Vaccination against influenza
Vaccination against influenza only since 2006 is included in the National Calendar. In Europe, there is a continuous record of cases of influenza, and although it is far from complete, an inoculation against influenza has led to a decrease in the incidence.
According to WHO, with annual epidemics of influenza, 5-10% of adults and 20-30% of children fall ill, 250 000-500 000 people die from this disease, economic damage amounts to 1 to 6 mln. dollars per 100 000 population.
A vaccine against influenza should be given to patients-chroniclers, who are often ill with ARI, children of preschool age. In the countries of Europe, the elderly, patients with cardiac, pulmonary (including bronchial asthma) and renal pathology, diabetes and people with immunosuppression are vaccinated. In the USA since 2008 Inoculation against influenza is older than 6 months. introduced into the National Calendar.
Influenza vaccination in children
Vaccination against influenza should be carried out in the first year, because at this age there is a high incidence and severe course. Thus, in the 2007/08 season, the specific gravity of children 0-2 years among those who developed the flu was 3, 3%, 3-6 years - 4,%, while schoolchildren only 14%, and adults %. Among the children hospitalized with confirmed influenza, 50% were children under the age of 6 months, 2/3 - children under 1 year and 80% - up to 2 years. In another study, it was shown that of the number of children who are sick with influenza at the age of 2-5 years, every 250th, 6-24 months is hospitalized. - every 100th. and 0-6 months. - every 10th.. According to the combined data of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the hospitalization rate for this disease is 240-720 per 100 000 children 0-6 months. and 17-45 per 10, 00 children aged 2-5 years; 37% of those hospitalized were at risk - their hospitalization rate was 500 per 100 000.
And although the death rate of children is 1/10 of the death rate of older persons (and, for 10, 00), a special study in the US of this issue in 2004-2005. showed that in children of the first half of the year this figure is 8 per 100 000.
Symptoms of influenza in young children often differ from the classical picture - high fever + intoxication + cough and runny nose. At this age, febrile convulsions are frequent against the background of fever, the flu often causes croup, bronchiolitis, exacerbation of asthma, often complicated by otitis media, sinusitis and pneumonia. The frequency of otitis media in children with influenza is 18-40% according to different tori, much more often in children under 2 years old. Complication of myocarditis, as well as from the nervous system - is not uncommon. So, in one of the studies of 842 children with confirmed laboratory flu in 72 there were neurological complications: encephalopathy in 10 children, febrile seizures in 27 and afebrile - in 29, meningitis 2 and cerebral stroke due to hypotension - 4.
Who should be vaccinated?
Contingents listed in the National Calendar do not include a number of groups, the flu vaccine which gives undoubted effect and can be recommended; The immunoprophylaxis calendar for epidemiological indications does not decode risk groups. The recommendations in force in the United States are presented below, the flu shot should be administered to the following categories of people:
- Healthy children over the age of 6 months.
- Asthma and other chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
- Diseases of the heart with hemodynamic disorders.
- Conditions that are fraught with impairment of respiratory functions (aspiration, sputum stasis) - epilepsy, neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injuries, mental retardation
- Immunodeficiencies, including HIV infection.
- Sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies.
- Chronic kidney disease, metabolism, diabetes,
- Diseases requiring long-term therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (rheumatic diseases, Kawasaki syndrome) as prevention of Reye's syndrome.
- Family members and staff caring for children under the age of 5 (especially important for children under 6 months of age).
These recommendations, although they do not include such obvious risk groups as patients with organic lesions of the central nervous system, which influenza causes long-term apnea, children with malformations of the lungs and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are quite acceptable for our conditions. Of course, we should also recommend vaccination on an individual basis to all children and adults.
Vaccination against influenza for people with chronic diseases is safe. Published enough convincing work, allowing to vaccinate these contingents.
Contraindications to the vaccination against influenza
For all vaccines - an allergy to egg hen proteins, to aminoglycosides (for vaccines containing them), allergic reactions to the administration of any vaccine. Split- and subunit vaccination against influenza can be used in persons with chronic pathology, incl. with immune defects, pregnant and lactating women, patients with immunosuppressive therapy, combine with other vaccines (in different syringes). It is not recommended to vaccinate people who have undergone Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Contraindications for live vaccines - immunodeficiency states, immunosuppression, malignant neoplasms, rhinitis, pregnancy, intolerance of chicken protein. Temporary contraindications, as for inactivated vaccines, are acute diseases and exacerbations of chronic.
Vaccination reactions and complications
The live vaccine against influenza is slightly reactogenic, the temperature above 3, ° in the first 3 days is allowed no more than 2% of vaccinated. With subcutaneous injection of whole-cell vaccines, it is allowed to develop a short-term temperature above 3, ° or infiltrates up to 50 mm in no more than 3% of vaccinated patients. With their intranasal administration, subfebrile within 1 to 3 days is allowed for no more than 2% of the vaccinated.
