Ear otitis in a child: symptoms, causes and treatmentEar otitis in a child occurs much more often than in adults. The reasons for this imbalance are obvious - they are associated with the not yet sufficiently strengthened immune system of babies, which is not yet able to actively resist the development of inflammation. External manifestations of the disease, depending on the type of otitis media, differ, and therapeutic approaches should also be different.
What are otitis media in children and why they occur
Otitis is an inflammation of the ear.What are otitis media in children and what are their differences? There are external otitis and otitis media, depending on which department of the ear is inflamed. The course of the disease, which is very common at a young age, can be acute or chronic. The inflammatory process can, accompanied by suppuration or not accompanied by it. In this inflammation, there is a hearing disorder (mild to moderate hearing loss). The danger of all kinds of otitis in children is in their complications. Especially dangerous complications of purulent otitis. Remembering this, my mother should be attentive to the complaints of the child. If the child complains about the ear, the mother should immediately call the child's doctor. He, having examined the child, will give the necessary recommendations and, if he deems it necessary, appoint a consultation of a children's ENT doctor.
Otitis externa may be a furuncle of the external auditory canal, but may be external otitis and spilled. The furuncle develops as a result of the infection in the hair follicle or the sebaceous gland that is near this sac. Why does external otitis occur in young children? The cause of infection is usually a minor skin trauma (mum does not observe caution, when the child is cleaning the eye, or the child puts in his ear a hard object with sharp edges).
Acute otitis media often develops as a complication of an acute cold. In the role of pathogens may act staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, etc. The cause of otitis media in children are adenoidal disorders that cover the mouth of the Eustachian pipes and thereby create conditions for air stagnation in the "drum-eustachian system" trumpet". In turn, the complication of acute otitis media, as well as complication of tubotitis is
The causative agents of acute purulent otitis are the same as in acute otitis media. If, for some reason, there is no timely and sufficient treatment for acute purulent otitis, if the sick child is not eating well, if the resistance of his body is reduced due to some prolonged illness, the acute purulent process in the ear can be transformed into a chronic one, and then it is already possible to talk about the presence of a chronic purulent otitis. Among the causes of this otitis in children, it is necessary to name such pathogens as streptococci, staphylococcus and E. coli. If the pseudomonas aeruginosa appears in the ear, the otitis proceeds very hard.
What are the symptoms of external and middle otitis media in a child
What are the symptoms of otitis in a child depending on the type of inflammation?
With external otitis, the child complains of pain in the ear. The pain is growing, and when you press the tragus of the auricle, it is even worse. Body temperature rises, parotid and cervical lymph nodes increase, tissues in the external ear canal swell strongly - sometimes this passage is completely closed. After opening the furuncle, pus is poured from the ear. Soon after this, recovery comes.
Acute otitis media begins some time after the onset of a cold. Again, a characteristic sign of otitis media is a pain in the ear. Sometimes a child complains of pain in both ears. If you click on the tragus of the ear, the pain becomes stronger. Body temperature rises, appetite and sleep are affected. There is a noise in the Ear, hearing is broken. The JIOP-doctor sees the reddening of the tympanic membrane when examining the patient's ear. Also, with the average otitis of the ear in a child, the symptoms are changes in the blood test: leukocytosis, increased ESR.
Symptoms of purulent and chronic otitis media in a child
Acute purulent otitis proceeds with the same symptoms, but to them signs of intoxication of the organism are added:increased fatigue, general weakness, pale skin and mucous membranes. Increased body temperature - up to 40 ° C - lasts several days. The pain in the ear becomes stronger and, as it were, pulsates. At some point, there is a breakthrough of pus accumulating in the tympanum, through the tympanic membrane outside; and the amount of pus can be significant. When pus breaks through it, as a rule, an admixture of blood is found. After the pus empties, the pain quickly fades into nothing. There is a hearing disorder.
The chronic purulent otitis is characterized by a suppuration, which lasts a long time. The suppuration may be permanent or intermittent. The substance separated from the ear can have a mucous or mucus-like nature; rarely - festering. If the pseudomonas arisens in the ear or if pus stagnates in the tympanum, a putrid smell from the ear may appear. Symptom of this otitis in the child is a constant noise in the patient's ear. The doctor sees a hole in the eardrum when viewed (with the help of a special instrument) of the tympanic membrane. Chronic purulent otitis may be complicated by mastoiditis, meningitis; local complications - proliferation of granulations, the appearance of polyps; a fairly rare complication is cholesteatoma.
How to properly treat an ear otitis in a child
Before treating otitis in a child, the baby must be shown to a specialist. The patient is examined by the ENT doctor and prescribes the necessary therapy. When treating otitis in a child is very important nutrition. The child's diet should contain more foods that are sources of vitamins A, C, B, etc. for the body.
With external otitis, the patient's ear warms up several times a day, making warming compresses (around the ear). In the external auditory meatus every day put turundas with a doctor-appointed remedy. Physiotherapy is effective.
With acute otitis media, treatment is also local and general. How correctly to treat an otitis of the child if it has arisen in the middle ear? In this case, warming up several times a day; around the ear make warming compresses with vegetable or camphor oil, vodka, semi-alcoholic compresses.
With severe pain in the ear, analgesic drops are prescribed. The effectiveness of treatment is increased when physiotherapy is connected. Simultaneously, the nose is treated - with the aim of quickly restoring the function of the Eustachian tube.
