Infarction of the brain - what is it and how dangerous, how to identify and cure in a short time

The human brain is a truly unique organ. All life processes are controlled by them.

But, unfortunately, the brain is very vulnerable to all kinds of damage and even seemingly insignificant changes in its work can lead to serious and irreversible consequences.

Let's talk about a cerebral infarction - what is it and how is ischemic stroke manifested.

Content

  • 1 Description
  • 2 prevalence
  • 3 Classification and differences
    • 3.1 atherothrombotic
    • 3.2 Kardioembolitichesky
    • 3.3 Hemodynamic
    • 3.4 lacunarity
    • 3.5 gemoreologicheskih
  • 4 Stage
  • 5 reasons
  • 6 danger and consequences
  • 7 Symptoms and signs
  • 8 How is
  • 9 diagnostics First Aid
  • 10 Tactics of treatment
  • 11 What is the prognosis?

Description


The human brain consists of highly specific tissue, which has a constant need for a large amount of oxygen , the lack of which causes negative changes.

Infarction of the brain( or ischemic stroke) is called ischemic lesions of the areas of the brain substance, which subsequently arise circulatory disorders. There is also a hemorrhagic cerebral infarction, but we'll talk about it in another article.

Gray matter is the most sensitive to oxygen starvation, the cells of the cerebral cortex that it forms, just a few minutes after the onset of hypoxia die off.

Prevalence of

Ischemic cerebral infarction is one of the most common diseases in the world .At the age of 40, it is rare, with an average of 100 people it happens 4 times. After 40 this figure substantially increases and is already 15 percent of the population.

People who have crossed the fifth decade, even more often suffer from the consequences of this disease - 30%.After 60 years, a brain infarction happens in 50% of people.

Classification and differences

Depending on the causes that led to a cerebral infarction, specialists decided to distinguish several of its forms:

  • Atherombotic;
  • Cardioembolic;
  • Hemodynamic;
  • Lacunar;
  • Hemorheological.

Consider each of the varieties.

Atherothrombotic

Atherothrombotic form of ischemic stroke develops with atherosclerosis of of large or middle cerebral arteries .

If the vascular lumen is closed by an atherosclerotic plaque that forms a thrombus, the risk of developing a condition such as aorto-arterial embolism increases.

For this form of cerebral infarction is characterized by the phased development of .Symptomatic disease slowly but surely increases. Since the onset of the development of the disease before the onset of manifestation of pronounced symptoms, many days can pass.

Cardioembolic

This form of stroke occurs against the background of partial or complete clogging of thrombus arteries .Often such a situation occurs with a number of heart lesions that occur when the blood clots form in the heart cavity.

Unlike the previous form, the cerebral infarction caused by thrombosis of the cerebral arteries, occurs unexpectedly , when the patient is awake.

The most typical zone of damage of this type of disease is the area of ​​blood supply to the middle artery of the brain.

Hemodynamic

Happens against a background of a sharp drop in pressure or as a consequence of a sudden decrease in the minute volume of the heart cavities of the .The onset of hemodynamic stroke can begin both dramatically and incrementally.

Physical activity does not affect the origin of this form of infarction: at the time of an attack the patient can both relax physically and actively move.

Lacunar

Occurs if lesions are present in the median perforating arteries .It is believed that lacunar stroke often occurs at high arterial pressure of the patient.

Foci of lesions are localized primarily to in the subcortical structures of the of the brain.

Hemorheological

This form of stroke develops against a background of changes in normal blood flow characteristics.

Depending on the severity of the patient's condition, the stroke is classified into three degrees:

  • is mild;
  • average;
  • is heavy.

Also infarctions are divided into classification according to the area of ​​localization of the affected area .The patient may have lesions:

  • in the inner carotid artery;
  • in the main artery, as well as in various vertebrates and their outlying branches;
  • in the arterial region of the brain: anterior, middle or posterior.
This is how the brain looks after a heart attack

Stage

Official medicine distinguishes 4 stages of the disease.

The first stage is the acute course of the disease. The acute phase of a stroke lasts three weeks from the time of the stroke. Fresh necrotic changes in the brain form the first five days after the attack.

The first stage is the most acute of all existing ones. During this period the cytoplasm and karyoplasm wrinkle, symptoms of perifocal edema are noted.

The second stage is the period of early recovery. The duration of this phase is up to six months, during which pannicrosis changes occur in the cells.

Often there is a recurrent neurological deficit process. Near the place of localization of the affected foci, blood circulation begins to improve.

The third stage is the period of late recovery. Lasts from half a year to a year after a cerebral infarction. During this time in the brain of the patient develop glial scars or various kinds of cystic defects.