Subunit and split vaccines give weak short-term (48-72 hours) reactions in no more than 3% of the vaccinated. The least reactogenic according to international independent studies are subunit vaccines. Clinical experience confirms the low reactogenicity of inactivated sipit and subadynamic vaccines and in children even in the second half of life. The largest amount (about 7, 00 doses) of vaccine safety is from the United States. There are observations that the vaccine against influenza is safe in children in the first half of the year.
Rare cases of vasculitis are described. Observations in England for 34 000 vaccinated with different vaccines (of which 75% with chronic pathology) showed a low incidence of all and allergic reactions (overall within 1-3% for different vaccines).
Rare, immediate reactions after the vaccine against influenza Grippol was introduced in 2006. in the subsequent, they were practically not repeated.
Vaccines against influenza
The vaccine against influenza is prepared from the current strains of A / H1N1 /, A / H3N2 / and B viruses, recommended annually by WHO. Vaccination against influenza is carried out in the autumn, preferably before the onset of morbidity.
Instead of the previously released anti-influenza gamma globulin, a normal human immunoglobulin is used in a doubled dosage.
At present, a vaccine against influenza is being tested, which is based not on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, but on a matrix protein 1 and a virion nucleoprotein that do not mutate; If successful, there will be no need for an annual vaccination.
Live vaccines are made from attenuated strains of the virus (adapted to cold mutants), they are able to produce local immunity (production of IgA antibodies) with intranasal administration. In the USA, where a live vaccine has been used since 5 years, incl. in children with asthma, it is shown to be more effective than the inactivated vaccine against A / H1N1 and B.
Allantoin intranasal live flu vaccine is dry for children aged 3 years and adults (Microgen, Russia) - lyophilizate for solution preparation. The contents of the ampoule are dissolved in, ml (1 dose) with boiled water (cooled). The age-appropriate vaccine is administered once, 5 ml per each nasal passage to the depth, attached by the spray dispenser type RD single use.
Vaccination against influenza is weakly reactogenic. Storage of drugs at a temperature of 2 to 8. Shelf life - 1 year.
Inactivated all-virion vaccination against influenza is used in children older than 7 years and adults. It is a purified virus, cultured on chick embryos, inactivated by UV irradiation.
Grippovak (NIIVS, Russia) contains in 1 ml of 20 μg hemagglutinin subtypes A and 26 μg B. Preservative - merthiolate. Form release: 1 ml ampoules (2 doses), vials of 40 or 100 doses. Store at 2-8 °. Introduced for children from 7 years and adolescents intranasal (spray RDZH-M4) to, 5 ml in each nasal pass twice with interval 3-4 weeks, adults - from 18 years - intranasal in the same scheme or parenterally (SC) once in a dose, ml.
Vaccination against influenza inactivated eluate-centrifuge liquid (Russia) - is applied according to the same scheme as Grippovac
Subunit and split vaccines are used in children older than 6 months, adolescents and Roslyh. Children vaccinated for the first time and neoblevshim influenza, as well as patients with immunodeficiency is recommended to enter 2 doses with an interval of 4 weeks, in subsequent years - once. With the introduction of 1 dose in the spring and one fall, the vaccines are less immunogenic
A vaccine against influenza is injected intramuscularly or deeply subcutaneously into the upper third of the outer surface of the shoulder. The vaccines are stored at 2-8 °. Shelf life 12-18 months.
Subunit and split vaccines registered in Russia
|Vaccination against influenza||Composition, preservative||Doses and methods of vaccination|
5 μg of 2 strains of A and 11 μg of strain B, + polyoxidonium of 500 μg, merthiolate. Ampoules, ml
Children 6 months - 3 years 2 times, 5 ml with an interval of 4 weeks. older than 3 years - by, ml 1 time.
Polymer-subunit - Petrovax FC, Russia
5 μg 2 strains A and B (Solvay Biolodzh.) + Polyoxidonium 500 μg, without preservative. Syringe, amp., Bottles on, ml
Children over 3 years and adults 1 dose (, ml) once
Agrippal S1 - Subunit, Novartis Vaccine and Diagnostics Srl Italy
15 mcg 3 strains, without cone. Syringe-dose.
Children older than 3 years and adults 1 dose (, ml) once, up to 3 years - 1/2 dose (5 ml) - vaccinated for the first time and not sick with the flu - 2 times after 1 month.
Begrivak Split, New Artis Vaccine, Germany
15 mcg 3 strains, without preservative. Syringe-dose
Vaxigrip Split, sanofi pasteur, France
For 15 mcg 3 strains, no preservative. Syringe doses, amp., ml, 10 dose vials
Children under 9 years 2-fold, to, 5 ml (up to 3 years) or, ml (3-8 years); & g; years - 1 dose, ml.
Subunit, Berna Biotech, Switzerland
For 15 μg 3 strains; virosomes mimic the virion. Without preservatives, formaldehyde and antibiotics
Children older than 3 years and adults ml IM or deep sc, for children from 6 months. up to 3 years, 5 ml (previously not vaccinated with 2 doses).
Subunit, Solvay Pharma, The Netherlands
15 mcg 3 strains, free of preservatives and antibiotics. Self-destroying syringe-dose.