And how to treat an ear otitis in a child, if the disease is an acute purulent inflammation? In this case, the doctor makes a paracentesis - a small incision in the tympanic membrane. Through this incision poured out, and the state of the baby improves. The doctor observes the child every day, performs the toilet of the ear, puts in the external ear canal of turunda with medicines. The patient's ear is warmed, warming compresses are put on, physioprocedures are done. With symptoms of purulent otitis in children, treatment is also prescribed for the nose with a nasopharynx.
With chronic purulent otitis, the doctor also makes a daily ear toilet; locally used anti-inflammatory drugs; antibiotics are administered parenterally; physiotherapy is prescribed. In those cases when conservative therapy is ineffective, when complications of otitis may occur, surgical treatment is indicated. If you can achieve a long period without suppuration, an operation is performed to restore the integrity of the tympanic membrane. This operation is called "myringoplasty."
Treatment of otitis in children at home: first aid to a childThe kid suddenly complained that his ear hurts. Timely competent actions of the mother will help in this case to alleviate the child's condition and prevent the development of dangerous complications. Before starting treatment for otitis in children at home, first, of course, you need to call a precinct pediatrician at home.
After that, the mother must:
- to measure the child's body temperature; if the body temperature is increased significantly, the child is recommended to give something of antipyretics: paracetamol in the form of a syrup, Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in the age-appropriate dose, a small child - put a cefekon candle; If the mother gives the sick child acetylsalicylic acid, then - by all means on milk;
- if the pain is severe, and the child can not tolerate it, providing first aid in otitis in a child, you need to give for oral intake of any pain medication - for example analgin in the age-related dose; an analgesic is injected into the ear - you can inject into the ear novocaine, otinum, if they are in the home medicine chest; if neither novocaine, no on hand at hand, you can drip a few drops of warm vodka into the external auditory meatus; quite quickly the pain in the ear weakens after introducing a few drops of warm vegetable oil into it; for this purpose, you can use any vegetable oil - olive, corn, sunflower, soybean, etc. (on the child's recovery the ear needs to be rinsed to remove from the external auditory meatus the remains oil); After the mother dripped the baby in the ear one of these means, he should be about 15 min. lie down - while the sick ear should be facing the ceiling; after instillations the external ear canal is always plugged with a cotton swab;
- When treating otitis in a child at home, you need to warm up your sore ear; The warming-up procedure, despite its simplicity, is very effective; is due to its effectiveness in that heat is always characterized by a mild analgesic effect; in addition, heat causes local expansion of blood vessels and, therefore, a rush of blood to the sore ear, and in conditions of abundant blood supply the inflammation focuses much faster; sometimes it is enough to warm your ear once the very beginning of the disease - and the process of inflammation begins to "take positions warm up your baby need 3-4 times a day; Each time the warm-up procedure should take 12-15 minutes; it is recommended to use an ordinary heating pad (the child should lie on the hot-water bottle with a sick ear); It is important to remember that with an increase in the body temperature of warming do not;
- Also, such assistance is very effective for children in the home, like warming compresses; when inflamed, compress around the ear; most often for compresses use such means as sunflower oil, camphor oil, vodka, alcohol, half diluted with water; make warming compresses 2 times a day: 1 times a day on, -2 h. and for the whole night; if the child has increased body temperature, compresses in no case can not be done, otherwise the body temperature will rise;
- close the child with a dry ear with dry cotton wool; until the doctor says that the recovery has come, the ear of the baby should be permanently closed; cotton wool is fixed on the ear with a handkerchief or cap.
Folk remedies for the treatment of otitis in childrenIt is necessary to warn that methods and means recommended by traditional medicine are used as a supplement to the basic treatment that the JIOP doctor will assign to the child.
Below are listed the best folk remedies for treatment of otitis in children at home:
- alternating with other means, bury in a sick ear a warm infusion of chamomile flowers; Preparation of the infusion: 1 teaspoonful dry flowers in a preheated cookware, pour a glass of boiling water and press under the lid for about 15 minutes. strain;
- when folk treatment of otitis in children should be put twice a day in the external auditory canal gauze turuns (fitilechki), impregnated with warm walnut oil, for 2-3 hours;
- Propolis oil can be used as an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic; to put with it 2 times a day for 2-3 hours. in a sick ear gauze turundas;
- there is more grapes; preferably - sweet varieties; grapes for the body - an excellent source of energy, very necessary for fighting the disease;
- cleaning the external auditory canal from the pus, moisten the cotton swab with fresh juicy lemon juice (bear onions);
- an effective folk remedy for otitis in children is mixed in equal quantities fresh juice of onions and flaxseed oil; moistened with this mixture gauze turunda, you need to put the latter in the outer ear canal for -2 hours; alternate with others means.
Symptoms and treatment of otitis in adults
- Ear anatomy
- Causes of otitis media
- Pathogens of the disease
- The clinical picture is the symptoms of otitis
- General principles of diagnosis
- Treatment of external otitis media
- Treatment of otitis media and labyrinthitis in adults
- Prevention of otitis
Otitis is an ear inflammation, a general term for any infectious processes in the hearing organ. Depending on the affected area of the ear, the outer, middle and inner otitis (labyrinthitis) are secreted. Otitis occurs frequently. Ten per cent of the world's population suffered from external otitis during their lifetime.
Annually in the world 709 million new cases of acute otitis media are registered. More than half of these episodes occur in children under 5 years of age, but adults also suffer from inflammation of the middle ear. Labyrinthitis, as a rule, is a complication of otitis media and is relatively rare.
For a better understanding of the subject, it is necessary to briefly recall the anatomy of the organ of hearing.
The components of the outer ear are the auricle and auditory canal. The role of the external ear is to trap the sound wave and carry it to the eardrum.
