in the diaphragm, its shape or position.
- In cysts, emphysema, cavities( cavities in the lung tissue) - accumulation of fluids in pathological cavities. In the pictures, these areas appear darkened.
The use of fluorography for the prevention of severe lung diseases( tuberculosis) and other chest organs helps to diagnose pathology in the early, asymptomatic stages and start treatment in time. Since the dose of X-ray irradiation in the procedure is relatively low, conducting regular mass surveys of the categories of citizens at risk does not have negative consequences for their health.