Individuals & g; 4 years, ml. Children
Fluarix Split, SmithKlein Forms. GmbH, KG, Germany
15 μg 3 strains, traces of merthiolate and formaldehyde. Syringe-dose.
Children over 6 years of age, ml once, 6 months - 6 years - by, 5 ml 2-fold
A cell culture-grown subunit vaccine against influenza On-taflu, Novartis Vaccine and Diagnosis GmbH, FRG and Split Vaccine FluvaxiN, ChangchukLife Science Ltd., China, is registered.
A vaccine against influenza is not active against avian influenza viruses and possible future mutants. Vaccines from "avian" strains in case of an epidemic have been created in Russia and other countries.
Is the flu vaccine effective?
The vaccination against influenza develops immunity 14 days after the injection, but in children who did not previously have contact with the virus, this requires 2 doses of the vaccine administered at intervals of 4-6 weeks. Immunity is type-specific; Vaccination against influenza should be performed every year, since there is an antigenic drift of strains viruses, as well as its short duration (6-12 months), even if its strain composition, in comparison with the previous season, is not has changed.
Vaccination against influenza has a prophylactic efficacy against a laboratory-confirmed disease of 60-90%, although the degree of protection in children and the elderly is considered to be lower. When infected with strains of the virus, different from vaccine, the effectiveness is reduced; although the disease is vaccines flow more easily, but the incidence of influenza and mortality remain above the epidemic threshold.
Vaccination against influenza is the most effective method of reducing the incidence of influenza and mortality from it both among the general population and at risk groups. A vaccination against influenza reduces the hospitalization of children aged 6-23 months. (who received 2 doses of the vaccine) by 75%, and mortality by 41%, and the protective effect of the vaccination, carried out for 2 years or more, is much higher than the one-time before the epidemic. Among adults with community-acquired pneumonia vaccinated against influenza, during the influenza season mortality was lower - OR, (, 2-0, 41). Especially pronounced effect among the elderly: for 10 seasons the relative risk of pneumonia was 3, and deaths 2.
Vaccination against influenza also reduces the incidence of children with acute otitis media (by, %) and exudative otitis media (by 2, -3,%). Vaccination against influenza reduces the frequency of all ARI.
To protect children of the first half of this disease, the effect of vaccination of pregnant women is studied. Data from Bangladesh showed that this flu shot has an efficacy of 63%: up to the age of 24 weeks, 4% of children were infected with influenza, compared to 10% in controls. In addition, the frequency of febrile ARI decreased by 29%.
The problem of bird flu
The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) multiplies in the intestines of birds - its neuraminidase N1 is resistant to acidic medium, and haemagglutinin H5 recognizes epithelial receptors containing sialic acids typical birds. There are few such receptors (therefore people rarely get sick), but the trachea of pigs contains both types of sialic acids, which makes them the main "mixer" of viruses. Mass transmission from a person to a person is possible only if the specificity of the hemagglutinin of the avian virus changes.
Vaccination against influenza should be performed before the beginning of the cold season. During the epidemic, interferon-a-nasal drops of Alfaron, Grippferon (1, 00 U / ml) and in aeozoles are used: children 0-1 years, 1 drop (, 00 ME); 1-14 years - on 2, older than 14 years and adults - 3 drops 2 times a day for 5-7 days (if exposed to the flu) or the dose in the morning every 1-2 days (in the epidemic season). The same scheme uses Viferon 1 candles. Interferon-gamma (Ingaron - 100 000 ME in a vial, diluted in 5 l of water) for children over 7 years and adults for 2 drops in the nose: in contact with a sick flu - once, in a season of epidemics - 2-3 drops 30 minutes before meals after the toilet of the nose 1 time every other day 10 days (repeated course if necessary - after 2 weeks).
For prevention in adults and children older than 1 year, use rimantadine (tablets 50 mg, 2% syrup for children Algeria with sodium alginate), although the virus A1 has become resistant to it. Doses of rimantadine: 100 mg / day (children 7-10 years), 150 mg / day (children over 10 years and adults); Algirem: children 1-3 years 10 ml (20 mg) children 3-7 years - 15 ml: (30 mg) - once a day for 10-15 days. Similar effect in Arbidol - according to the same scheme: children 2-6 years 5, 6-12 years over 12 years
The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is approved for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B from 1 g. When administered within 36 hours after contact with the patient, warns of influenza in 80%, is active with avian flu (but not with ARVI). Prophylactic dose for children 1-2 mg / kg / day, for adults - 75-150 mg / day - 7 days after contact or up to 6 weeks during the epidemic. Zanamivir (Relenza in an aerosol is used from the age of 5 years for 2 inhalations 2 times a day (total 10 mg / day) treatment and prevention.
Vaccination against influenza in people with chronic diseases
Vaccination against influenza in the form of split and subunit vaccines has been shown to be effective and safe when administered patients with severe pathology (asthma, leukemia, liver transplant recipients, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and other). Clinical experience of vaccination of more than , 00 children, 31 of them with various pathologies, showed its safety and effectiveness.