The middle ear is the tympanic membrane, the drum cavity containing the chain of auditory ossicles, and the auditory tube.
In the tympanic cavity, there is an increase in the sound vibrations, after which the sound wave follows the inner ear. The function of the auditory tube connecting the nasopharynx and the middle ear is the ventilation of the tympanum.
The inner ear contains the so-called "cochlea" - a complex sensory organ in which sound vibrations are converted into an electrical signal. An electrical impulse follows the auditory nerve into the brain, carrying coded information about the sound.
External otitis media
Otitis externa is an inflammation of the auditory canal. It can be diffuse, and can proceed in the form of a furuncle. When diffuse external otitis affects the skin of the entire ear canal. Furuncle is a limited inflammation of the skin of the external ear.
Average otitis media
With an average otitis inflammation occurs in the tympanum. There are many forms and variants of the course of this disease. It can be catarrhal and purulent, perforative and non-perforative, acute and chronic. When otitis can develop complications.
The most common complications of otitis media include mastoiditis (inflammation of the occipital bone of the temporal bone), meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes), abscess (abscess) of the brain, labyrinthitis.
Internal otitis almost never is an independent disease. Almost always it is a complication of the inflammation of the middle ear. Unlike other types of otitis, its main symptom is not pain, but hearing loss and dizziness.
Causes of otitis media
- After getting contaminated water - most often the external otitis occurs after the ingestion of water containing the causative agent of the disease into the ear. That is why the second name of this disease is "swimmer's ear".
- Injury of the skin of the external auditory canal - in addition to the presence of infection in the water, there must also be local conditions predisposing to the development of inflammation: microcracks of the skin, etc. Otherwise, each of our contact with unboiled water would result in the development of inflammation in ear.
- Complication of SARS, sinusitis - in this case, the causative agent of middle otitis penetrates into the tympanum completely from the other side, the so-called rhinotubar path, that is, through the auditory tube. Usually, the infection gets into the ear from the nose, when a person is sick with ARVI, runny nose or sinusitis. In case of a serious inflammation of the middle ear, the infection can spread to the inner ear.
- With infectious diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypothermia against a background of reduced immunity, the risk of inflammation in the middle ear increases. Bruising through 2 nostrils (wrong), coughing and sneezing increase the pressure in the nasopharynx, which leads to the ingress of infected mucus into the middle ear cavity.
- Mechanical removal of earwax - it is a protective barrier against infections.
- High air temperature and high humidity.
- Contact with foreign objects in the ear.
- Use of hearing aids.
- Such diseases as seborrheic dermatitis on the face, eczema, psoriasis.
- The causes of development of acute otitis media are also genetic location, immunodeficiency states, HIV infection.
Pathogens of the disease
Pathogens of external otitis can be bacteria or fungi. Especially often found in the ear canal are microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. For the fungi of the genus Candida and Aspergillus, the skin of the ear canal is one of the favorite places in the body: it's dark, and after bathing it's still wet.
The causative agents of otitis media, and therefore internal, can be viruses and bacteria. Fungal infection of the middle ear is also found, but much less often than the external one. The most common bacterial pathogens of otitis media are pneumococcus, hemophilic rod, moraxella.
The clinical picture is the symptoms of otitis
- Pain is the main symptom of otitis media. The intensity of pain can be different:
- from barely perceptible to unbearable
- character - pulsing, shooting
It is very difficult, it is often impossible to independently distinguish painful sensations with external otitis from painful sensations with inflammation of the middle ear. The only clue can be the fact that with external otitis pain should be felt when touching the skin at the entrance to the ear canal.
- Hearing loss is a fickle symptom. It can be present with both external otitis media, and with an average, may be absent in both these forms of ear inflammation.
- Increase in temperature - most often there is an increase in body temperature, however, this is also an optional feature.
- Discharge from the ear with external otitis occur almost always. After all, nothing prevents the inflammatory fluid from escaping outward.
With the average otitis, if the perforation (hole) is not formed in the tympanic membrane, there is no secretion of their ear. The suppuration from the ear canal begins after the appearance of a communication between the middle ear and the auditory meatus.
I emphasize that perforation can not be formed even with purulent otitis. Patients suffering from otitis media often ask where pus will go if it does not break out. It's very simple - he will go out through the auditory tube.
- Ear noise (see Fig. causes of noise in the ears), ear congestion is possible with any form of the disease.
- When the inflammation of the inner ear develops, dizziness (causes) may appear.
Acute otitis media occurs in 3 stages:
Acute catarrhal otitis - the patient experiences severe pain, worse by night, with coughing, sneezing, she can give in temple, teeth, be stabbing, pulsating, drilling, hearing loss, appetite, weakness and high fever 39C.
Acute purulent otitis - there is accumulation of pus in the middle ear cavity, followed by perforation and suppuration, which may be on day 2-3 of the disease. In this period, the temperature drops, the pain decreases, the doctor can make a small puncture (paracentesis), if there is no independent rupture of the tympanic membrane.
Restorative stage - suppuration stops, the defect of the tympanic membrane closes (fusion of the edges), the hearing is restored within 2-3 weeks.
General principles of diagnosis
In most cases, the diagnosis of acute otitis media does not cause difficulties. High-tech methods of research are needed infrequently, the ear is well visible to the eye. The doctor examines the tympanic membrane with a head reflector (a mirror with a hole in the middle) through the ear funnel or a special optical device - the otoscope.
An interesting device for the diagnosis of otitis was developed by the famous corporation Apple. It is an oscopic attachment for the camera phone. It is assumed that with the help of this gadget, parents will be able to photograph the baby's eardrum (or their own) and send photos for consultation to their doctor.