The fourth stage is the period of residual manifestations of the infarction. Begins 12 months after the stroke and can continue until the end of the patient's life.

Reasons for

In fact, the reasons for which this or that form of a cerebral infarction develops, are more the consequences of various pathological conditions of the human body.

But among the main causes of stroke are allocated :

  • atherosclerotic changes;
  • presence of thrombosis in the veins;
  • Systematic hypotension;
  • disease with temporal arteritis;
  • lesion of large intracranial arteries( Moya-Moya disease);
  • subcortical encephalopathy of a chronic nature.
People prone to obesity, people with diabetes, chronic alcoholics also risk getting a stroke.

Smoking provokes thrombosis, so a bad habit must necessarily be forgotten in case of suspected health problems.

The intake of hormonal contraceptives also increases the risk of a cerebral infarction.

See the video, which tells about the main causes of the disease:

Danger and consequences

Disease is extremely dangerous. In 40% of cases it ends with the fatal outcome of in the first hours after the attack. However, with timely provided first urgent care, the patient is able not only to survive, but also to lead normal life activity afterwards.

Consequences of a cerebral infarction can be very different, ranging from numbness of the extremities, ending with complete paralysis and even death.

Coronary artery bypass graft: postoperative period, possible consequences and complications and indications for this operation. All that can be learned about this is on our website in a separate article.

Here we will talk about all the stages of rehabilitation of patients who underwent myocardial infarction.

Whether or not the invalidity group is given for myocardial infarction, you will learn separately.

Symptoms and signs

Stroke in the vast majority of cases immediately makes itself felt: in a man sharply begin unbearable headaches, which often affect only one side, the skin of the face during an attack acquires a pronounced red hue, cramps and vomiting begindesires, breathing becomes hoarse.

It is noteworthy that the cramps affect the same side of the body as the stroke of the .That is, if the location of the lesion localization is on the right side, the convulsions will be more pronounced on the right side of the body and vice versa.

In case if the left part was injured, the patient will suffer from mental disorders, if the right one - the speech apparatus will suffer.

However, , there are cases when there is no as such, and only after some time after the stroke, which the patient could not even suspect, there is a numbness in the cheeks or hands( which is one), the quality of speech changes, the visual acuity changes.

Then a person starts complaining about weakness in muscles, nausea, migraines. In this case, a stroke can be suspected in the presence of rigidity of the occipital muscles, as well as excessive muscle strain of the legs.

How diagnostics of

are performed To determine the exact diagnosis and the purpose of effective treatment, uses several studies of : MRI, CT, EEC, CTG, carotid dopplerography.

In addition, the patient is assigned to submit an analysis of the biochemical composition of the blood, as well as a blood test for its coagulability( coagulogram).

First aid

The first measures to prevent irreversible consequences and death should begin in the very first minutes after the attack.

It is the first 180 minutes that are decisive in the life of the patient, this time interval is called the "therapeutic window".

Procedure:

  • Help the patient to lie on the bed or any other plane so that the head and shoulders are slightly above the body level. It is extremely important not to pull the victim severely from the impact of the person.
  • Get rid of all the garments that squeeze the body.
  • Provide the maximum amount of oxygen, open the windows.
  • Make a cold compress on your head.
  • Use warmers or mustard plasters to maintain blood circulation in the extremities.
  • Relieve the oral cavity of excess saliva and vomit.
  • If the limb is paralyzed, then rub it with solutions based on oil and alcohol.

Video on cerebral infarction and the importance of providing the correct first aid:

Tactics for treating

Brain infarction is an emergency that requires an immediate hospitalization of .

In a hospital setting, the main goal of the treatment is , the restoration of blood circulation in the brain of , as well as the prevention of possible cell damage. In the first hours after the onset of the development of pathology, the patient is prescribed special drugs, whose action is aimed at dissolving blood clots.

In order to inhibit the growth of existing blood clots and prevent the appearance of new ones, anticoagulants are used, which reduces the degree of clotting of the blood.

Another group of drugs that are effective in treating stroke - antiplatelet agents .Their action is aimed at gluing together platelets. The same medicines are also used to prevent repeated attacks.

In some cases, surgical intervention is required, during which the inner wall of the plaque affected by the carotid artery is eliminated.

What is the prognosis?


People who have had a cerebral infarction have a good chance of recovering and even fully recovering. If within 60 days after the attack the patient's condition remains stable, it means that he will be able to return to normal life within a year.

Naturally, in this matter the role of the patient's age, and the presence of other diseases, including chronic ones, play a role. The main thing is to believe in a positive perspective!

In order that this disease does not affect you, you must adhere to the correct way of life , nutrition, exercise, avoid stressful situations, follow the body weight, deny bad habits.