Allergy after vaccination
Before talking about the reasons for the allergy after vaccination, it is necessary to decide on the concept - the vaccine. So, the vaccine is an immunobiological active agent that causes specific changes in the body, for example:
- the desired effect, that is, the vaccine is determined to be immune to a particular infection,
- to undesirable - include adverse reactions.
Now we will analyze the essence of adverse reactions, which includes allergic processes, which can be local and general.
- local - a change in the place of vaccination, namely: pain, condensation, redness, itching, swelling, hives, etc.,
- general are related to the body as a whole, that is, here it is a question of fever, weakness, changes in appetite, headache and so on.
It should be understood that the side effects, allergy after vaccination are different from postvaccine complications. What is the difference?
Complications after vaccination are expressed in more complex degrees of severity than side effects, including allergies. In this case, a sharp drop in blood pressure is possible, which in medicine is referred to as anaphylactic shock - it is classified as the most dangerous allergic reaction to any enzyme that is part of the introduced vaccine. Other types of post-vaccination complications:
- neurological disorders,
- allergies and various degrees of their manifestation.
Complications after vaccination are very rare, say, encephalitis, provoked by measles vaccine, as the statistics showed - 1 case of 5 - 10 million.
Complications can also be local and general, which are determined by such signs:
- seal from 3 cm,
- purulent formation, which is possible if the rules for the introduction of vaccination are not observed,
- inflammation in the vaccination zone - as a result of improper injection of BCG.
This is how local reactions look, the general ones are characterized by other symptoms:
- a very high body temperature of 40 ° C and above,
Children can be exhausted crying, which is a defeat of the nervous system. Immediately, convulsions, encephalopathy, a short-term failure of the "shell" of the brain shells.
Also, there are cases when there is an effect on the kidneys, joints, heart, GIT and much more.
Causes of an allergy after vaccination
In general, adverse reactions in general - this is normal, because the body reacts in this way to the introduction of foreign antigen, which is usually a fight of immunity.
It is necessary to understand that the fever is not an allergy after vaccination. The temperature increase in this situation is an immune reaction. Of course, a temperature exceeding 40 ° C is already a cause for concern.
Consider the causes of local reactions and allergies inclusive:
- the injection itself. When you inject the needle, it damages the surface of the skin, which is already the protective reaction of the body,
- a foreign antigen, to which after its input immunity is produced,
- method of vaccination. If it is an intramuscular injection (the best method), then the vaccination in the buttock is not the right decision, because you can hook the sciatic nerve or damage the subcutaneous fatty tissue. Children under 2 years of age are better tolerated inoculations, if the process of insertion is carried out in the anterior-lateral plane of the thigh in the middle of its third. In the more mature age, the optimal place of vaccination is the deltoid muscle of the shoulder.
The skin reaction after vaccination is generated on the basis of:
- reproduction of the injection virus in the skin,
- allergy after vaccination,
- increased bleeding.
Many people think that a mild rash on the skin is an allergy. But it is not always the case. The reason for this may be an increase in the injection virus in the skin, which is often found after vaccination against measles, rubella, mumps.
The same should be said about the spot rash, where the consequence is increased bleeding, which is rare after vaccination against rubella. The course of this phenomenon can be as easy (not prolonged damage to the process of blood clotting), and severe (hemorrhagic vasculitis).
The negligence of doctors can also provoke the appearance of some troubles after vaccination, for example:
- non-compliance with the rules for storage of the vaccine, namely, storage in a room where the temperature does not match the required,
- the wrong way of injecting, which is characteristic of BCG, which should be administered subcutaneously,
- neglect of recommendations in the instructions for the introduction of the vaccine, for example, missed the graph with contraindications.
Yes! there are cases when the allergy after vaccination arises only after the re-introduction.
Allergy to DPT Inoculation
Adverse reactions and allergy after DTP vaccination has such causes and symptoms:
- afefrilnye convulsions, that is, without the accompaniment of temperature, can occur after vaccination with DTP vaccines, which happens once for 3, 00 - 4, 00 vaccinations. The result of this effect is the irritation of some parts of the brain and its DTP envelopes - antigens. The variant of epilepsy is not excluded,
- the goal of some inoculations is intentional local reactions. For example, substances such as aluminum hydroxide, adjuvants specifically cause inflammation to "familiarize" the immune system with the antigen administered. This is done so that in the future, in case of a disease, the body can cope with the disease without much trouble.
If after vaccination the vaccinated noticed some side effects, it is not yet a fact that the cause is an allergy after the DPT vaccination.