Diagnosis of external otitis media
Examining the ear of a patient suffering from external otitis, the doctor sees redness of the skin, narrowing of the auditory canal and the presence of liquid secretions in its lumen. The degree of narrowing of the ear canal is such that the tympanic membrane is not visible at all. When inflammation of the external ear of other examinations except for the inspection is usually not necessary.
Diagnosis of otitis media and labyrinthitis
In acute inflammation of the middle ear, the main way to establish a diagnosis is also an examination. The main signs that allow diagnosing "acute otitis media" are reddening of the tympanic membrane, limitation of its mobility, and the presence of perforation.
- How is the mobility of the tympanic membrane checked?
People are asked to inflate their cheeks without opening their mouths, that is, "blowing their ears". This reception is called the maneuver of Valsalva, named after the Italian anatomist, who lived at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. It is widely used by divers and divers to equalize the pressure in the drum cavity in deep water descent.
When a jet of air enters the middle ear cavity, the eardrum moves slightly and this is noticeable with the eye. If the drum cavity is filled with inflammatory fluid, no air will enter it and the eardrum will not move. After the appearance of suppuration from the ear, the doctor can observe the presence of perforation in the tympanic membrane.
Sometimes to determine the nature of the disease may need audiometry (hearing on the apparatus) or tympanometry (measurement of pressure inside the ear). However, these methods of hearing tests are more often used in chronic otitis media.
The diagnosis of the labyrinthitis is usually made when the acuteness of the middle otitis suddenly sharply decreases acuteness of the hearing and dizziness appears. Audiometry in this situation is mandatory. You also need an examination of a neurologist and an oculist.
- CT and X-ray
The need for X-ray studies occurs when there is a suspicion of complications of the disease - mastoiditis or intracranial infection. Fortunately, such cases are rare. In a situation where complications are suspected, a computer tomography of the temporal bones and brain is usually performed.
- Bacterial sowing
Do I need a smear to determine the bacterial flora? A unequivocal answer to this question is not easy. The problem is that, due to the peculiarities of bacterial culture, the response of this examination will be received 6-7 days after the removal of the smear, that is, by the time when the otitis is almost gone. Moreover, with a medium otitis without a perforation, a smear is useless, since the microbes are behind the tympanic membrane.
And yet a smear is better to do. In the event that the application of the first-line drug does not bring recovery, after receiving the results of a bacterial study, treatment can be adjusted.
Treatment of external otitis media
The main treatment for external otitis media in adults is ear drops. If a person does not have immunodeficiency (HIV infection, diabetes mellitus), antibiotics in tablets are usually not needed.
Ear drops can contain only an antibacterial drug or be combined - have an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory substance. The course of treatment takes 5-7 days. Most often for the therapy of external otitis media apply:
- Ciprofarm (Ukraine, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride)
- Normax (100-140 rubles, norfloxacin)
- Otofa (170-220 rubles, rifamycin)
Corticosteroids + antibiotics:
- Sophradex (170-220 rub., Dexamethasone, Framicetin, gramicidin)
- Candybiotic (210-280 rub., Beclomethasone, lidocaine, clotrimazole, Chloramphenicol)
- Miramistin (250-280 rubles, with a nebulizer)
The last two drugs also have antifungal properties. If the external otitis has a fungal origin, antifungal ointments are actively used: clotrimazole (Candide), natamycin (Pimafucin, Pimafucort).
In addition to ear drops, the doctor can recommend an ointment with the active substance Mupirocin (Bactroban 500-600 rub, Supirocin 300 rubles) for the treatment of external otitis media. It is important that the drug does not have a negative effect on the normal skin microflora, and there are data on the activity of mupirocin against fungi.
Treatment of otitis media and labyrinthitis in adults
The main treatment for middle otitis media is an antibiotic. However, the treatment of otitis antibiotics in adults is another controversial issue of modern medicine. The fact is that with this disease is very high percentage of self-recovery - more than 90%.
There was a period of time in the late 20th century, when on a wave of enthusiasm antibiotics were prescribed to almost all patients with otitis. However, it is now considered permissible the first two days after the onset of pain to dispense with antibiotics. If after two days there is no tendency to improve, then an antibacterial drug is already prescribed. For all types of otitis media may be required for oral administration.
In this case, of course, the patient must be under medical supervision. The decision on the need for antibiotics is very responsible and should only be taken by a doctor. On the scales on the one hand, the possible side effects of antibiotic therapy, on the other - the fact that every year in the world of complications of otitis deaths of 28 thousand people.
The main antibiotics, which are used in the treatment of otitis media in adults:
- Amoxicillin - Ospamox, Flemoxin, Amosin, Ecobol, Flemoxin solute
- Aamoxicillin with clavulanic acid - Augmentin, Flemoclav, Ecoclav
- Cefuroxime - Zinnat, Aksetin, Zinacef, Cefurus and other drugs.
The course of antibiotic therapy should be 7-10 days.
Ear drops are also widely prescribed for inflammation of the middle ear. It is important to remember that there is a fundamental difference between drops, which are prescribed before the perforation of the tympanic membrane and after its appearance. Let me remind you, the sign of perforation is the appearance of suppuration.
Before the appearance of perforation, droplets with an analgesic effect are prescribed. These include drugs such as:
- Otinum - (150-190 rub) - choline salicylate
- Otipaks (220 rubles), Otirelaks (140 rubles) - lidocaine and phenazone
- Otizol - phenazone, benzocaine, phenylephrine hydrochloride
Drops with an antibiotic does not make any sense to dig in this phase, as the inflammation goes behind the impenetrable eardrum for them.
