Fracture of the elbow joint: signs and symptoms

Content

  • 1Fractures of the elbow joint: types, symptoms, treatment, rehabilitation
    • 1.1Causes of injuries
    • 1.2Types of fractures
    • 1.3Symptoms
    • 1.4First aid
    • 1.5Conservative treatment
    • 1.6Operative therapy
    • 1.7Possible complications
    • 1.8Rehabilitation for the restoration of healthy limb functionality
  • 2Fracture of the elbow joint symptoms and treatment methods photo
    • 2.1Causes of damage
    • 2.2Classification of an elbow fracture
    • 2.3Symptomatic of fracture
    • 2.4Urgent care
    • 2.5Diagnosis and treatment
    • 2.6Rehabilitation
  • 3Fracture of elbow. Symptoms, Treatment and Rehabilitation - Joint Disease
    • 3.1Types of fractures of the elbow joint
    • 3.2Signs and first aid for fracture of the elbow joint
    • 3.3How to help the victim before the arrival of a doctor
    • 3.4Diagnostic Methods
    • 3.5Methods of treatment
    • 3.6Rehabilitation activities
  • 4Fracture of the elbow joint: treatment, symptoms and consequences
    • 4.1Symptoms and signs
    • 4.2Varieties
    • 4.3Elbow fracture with displacement
    • 4.4Treatment depending on the type of fracture
    • 4.5How much is the gypsum worn
    • 4.6Elbow joint development after fracture
    • 4.7Effects
  • 5Fracture of the elbow joint (elbow)
    • 5.1Symptoms for fractures of the elbow joint
    • 5.2First aid for an elbow fracture
    • 5.3Diagnosis of fracture of the elbow joint
    • 5.4Treatment of fracture of the elbow joint
    • 5.5Rehabilitation for fracture of the elbow joint
    • 5.6An approximate set of exercises for developing the elbow joint:
    • 5.7Prognosis for an elbow fracture

Fractures of the elbow joint: types, symptoms, treatment, rehabilitation

The elbow joint is quite complex. The presented part of the upper limbs is formed by the radial and ulnar bones that connect with the shoulder tissue. Inside the main elbow joint there are several small ones.

Through the represented area, there are large nerves and blood vessels responsible for the mobility of the entire limb.

Therefore, fractures of the bones of the elbow joint in addition to the difficulty of motor functions and the development of a serious pain syndrome are fraught with a whole mass of complications.

What kind of therapy is used to damage this plan? How to treat fractures of the elbow joint? What is required for rehabilitation? We will try to answer the submitted questions.

Causes of injuries

The elbow joint is extremely vulnerable to damage, since there is no tight muscular skeleton, which is capable of providing reliable support and protection of the represented part of the upper limb. Particularly often, this area is subjected to stress in toddlers who show excessive activity and often fall into situations fraught with the occurrence of trauma.

You can get a fracture of the elbow either as a result of a fall, or because of a significant shock load on this area. The most common damage to bone tissue is internal.

Types of fractures

There are the following types of injuries of bone tissue of the elbow joint:

  1. Closed fracture of the elbow joint is characterized by damage to the radius bone, its neck and head. Most often occurs as a result of excessive load when you rest on a straight limb.
  2. Open fractures of the elbow joint - in addition to the appearance of cracks in the structure of the bone, fragments damage soft tissues. In severe cases, the skin ruptures, a gaping wound is formed, which is accompanied by a profuse loss of blood.
  3. Fracture of the coronary process occurs due to significant shock loads on bone tissue. Such injuries are rare. Damage to this plan is characterized by consequences in the form of displacement and dislocation of the forearm.

Also, a fracture of the elbow joint is distinguished with and without bias. Often with such injuries, one bone suffers.

Symptoms

The following signs may indicate at the elbow fracture:

  1. Presence of sharp sustained pain, which gives into the wrist and wrist.
  2. Limited mobility of the limb or its complete paralysis.
  3. Unhealthy, uncharacteristic for a person's mobility of the hand in the area of ​​the elbow joint, for example in the lateral direction.
  4. The appearance of edema, the formation of bluish hematoma, subcutaneous bruising.
  5. Neurological symptoms - numbness of fingers and hands, tingling of the forearm.
  6. Damage of blood vessels, muscle tissue, skin (open fractures of the elbow joint).

A clear sign of severe damage to the elbow joint is severe pain in the back of the elbow.

Gradually, swelling and bruising form on the anterior surface of the injured area. In the following, the ability to bend the hand is lost.

The injured limb hangs limply. When performing the movement of the forearm, muscle stiffness is felt.

After fracture with bone displacement, the ability to extend the arm remains. However, raising the limb and rotating it to the sides cause significant discomfort.

First aid

The tactics of first aid in the fracture of the elbow joint is chosen based on the specificity of the lesion and the degree of its severity.

Be that as it may, the paramount task here is the complete immobilization of the limb. For this, it is recommended to resort to tire overlap. In this case, the arm is bent at a right angle, after which it is securely fixed.

If it is necessary to eliminate the unbearable pain syndrome, analgesics are used.