Allergy after DTP vaccination
To date, unfortunately, there is nothing absolutely safe, including vaccinations. But, where are the consequences of the infections themselves that cause serious diseases more dangerous. In addition, based on WHO data, the complications recorded are 1 per 1, 00 - 5, 00 servings of whole cell injections, for example, Tetrakok, DTP. Consider local and general complications, where the allergy after DTP vaccination is no exception:
- local: increased size, increased density of tissue sites in the area of injection; an allergic reaction accompanied by swelling and redness; the size of the "prick" is more than 8 cm. The course of such phenomena is usually 1 - 2 days, and passes without drug treatment. For more rapid elimination of allergic symptoms, you can use, say, troxevasin ointment, which is applied to the place of edema from 3 to 5 times a day until complete recovery,
- general: a shrill cry "in one breath" of a child, which begins only a few hours after vaccination, the duration of which is from 3 or more hours. It is not uncommon to be combined with fever. As a rule, these side effects disappear on their own. As a treatment, antipyretic agents can be used (Paracetamol, for example. But it is better to ask the doctor). The convulsive syndrome is an extremely rare event after the DTP vaccination (1 case per 5, 00 injections):
- febrile convulsions appear as a result of body temperature above 38 ° C, usually on the first day, but not later than three days after the vaccination,
- afefrilnye convulsions can occur at the usual or at a temperature of no higher than 38 ° C - which happens extremely rarely, but their consequences are dangerous. If the child has received such symptoms after vaccination, then it is necessary to turn to the neurologist, because, this is possible because of the previous organic lesion of the nervous system, for some reason not identified until the moment vaccination.
There is an allergy after the DPT vaccination, which manifests itself as:
c) anaphylactic shock - appears almost immediately after the injection of DTP, approximately after the expiration of 20-30 minutes. Accordingly, the child should be at least half an hour after the injection is under the control of doctors.
Allergy to Mantoux Inoculation
Before saying whether an allergy is possible after Mantoux vaccination, it is necessary to understand what a Mantoux vaccination is in general.
The Mantoux vaccine is designed for the prophylactic detection of tuberculosis in all children. It can be attributed to a kind of immunological test, which reliably shows the presence or absence of tuberculous infection in the body.
If the child has an allergy after Mantoux vaccination, then:
- most importantly, it is necessary to understand the cause of a positive reaction. It is important to know that a positive reaction is not a fact that the child is sick with tuberculosis. The reaction to the mantle of a child's organism, where a sample of tuberculin is administered, is allergic. Accordingly, the resulting allergy after Mantoux vaccination should affect the final result of the test. In this case, the allergic reaction can be completely different, for example, food, medication or skin,
- the cause of an allergic reaction can be:
- recently transferred diseases,
- age changes with respect to skin sensitivity,
- the presence of worms and much more,
- if the adverse reaction to Mantoux increases from year to year, it is likely that the child was in a region in which he could face an open form of tuberculosis. Consultation with a phthisiatrician is mandatory in this case,
- allergy to Mantoux vaccination manifests itself immediately after vaccination at the point of injection. Symptoms of allergies: redness, itching, blisters are not ruled out. Before you can make a baby (with a possible allergy to the vaccine) Mantoux vaccine, it is necessary to warn the doctor about this. Better yet, check with a phthisiatrician.
Allergy to hepatitis vaccination
"We can not get vaccinated against hepatitis!" Most often this phrase implies that parents simply do not want a child to get a hepatitis vaccine. The reasons for this are different for everyone, someone "discourages" the fact that the child immediately after the birth had an ill "jaundice" - therefore it is impossible. But to know exactly "can not" or "can" you need to ask the doctor. Doctors are also not interested in making mistakes, at least for the reason that such actions are criminally punishable. It's clear that any parent worries about the health of his baby, but a vaccination against hepatitis can prevent numerous consequences in the future, provoked by hepatitis infection.
Allergy after vaccination against hepatitis is a rare phenomenon, possibly in the presence of food allergies, namely culinary yeast.
Allergy to diphtheria vaccination
Complications after vaccination against diphtheria may be as follows:
- body temperature exceeding 39 ° C,
- redness, increase, swelling from 8 cm at the injection site,
- the child's long crying.
The probability of occurrence of such signs: 1 by several hundred.
In addition to all the above, it is possible and an allergy after vaccination from diphtheria, which manifests itself by such reactions:
- light form: skin rash,
- severe form: hoarse voice, anaphylactic shock - appear within 30 minutes (rare cases).
The child after inoculation should be under the supervision of medical personnel at least 30 minutes, since, the probability of heavy currents of allergic reactions occurs precisely during this period time. And as a result of serious complications such as anaphylactic shock, the child will be provided with timely assistance.
Allergy to influenza vaccination
Allergy after vaccination against influenza or some complications may appear in people who suffer:
- an allergy to chicken eggs because the composition of the vaccine against influenza includes squirrels of chicken eggs,
- catarrhal diseases (ARVI) or allergic reactions during the vaccination period. In this case it is necessary to wait 2 weeks after recovery,
- serious complications for previous vaccination against influenza, which include: a sudden outbreak, allergy, high fever.
Usually all the symptoms go away on their own. But to see the doctor, after all, it's worth it.
Vaccination against allergies
Immunotherapy includes immunizations from allergies. Their function is aimed at improving the body's ability to resist various infections that contribute to the occurrence of an allergic reaction. They are made for those people who are allergic to a severe form and have a duration of at least 3 months per year. Antiallergic vaccination does not eliminate allergies completely, but strengthen immunity in relation to allergic manifestations.