After the appearance of the perforation, the pain passes and it is no longer possible to drip painkillers, as they can damage the sensitive cells of the cochlea. When a perforation occurs, access for drops inside the middle ear appears, so you can instill drops containing an antibiotic. However, ototoxic antibiotics (gentamicin, Framicetinum, Neomycin, Polymyxin B), preparations containing phenazone, alcohols or choline salicylate can not be used.
Drops with an antibiotic, the use of which is acceptable in the treatment of otitis in adults: "Tsiprofarm "Normaks "Otofa "Miramistin" and others.
Paracentesis or tympanotomy
In some situations with inflammation of the middle ear may need a small surgical intervention - paracentesis (or tympanotomy) of the tympanic membrane. It is believed that the need for paracentesis arises, if the background of antibiotic therapy for three days, the pain still continues to bother the person. Paracentesis is performed under local anesthesia: a special incision in the tympanic membrane makes a small incision through which pus begins to exit. This incision is beautifully overgrown after the cessation of suppuration.
Treatment of labyrinthitis is a complex medical problem and is conducted in a hospital under the control of an ENT doctor and neurologist. In addition to antibiotic therapy, funds are needed to improve microcirculation inside the cochlea, neuroprotective drugs (protecting the nervous tissue from damage).
Prevention of otitis
Preventive measures for external otitis are the thorough drying of the ear canal after bathing. Also, avoid traumatizing the ear canal - do not use keys and pins as an ear instrument.
For people who often suffer from inflammation of the external ear, there are drops based on olive oil, which protect the skin when swimming in a pond, for example, "Vaxol".
Prevention of otitis media consists of general strengthening measures - hardening, vitamin therapy, administration of immunomodulators (drugs that improve immunity). It is also important to treat diseases of the nose in a timely manner, which are the main causative factor in inflammation of the middle ear.
Otitis of the ear: types of otitis and causes of development
- Otitis in children
- Otitis in adults
Ear Otitis is an ENT disease of the hearing organ, characterized by an inflammation of one of the ear sections connected together.
The reasons for the development of otitis media can be very different, ranging from mechanical damage and improper personal hygiene, to serious complications arising from acute respiratory infections, influenza and colds.
Few people know, but even a common runny nose in neglected form can become the beginning not only of maxillary sinusitis, but also of otitis media.
Let us consider in more detail what otitis media are and what types of this disease are encountered.
The structure of the human ear is divided into three interconnected parts, which bear the following names:
- external ear;
- middle ear;
- inner ear.
Depending on the specific part of the body the inflammatory process is taking place, in medicine it is customary to distinguish three types of otitis:
Ear canitis: symptoms of the disease in childrenOtitis in children (see the photo on the left) occurs much more often than otitis in adults whose symptoms are identical. First of all, this is due to the not fully developed structure of individual tissues and parts of the hearing organ.
Also, the symptoms of otitis media (also called inflammation of the middle ear) are observed in children with reduced immunity or due to complications of viral, colds, flu.
As already noted above, the disease is divided into three types. For each type of otitis, adults and children have their own symptoms and signs.
Whenexternal otitis media, the causes of which are often violations of the rules of personal hygiene of the child, microtrauma of the shell of the ear, internal boils, observed:
- elevated body temperature (up to 39 ° C);
- the child's refusal to eat;
- capriciousness and irritability;
- poor sleep;
- unreasonable crying;
- puffiness and redness of the auricle;
- the appearance of small bubbles on the skin around the ear;
- pain in ear is constant or when touching;
- an increase in parotid lymph nodes.
MedicationAmoxicillin Otipax Ceftriaxone Azithromycin Dioxydin Protargol Polidexa Dimexide Levomecol Flemoxin Solutab Sumamed Otofa Miramistin Otipax
Whenaverage otitis, which most often occurs against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, as well as in children with low immunity, the following symptomatic pattern is observed:
- continuous crying;
- lack of sleep;
- the child's desire to rub or scratch his ear (rub on the pillow);
- refusal of food;
- painful reaction when pressing on the tragus (outer cartilage of the auricle);
- elevated temperature;
- purulent discharge from the ear, possibly with an admixture of blood (with a purulent form of acute otitis media).
Wheninternal otitis, manifested much less frequently than the two previous forms, but it is much more dangerous than them as a result complications of otitis media or against the background of a general serious infectious disease are characterized by the following symptoms:
- elevated temperature;
- noise in ears;
- loss of balance;
- hearing loss.
Diagnosis of the symptoms of the disease will be helped by the characteristic symptoms of otitis of the ear, but this does not give the right to self-medicate. At the first manifestations of inflammation of the middle ear, it is necessary to seek help from an otolaryngologist, who, based on a real clinical picture, will prescribe the right treatment.
Symptoms of a cold in the ear in adults
Unlike children, otic otitis, the symptoms of which are known to many of us since childhood, in adulthood happen much less often and is mainly the result of hypothermia, violations of personal hygiene and complications after a viral cold diseases.
Species of otitisMiddle ear External Sharp Bilateral Allergic Outward diffuse Perforating Inside Child Eustachyte
It is much easier to diagnose an individual's disease in an adult than a child in the first place, because he can describe in detail the whole picture, including the power of pain in the ears. This will help determine the severity of the disease.
However, only the doctor can make a final verdict and prescribe the appropriate treatment for otitis media of the middle ear, after having undergone proper examination with the help of special ENT instruments.
Characterize the adult otitis as a cold of the ear, its symptoms are similar to children's:
- congestion of the ears and hearing loss;
- acute or aching pain in the ears;
- elevated temperature (not mandatory);
- headaches and dizziness;
- pains that give to the neck, teeth, whiskey, forehead;
- weakness and general malaise;
- nausea and vomiting.
In order to avoid the occurrence of such diseases of the ear, proper preventive maintenance should be carried out, and then the pain in the ears will not bother you or your children.
How and how to treat otitis media - doctor's prescriptions and recipes of folk medicine
How to treat an otitis of an ear the doctor the otolaryngologist defines, having established a kind and a degree of disease.
Treatment of otitis mediaTreatment of otitis externa Treatment of otitis media of the middle ear Treatment of purulent otitis Ear drops Ear pills Antibiotics Ear wax Ear candles In adults In children In pregnant women
In any case, first of all, drug therapy is aimed at the destruction of bacteria that contribute to the development of otitis media. It is done with the help of antibiotics, and selected such drugs that can not only to eliminate the bacterial damage of the body, but also easily penetrate into the ear drum cavity to the hearth disease.
The most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of otitis media- Tsifran, Flemoklav, Solyutab.As a local treatment, special ear drops-antiseptics are used, most often in the ENT practice, the old-fashioned method uses a solution of boric acid.
However, there are a number of other similar drugs of a new generation that can easily cope with infections.
In addition, such drops often include anesthesia, which helps to significantly reduce and eliminate pain.
Some of the best ear drops from otitis are Sophradex, Otipax, Otinum, Garazon.
In combination with ear drops in otitis, otolaryngologists often prescribe vasoconstrictive drops in the nose (Naphthyzine, Nazol, Galazolin, Otrivin and etc.), thanks to which it is possible to remove swelling of the mucous membrane of the Eustachian tube and thereby reduce the load on the eardrum.
In addition to drops in the nose in the complex can be appointed and antihistamines (antiallergic) funds, pursuing the same goal - removing the edema of the mucosa. These can be tablets of Suprastin, Diazolinum, Loratadina, etc.
If there is an increased body temperature, which often causes otitis media, mandatory prescribed antipyretic drugs, which are also able to partially relieve or reduce pain in the ears. The most safe and effective remedy for temperature is Paracetamol.
All of the above drugs used to treat otitis media can not be regarded as a guide to action. The question, than to treat an ear otitis independently, should not stand at all. Treatment of this disease, like most other things, can only take place under the guidance of a qualified doctor.
With a timely visit to the otolaryngologist and the exact observance of all prescriptions, the ear otitis passes quickly enough without leaving any consequences.
How to treat otitis with folk remedies
In addition to drug therapy, there are many ways of alternative treatment of otitis media. I must say that such methods are acceptable for use and are mostly of an auxiliary nature. However, it should not be forgotten that people's prescriptions can be used only after consulting a doctor and in no case should they self-medicate to avoid complications and irreversible consequences.
Folk remediesTreatment with folk remedies Home treatment Camphor alcohol Geranium Hydrogen peroxide Tincture of propolis Tincture Calendula Furacil Alcohol Washing the Ear Aloe Boric Acid Warming Up the Compress on the Ear Blowing the Hearing Pipes
Depending on the form and degree of the disease, otitis symptoms are accompanied by different symptoms, on the basis of which various recipes of folk medicine are applied.
Recipe number 1.For example, to reduce tinnitus and prevent the development of otitis, it is recommended to chew buds of fragrant cloves or cook on based on the broth, observing the proportions of 15 grams of cloves 100 grams of hot water and take it on a teaspoon 2-3 times throughout day.
Recipe number 2.With hearing loss after otitis, it is recommended to brew and drink tea from rose petals (red) for two weeks, which will help restore hearing in a short time.
Recipe number 3.To cure otitis externa, one should take the root of elecampane, incinerate it on fire, and then grind it in a coffee grinder and mix it with a small amount of lamb fat. Lubricate the prepared earwax with otitis shell to complete recovery.
Recipe number 4.To reduce the symptoms of acute otitis will help tincture of nightshade sweet and bitter. To make it, you need to take 2 tablespoons of chopped grass and pour 100 grams of vodka. Insist for a week, then inject into your ear soaked in a means of cotton turuns 2-3 times a day.
You can also cook the infusion. To do this, pour a tablespoon of herbs with a glass of boiling water. Insist for an hour and apply as in the case of tincture, in the form of embedded turundas.
Recipe number 5.To reduce severe pain in the ears with otitis will help glycerin with alcohol. It is necessary to combine the two ingredients in equal proportions (:), moisten the turunda in this mixture and lay it in the diseased ear.
The recipe number 6.When asked how and how to treat ear inflammation, many will give an unambiguous answer - dry heat.
This is really an effective method for acute otitis, which is widely used in medicine (blue lamp, UHF).
It can also be used in the home if the ear is inflamed. To do this, take ordinary table salt, heat it in a clean dry frying pan and fill it in a linen bag.
Through an additional folded in several times the tissue, the patient's ear should be heated for 30 minutes.
It is important to know
You can not heat your ears with the help of dry heat at an elevated body temperature and purulent secretions from the auricles..
How to treat otitis in adults: the main symptoms and diagnosisDespite the fact that the inflammation of the hearing organs of an adult person is much less common than that of children, the question "how to treat otitis in adults" remains quite relevant and in demand.
There are many prerequisites for the development of the disease in adults, as well as in the case of sinusitis.
Even an elementary cold or hypothermia can turn into a serious form of otitis.