The frequency of vaccination against allergies is about 2 months in a row. This process requires a systematic visit to the doctor - 2 times a week, as vaccination against allergies can contribute to the fact that will appear (with the correct conduct of an allergic reaction is unlikely), an allergy after vaccination (which will be considered several below).
The initial dose of vaccine administration is minimal, which gradually increases to the required level. In the case of improvement after vaccination, the frequency of consultation with a doctor is as follows: from 2 to 4 times a week for several years. During the course of treatment, allergic symptoms are weakened, and most importantly, they can stop at all.
What do you need to prepare for these vaccinations?
- You can not exercise 2 hours before and 2 hours after vaccination. In this period it is better to limit yourself as much as possible from physical exertion in the same way as there is a rush of blood (increases in the course of active movements) to tissues, and antigens, naturally, penetrate into the flow with greater speed blood.
- It is necessary to understand that vaccination is a medicine, and simultaneous intake of several (some) medicines can provoke an allergy or other side effect. Because of ignorance of such things, the vaccinated person often thinks that he has an allergy after vaccination, and that such vaccination does not suit him. Before the vaccination should be asked the doctor, which drugs can not be taken. Suppose, beta-blockers + vaccination against allergies = incompatible things. During pregnancy or if a woman plans to become pregnant soon, she should tell the doctor about it.
So, what are the possible consequences after the vaccination against allergies?
- at the end of half an hour after the introduction of vaccination, a compulsory medical examination is necessary to determine possible side effects, for example, rhinitis, throat swelling, general malaise and itching. Such a reaction is possible after leaving the hospital. In this situation, you should go back to where the vaccine was done,
- Do not panic if a local irritation occurs in the area of the injection, for example, swelling or redness. These symptoms are considered normal, and stop maximum after 8 hours from the moment of vaccination.
We all know that there are many varieties of allergies. With which of them does the vaccine fight against allergies?
This type of treatment is quite effective for allergy to insect bites. But, as for the food allergy, there is no data yet.
Treatment of allergies after vaccination
Many vaccinations do not pass without a trace, such as DTP - there is swelling, redness and pain at the injection site; BCG - a sore is formed, which heals for a long time.
Treatment of any type of vaccination does not require local therapy, because vaccination is a test for the body's response to a particular antigen. Suppose, if the child constantly scratches in the vaccination area, then it is enough to apply a gauze bandage to this place.
Some think that the emerging "bump" at the site of DTP vaccination is an allergy after vaccination. It happens that this "lump" is painful, and the child can even limp on one leg (in the event that the injection was inserted into the thigh). But this is not an allergy, but a normal process that does not require any therapeutic action.
To sound an alarm, or rather call a doctor or an ambulance is necessary when:
- It is impossible to bring down the child's heat,
- the child has a convulsive state or worse - loss of consciousness,
- the child lost his appetite, is in a restless state,
- At the place of vaccination, a purulent abscess formed.
Prevention of allergies after vaccination
Allergy after vaccination is possible, as we have already explained above, if a person has an allergy to food (yeast for baking, chicken eggs), individual intolerance of certain medications, non-compliance with conditions vaccination. Avoid possible consequences, but for this you need to know some rules:
- all "can" and "not" before vaccination:
- before getting vaccinated, it is necessary to be examined in order to detect the presence or absence of contraindications to vaccination,
- Before starting the vaccination, you need to get all the information about the injection itself, then there is contraindications, side effects, combination with medications, precautions and so Further. There are cases when the time of vaccination is best transferred to another day due to various circumstances, for example, a small body temperature and a cold disease;
- it is important to properly prepare a child for vaccinations, although most of them do not require special vigilance in this sense:
- proper nutrition:
- It is better not to introduce new food products into the child's diet within two days before the introduction of the vaccine. Adults should forget about alcohol, at least 2 days before and after injection,
- "Nursing" children also should not recognize the taste of new products, including juices. A nursing mother at this time also should not use a product not known to her child, such as the input The new ingredient can cause the baby to be allergic, and mom may think that the baby has an allergy after vaccinations,
- antihistamine and antipyretic drugs:
- "Suprastin" or other similar drugs can be taken the day before the injection is given only if the child has an allergy, for example, urticaria, asthma, atopic dermatitis. And also, if the previous time the vaccine provoked the formation of a strong edema or redness with painful symptoms,
- taking antihistamines should be discussed with the doctor, more precisely the dosage,
- antipyretic drugs as a preventive agent is not recommended to take. A number of exceptions include children who are prone to fermental seizures. In this case, antipyretic drugs should be taken immediately before and after the introduction of the vaccine,
- healthy children, antihistamines and antipyretics for prevention are not prescribed as they prevent the manifestation of the natural reaction of the body to this or that injection;
- proper nutrition:
- after vaccination:
- we are always in a hurry, but this can not be done after the introduction of the vaccine. It is necessary to wait for some time in a medical institution, somewhere 30 minutes,
- it is necessary to take care of the child correctly, which includes the control of nutrition, namely the introduction of new products; abundant drinking, especially if baby diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; bathing a child - it is possible if it does not have a temperature, although it is advisable not to touch the place of the injection washcloth. If it is a vaccine Mantoux, then it can not be cured until the doctor has examined the wound itself,
- even if the child has an allergy after vaccination, he should not refuse to walk in the fresh air. If the condition of a child or an adult is accompanied by a high temperature, then there is a need for bed rest, taking antipyretics, or better - calling a doctor.
Who should not get a flu shot
Opponents of the vaccination believe that it is possible to get rid of it from the flu. But this is just an absurd delusion. The vaccine itself can neither provoke its outbreak nor aggravate the disease if the vaccinated person is still clotted. On the contrary, it is transferred easier, passes faster and does not end with complications. True, vaccination would be the best protection against influenza, if not for some contraindications that limit its use.
Contra-indications for adults
If, for example, you transferred the flu vaccine last year badly, then it is clearly contraindicated to you. And it is better not to experiment, making repeated attempts.
All types of influenza vaccines are made on the basis of chicken protein. If you do not eat eggs of chickens, because they cause you to have allergic reactions, you will have to refuse vaccinations once and for all.
Some vaccines include antibiotics such as "Polymyxin" or "Gentamicin "Neomycin" (and others of this series), as well as formaldehyde, octoxynol-9. They can cause the strongest allergy. These drugs, of course, are absolutely contraindicated to such a category of patients.
As for allergies, if the painful reactions occurred earlier on vaccinations against any other diseases, this type of prevention will have to be excluded.
The vaccine "Grippovac" has its own contraindications. These are immunodeficient conditions, cancerous tumors, diffuse connective tissue diseases (lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, etc.), severe diseases of the nervous system, adrenal lesions. Live vaccines that are introduced into the nasal cavity, in addition to all this, are contraindicated in pregnancy.
The patient at the time of vaccination should feel relatively healthy. You can not do it, if you experience malaise, the temperature is slightly increased, there are signs of a cold, even a slight rhinitis. Of course, vaccination is out of the question for acute infection.
Exacerbation of chronic diseases is also a contraindication, but temporary. Vaccination can be started as soon as it subsides or recuperation occurs. The vaccine should be determined only by a doctor.
Very rarely after the introduction of the vaccine, Guillain-Barre syndrome develops. This is an acute polyradiculitis with a partial loss of muscle sensitivity and restriction of movements. If it does not pass for a month and a half, vaccination should not be done.
There are diseases in which the issue of influenza vaccination in each case must be addressed with a doctor. Much depends on the stage of the disease, the severity of its course, complications. This bronchial asthma, hypertension, heart failure, kidney damage, diabetes, blood diseases.
Contraindications for children
You can not vaccinate against the flu of babies who have not turned six months old. But babies from 6 months to 2 years should be vaccinated, because at this age they do not yet have a stable immunity against viruses.
As adults, children are not allowed to be vaccinated for allergies to chicken protein, as well as for pseudo-allergy to cold. The introduction of the vaccine is excluded and with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Do not vaccinate children if they have had adverse reactions after previous vaccinations, even if they are very poorly expressed.
Check with your doctor
To vaccinate has only benefited, before doing it, consult your therapist. Did you have a good vaccination last year? But in a year a lot can change. And it is better to make sure that you do not have contraindications.
Question about vaccination of the flu *?
Response to vaccination Grippol:
"Local and general reactions to the introduction of the vaccine are largely absent. Very rarely at the injection site, there may be reactions in the form of soreness, swelling and redness of the skin. It is extremely rare for individuals to have general reactions in the form of malaise, headache, weakness, subfebrile temperature. These reactions usually disappear on their own in 1-2 days. In extremely rare cases with high individual sensitivity, allergic reactions can be observed. "But you still have an increased ESR, which is the way?. It's possible that your girlfriend has already picked up a virus, which is quite natural for the kindergarten, but there were no symptoms, and she was vaccinated against the flu. Accordingly, such a serious reaction - the body fights immediately with 2 diseases. This is very serious, the poet must after the recovery hand in blood and urine tests. Naturally, you do not need to vaccinate a child against the flu - This is not only useless, but also dangerous.
And the consequences can and should be warned, but it seems to me that it is more in the interest of parents themselves to be interested in such things. In the kindergarten where my daughter goes, the nurse told me that after she had been vaccinated against the flu (already being an adult), she earned a serious chronic illness. At us practically all parents have refused this inoculation and have heard in reply from workers of a garden "have correctly made".
when consent sign must inform about side effects. only no one will say. to itself that did not put an inoculation?
Is it worth it for an adult to get a flu shot?
The protective effect of vaccinations persists for at least one year, and after two to three years of consistent vaccination - for two years or more. However, there is one "but" - the flu virus easily mutates, and now there are several of its varieties. The introduced vaccine creates immunity only against one particular species. In addition, a person may well become infected not dominant in this season, but another kind of infection. Which also spreads, albeit in smaller numbers, and is looking for a "victim." Therefore, the effectiveness of vaccination, according to various estimates, does not exceed 50-60%.