In addition, inflammation of the outer, middle or inner ear can be affected by the following factors:
- viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract;
- viral diseases of the nasopharynx;
- neglected forms of the common cold;
- adenoids in the nasopharynx arch;
- violation of the rules of ear hygiene.
Depending on the infection of certain departments of the ear, otitis in adults and children is divided into three types:
- External otitis media: most often the cause of its occurrence is the accumulation of water in the ear canal, this form of the disease is often called "swimmer's ear."
- Average otitis media: mainly develops as a complication of the upper respiratory tract, this form is commonly referred to in the everyday life as "otitis."
- Internal otitis media: develops mainly on the background of neglected purulent inflammation, as well as infections.
In order to determine how to treat otitis in adults, it is necessary first to study the clinical picture, compare it with the characteristic symptoms of the disease, and also carry out a diagnosis.
The main symptoms of otitis in an adult are:
- feeling of stuffiness and noise in the ears;
- acute or aching pain in the ears;
- a sharp increase in temperature;
- partial hearing loss;
- general weakness and malaise;
- lack of appetite;
- sleep disturbance;
- purulent discharge, possibly with an admixture of blood from the auditory canal.
It is important to know
Even the presence of the above symptoms does not give the right to engage in self-treatment, for the full diagnosis of the disease is necessary in urgent the order will seek help from an otolaryngologist who, with the help of special ENT equipment, will establish a definitive diagnosis and prescribe a course treatment.
For the diagnosis of otitis, the doctor usually uses an overhead reflector in tandem with an ear funnel or a modern optical device called an otoscope. In most cases, the examination of the ear does not cause any difficulties, in the first place the eardrum, ear canal and auricle are subject to examination.
Thus, in the diagnosis of external otitis, redness of the skin in the ear, narrowing of the auditory passage, and the possible presence of fluid in the lumen is observed. In this case, the auditory canal can be narrowed so much that through it it is simply impossible to examine the eardrum.
On average, any inflammatory process in the ear (otitis) lasts up to two weeks, during this time In no case should the treatment process be stopped, even if a significant improvement. Otherwise, serious complications and the formation of chronic forms may occur.
How many otitis media are treated in adults with basic medicationRegardless of the nature of otitis, viral or bacterial, it must necessarily be treated. Passage of the disease itself can in rare cases, but it is quite likely that it will develop into chronic forms and complications with serious consequences. It is from the course of the prescribed therapy and it depends how much otitis is treated in adults in time.
One of the main means for treating the disease are ear drops in otitis.
They can be exclusively antibacterial or combined and consist of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory components. The course of treatment with such drops is 5-7 days, depending on the clinic of the disease.
Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of otitis media in adults, especially acute and purulent forms. The course of their treatment is 7-10 days, depending on the drug and the degree of complexity of the disease. In this case, treatment of otitis in adults and children at home by folk remedies is undesirable.
It is important to know
Take antibiotics should be exclusively after the appointment of a doctor strictly according to the scheme of the entire course. Even if after a few days of taking the symptoms of the disease significantly reduced or even disappear some of them, to stop treatment of purulent otitis with antibiotics to adults and children is prohibited in order to avoid complications and repeated exacerbation disease.Anesthetic for otitis in adults is another type of medication used to relieve the condition of particularly acute forms with pronounced pain.
Such treatment should be carried out necessarily under the supervision of the attending physician, not to cause allergic reactions and side effects.
Anesthesia therapy for otitis symptoms does not have a definite course of action and is used whenever necessary in each case.
In some cases, otitis media of the middle ear requires little surgical intervention. This procedure is called paracentesis or tympanotomy of the tympanic membrane. Usually it is performed when there is no improvement after antibiotic therapy during the first three days. The essence of it is to perform under the influence of local anesthesia in the tympanic membrane of a small incision, through which the pus accumulated in the ear can freely flow. After the cessation of discharge, the incision successfully heals and traces completely.
If there is no temperature in the otitis and there is no purulent discharge, often doctors recommend using dry heat - this can be folk methods of warming up at home or physical therapy.
Proceeding from the above described factors, it becomes quite obvious that it is impossible to give an unambiguous and precise answer to the question of how long otitis in adults lasts and how many days it needs to be treated.
The process of treatment and recovery depends on many factors, from the form of the disease, its clinical picture, ending with properly appointed therapy, created conditions for the patient, not to mention the individuality of each individual human organism. One thing is obvious - the duration of the disease can be significantly reduced with timely treatment to the otolaryngologist and strict observance of all his prescriptions..
Is otitisperous? What is the risk of chronic otitis media? And what can be the consequences if it is not treated?
Few have never had ears hurt, even in childhood. Pain in the ears can sometimes be no less intolerable than dental. In addition, the ears are located near the brain, and therefore, it can also be involved in the process. Therefore, the inflammation of the ear should be treated carefully and under the supervision of the doctor, in order to avoid big troubles in the future.
The problem of chronic otitis media today is relevant because of the very high prevalence of this disease. Here are the figures given by the surdologist of the surdophoniatric department for adults at the Otolaryngology Scientific and Technical Center "Ivan Gornostay: in the Republic of Belarus in 2008, there were 209 cases of chronic otitis media per 100 000 population, of which 4 cases were registered first. Chronic otitis media lead to temporary and sometimes permanent disability and occupy the second place in the structure of otolaryngological morbidity.
Chronic median otitis media are the main cause of hearing loss, in which people find it difficult to contact, their professional activities are limited.
The average acute otitis often occurs against the background of respiratory viral infections and is therefore more common in autumn, winter and spring. The average acute otitis can go to the chronic stage because of prolonged inflammation of the middle ear.
The disease begins suddenly with a general malaise (chills, fever) and with severe pain in the ear. There is a headache, when you touch the nipple after the ear, pain is felt, on the 4th-5th day the tympanic membrane breaks out - pus comes out of the ear.
Chronic otitis media is very dangerous for its complications. It can cause such serious complications as brain abscess, meningitis, sepsis. Mortality with such pathologies is from 14 to 30%.
To the doctor it is necessary to address on the first day of an acute ear disease. In the subsequent treatment is recommended complete rest and bed rest.
Prevention of chronic otitis should be conducted from the day of birth. Of great importance is the proper breastfeeding and the timely adjusted diet of the child in the future. As a rule, children who grew up on natural breastfeeding, and then had an appropriate diet, used rich in vitamins, less respiratory-viral diseases, contributing to the emergence of acute inflammation of the middle ear.
Immunity to colds contributes to hardening. When it is recommended cold baths, cool wipes, physical education and sports, a long stay in the fresh air.
Adenotonzillar pathology, the curvature of the septum of the nose, hypertrophy of nasal concha, and vasomotor rhinitis play an important role in the development of chronic otitis media. Therefore, conservative and surgical methods of treatment aimed at sanitation of chronic and pathological conditions of pharynx, nose and nasopharynx are an effective means of prevention. Prevent recurrent disease with acute otitis media will help timely removal of adenoids, subnea tonsils or planned systematic conservative treatment of this pathology. And in many cases, such activities will lead to a complete cure for the inflammatory process in the middle ear.
After suffering acute inflammation of the middle ear with the presence of perforation (opening) in the tympanic membrane, you should not allow water to enter the auditory canal. If you wash your hair or take a shower, then a cotton swab impregnated with petroleum jelly must be put in the ear canal. Perforation, long lasting after acute otitis media, must be surgically treated in specialized departments of hospitals.
You can be deaf.
Otitis can cause loss of hearing or partial loss. .
consequences in not treatment in any case will be
Dangerous development of deafness. Chronic complications (near the brain).
destroys the vestibular apparatus
Medical review: how to treat otitis media
Otitis is an inflammatory disease of the hearing aid. In terms of prevalence, it occupies one of the leading places among inflammatory processes. More than 70% of cases occur in children under the age of 3-5 years. According to statistics, almost every child has had an inflammation of the middle ear at least once in his life. The cure in most cases is 100%. Complications with timely access to the doctor is practically not observed.
What is otitis?
According to the rate of development of the inflammatory process, the disease is divided into acute and chronic; the nature separable - on purulent and catarrhal; at the place of origin - on the outer, middle and inner otitis (labyrinthite).
Stages of the disease
In most cases, the course of the disease is characterized by the following stages:
- feeling of stuffiness in the ear, noise phenomena;
- the emergence of a sharp but tolerable pain syndrome, a slight increase in temperature;
- unbearable pain, giving to neighboring areas of face and teeth, a significant increase in temperature, hearing loss;
- gradual reduction of pain, discharge of discharge, decrease in temperature to normal, weakening of hearing;
- cessation of the inflammatory process and scarring.
What is the risk of otitis?
In case of insufficient or incorrect treatment of the disease, the following phenomena are possible:
- transition of the disease to a chronic stage;
- the appearance of scars that significantly impair hearing;
- wave hearing loss;
- the emergence of purulent processes in neighboring regions;
- vein thrombosis;
- the occurrence of meningitis and brain abscess;
- sepsis (decay processes spread throughout the body).
How to treat otitis media
Drug treatment is used only in cases of the threat of complications, or in cases of medium and high severity. Antibacterial therapy and washing of the ear with antiseptic solutions are widely used in such cases. With significant pain, an anabolic is prescribed. For mild forms of otitis, physiotherapy (local and general warming up), antipyretic drugs and ear drops are often used.
How to treat otitis folk ways
Never forget that the treatment of any disease by traditional methods is possible only after consulting a doctor and a detailed discussion of the recipe itself. Below are a few of the most common recipes of traditional medicine.
- Improve general condition will help ordinary sunflower oil, previously boiled in a water bath. The resulting mass must be cooled to room temperature and lubricated with sick ears several times a day with a cotton swab.
- To reduce the pain with inflammation will help cotton wool soaked in the juice of geranium. The procedure must be performed several times, after which the disease often disappears completely.
- Propolis will save yourself from illness. It contains many useful substances that can not only prevent the disease itself, but also cure a person of otitis. To do this, you need to chew propolis 2 grams 3 times a day and add it to food (in powder form). It is also possible to bury for the night the alcohol tincture of propolis in the diseased ear.
How is otitis treated in medical institutions?
Treatment of the disease is complex, conservative and in most cases is outpatient. Hospitalizations are exposed only in severe cases. In case of complications and excessive accumulation of pus, a puncture of the tympanic membrane is carried out followed by pumping out the exudate.
Prevention of otitis
To protect yourself from the search for an answer to the question "how to treat otitis, you need to pay due attention to prevention. First of all, it reduces to reducing the risk of getting colds and protecting the ears from the effects of cold air in the winter season. Children are categorically contraindicated to enter into any contact with sick people.
Contrary to popular belief that any disease should be treated in medical institutions, you can treat otitis at home, and without any fear of complications. Especially if we take into account the fact that in the overwhelming majority of cases the patient's hospitalization is not required. But do not forget about one of the most important points: if there is an otitis of the ears, how to treat and what procedures to use, only the corresponding specialist (otolaryngologist) can tell. The same applies to non-emergency situations that may occur at any stage of treatment.