Do not forget about the adverse reactions that may occur with the use of vaccines: Local reactions are the most common effects. They are expressed in the form of redness at the injection site. These are short-term events that usually take place within 1-2 days. Nonspecific systemic reactions include fever, chills, malaise and myalgia. Usually occur 6-12 hours after vaccination and last no more than 1-2 days. Hypersensitivity is a rare reaction, which is supposedly allergic in nature.
Serious contraindications for vaccinations are the following:
allergy to chicken protein;
diffuse connective tissue diseases;
adrenal gland diseases;
diseases of the nervous system;
chronic diseases of the lungs and upper respiratory tract;
cardiovascular insufficiency and hypertension II and III stages;
disease of the endocrine system;
Risk groups: small children and the elderly, as well as patients with chronic cardiovascular and broncho-pulmonary diseases. These patients often exacerbate their chronic diseases: rheumatism, tuberculosis, bronchitis and others. Of course, complications can occur in any other person. But, as a rule, in the event that he does not comply with bed rest and recommendations of a doctor. In order to decide whether or not to be vaccinated against influenza, the first thing to objectively assess the likelihood of infection with the flu is you. If you are at risk and the danger is high enough, you should consider whether there are any possible complications in your case. If they are very likely, go straight to your doctor about whether you can inject a flu vaccine. In the case of a negative answer, you will not have to think about anything. In the case of a positive doctor's answer, weigh all the pros and cons and make a decision.
Well, if you do not belong to the risk group, and complications are unlikely - do not overtake fear. And then you can and "get scared" get sick.
at your discretion.
it's your decision. My mother-in-law does every year, says she is less sick. Daughters do at school, sick for the whole school. year about 2-3 times. I never did myself, but if I start to get sick, then the cold usually shows up. I have not yet had the choice to do or not, but I think that I will try, when they offer and compare before and after
* MAD *
I never did because I think this shit is a shit.. Those who at least once did or made it was pleasant to a flu (I about those whom I know)
not worth it
Here the question is ambiguous. If you can know exactly what kind of vaccination. whose production, as in what terms and under what conditions they will do, it certainly stands. Provided that you do not abuse them now and do not feel well. In this state, the vaccine can not be done, and even there are many contraindications, you should explain everything. Because when we get vaccinated, it seems like nothing terrible, made a shot and went, and it's not. When we were with children abroad, we had to vaccinate them, so we pre-donated a lot of tests, watched us for almost a week, for our well-being, and these vaccinations there are different manufactures, and there are kotorey calculated for 4 doses, that is, as soon as the ampoule is opened, should be used immediately, and not so keep open until the next patient. If you can control all this, then of course it is worth doing, the flu is now such that it is not so scary as the consequences after it ...
Vaccination against influenza, why the place of injection has swelled? Symptoms are not present.
Immunizations from influenza pose a real threat to human life and health.
The uselessness of influenza vaccinations is clearly visible in the case of Japan, where mass vaccination against influenza started in 1960. In 1976 this vaccination was declared mandatory, and 17 million. schoolchildren of all ages twice a year it regularly received. It all ended in complete failure. The incidence did not decrease, but increased 12-fold (from 5 to 60 cases per 10, 00). In addition to the inefficiency of vaccinations, they were far from harmless. In the years 1972-1979. 142 lawsuits were filed to compensate for the damage caused by vaccination. Of the most serious consequences: 50 children died, 35 received chronic epilepsy, and 65 became mentally retarded (From the report of Dr. Yamamoto "Why does the government of Japan have to stop compulsory Inoculations. Pediatrician's viewpoint "presented at the conference" Should vaccinations be mandatory or voluntary? Which was held in Naples on May 31, 1997).
In Spain, amid a massive vaccination campaign, the incidence of flu has increased by 400%! (Joet F. et al. Survey on vaccinations in Europe: adverse effects, epidemiology, laws, and EFVV proposals. Medical Veritas 2005 -37).
1) vaccination against influenza is completely ineffective;
2) vaccination against influenza is a causative factor in the development of the syndrome of severe chronic diseases of the nervous system - Guillain-Barre syndrome;
3) persons vaccinated against influenza, and especially those who are "at risk" (infants, elderly people, pregnant women) may get and other, no less serious, complications from influenza vaccination - up to incurable diseases of the nervous systems;
4) vaccination against influenza is really beneficial only for producers and distributors of vaccines.
An allergic reaction, I guess. Take antihistamine.
Sorry, Move along, Bitch!
It looked like it was swelling. If the place is hot and painful, then it is rather an inflammation, dirt got into the wound.
Local reaction to the infection, which was introduced: (You have nothing to do, how to get vaccinated against the flu?
In which place?)
If the buttock, made a small syringe, did not reach the muscle,
spread over the pod.
Violated the rules of asepsis, a local allergic. reaction, yes a lot of things ..
While suprastin to drink, and cabbage leaf to attach.
Natula - beauty :)
There was this, from another inoculation (put in the thigh) - for a very long time the cone did not pass.
The doctor then said "in the place of a bad hit with a needle." Over time, passed by itself.
Every year at work we are vaccinated against the flu. I do not do it myself, but there are always a lot of willing people. And no one has ever blushed or swollen anything.