Conservative treatment

In the absence of trauma in open form resort to conservative therapy. During the first 6-7 days after the fracture, usually there is volumetric edema.

Until the pathological manifestation disappears, a long gypsum dressing is applied to the hand. Avoid the load on the damaged limb for up to 3 weeks.

As the bone tissue is connected, the arm is periodically released from the gypsum to develop the joint. Over time, this bandage is replaced with a rigid retainer, which has a system for adjusting the amplitude of movements.

Operative therapy

Open fractures of the elbow joint, which are characterized by the displacement of fragments, require an operation. Otherwise, the ability of the forearm to bend may not recover.

The success of operative therapy directly depends on the accuracy of the operations of the surgeon-traumatologist, in particular the comparison of fragments of bone tissue, their verified fixation in anatomically correct position. The center of traumatology and orthopedics is capable to provide carrying out of similar operation.

With the usual damage to the structure of the end of the ulna, the therapy is aimed at tightening the tissues with a medical wire loop. Sometimes additional fixation of bones in a static position with spokes is required.

If you have to treat internal fractures of the elbow joint with the formation of fragments, the therapy is based on bone plastic.

In such situations it is difficult to tighten the tissues with a loop, as this can lead to shortening of the joint surfaces.

Instead, resort to the use of compression dynamic plates.

In cases where there are signs of bone fragmentation, the center of traumatology and orthopedics can offer the patient the replacement of body tissue with a special prosthesis. Implants are made of plastic and metal. Their installation takes place using bone cement.

Possible complications

A disappointing consequence of a fracture of the elbow joint may be complete or partial loss of limb mobility.

The prerequisite for this is maintaining a sense of discomfort or impressive pain at the end of the course of therapy.

Avoid these manifestations can be, following the recommendations of the attending physician.

To prevent the occurrence of complications in children, in particular loss of limb functionality, treatment should be performed under the supervision of adults.

First of all, the injured hand should be completely at rest throughout the course of therapy. The child should not load a limb, perform sharp movements.

The admission of such negligence can lead to a repeated fracture.

Rehabilitation for the restoration of healthy limb functionality

Actions aimed at restoring the healthy functionality of the limb, suggest:

  • massage;
  • therapeutic gymnastics;
  • physiotherapeutic procedures.

The development of the joint with the help of physiotherapy is possible already in the first day after fixing the limb with a plaster bandage. Naturally, in this case, avoid bending the arm at the elbow.

The main emphasis is on the movement of the fingers and wrist. The injured person is recommended in lying position to wound the injured limb by the head, straining the muscles of the forearm and shoulders.

Such solutions contribute to the removal of swelling as a result of activation of lymph outflow from tissues.

When restoring the ability of the joint to flexion, it goes to its gradual development.

To do this, the main part of the cast is removed, after which the measured, unsharp movements of the limb are performed.

In rehabilitation with the help of therapeutic gymnastics it is forbidden to bend and unbend the arm completely, as this can cause a repeated fracture.

To massage are resorted only after the complete removal of the plaster bandage. And the effect is on the muscles of the shoulder girdle and back in a sparing mode.

Regular execution of such procedures can eliminate pain syndrome, strengthen atrophied muscles, stretch the ligament and eventually completely restore the mobility of the hand.

As for physiotherapeutic procedures, they are recommended to alternate with therapeutic gymnastics. Here resort to methods of UHF, magnetic therapy, electrophoresis, treatment with healing mud.

Finally

As a result, it should be noted that the victim after discharge from the hospital needs to clarify for himself a few questions.

It should be clarified by the attending physician how to make movements in the elbow joint when it is possible weight, how to avoid relapses and complications, which can be expected in the near future future.

A source: http://.ru/article/258290/perelomyi-loktevogo-sustava-vidyi-simptomyi-lechenie-reabilitatsiya

Fracture of the elbow joint symptoms and treatment methods photo

Hand injuries, especially those occurring inside the joint, are dangerous, and about 20% of them fall on the elbow.

The elbow joint is one of the most complicated in the human skeleton, since it unites three bones at once: the humerus, ulna and ray.

In addition, it consists of a large number of small joints. All this is united in a single elbow by connective tissues (muscles, ligaments).

Mobility of the limb is due to the dynamics of the joint, as well as vessels and nerve endings that pass through the elbow. Fracture of the elbow joint refers to serious injuries, as it is often complicated by numerous consequences.

By severity, only a damaged knee can compete with it, because they are similar in structure. Treatment after the fracture will take a long time, even longer, the recovery period is prolonged.

Sometimes I can not completely restore the mobility of the hand.

Causes of damage

Risk factors, in which there may be a fracture of the elbow joint, a lot. Among them there are also the most frequent ones, as a result of which damage occurs:

  • Unsuccessful fall. It is peculiar for a person to protect himself with his hands when falling, exposing them in front of him. Fracture of the ulna is no exception. Having fallen on the elongated arm or half-bent in the elbow, the person receives the main blow on the elbow joint. In other words, putting forward his hands, a person takes on them most of the damage.
  • Chronic diseases. Bone fragility develops as a result of a number of chronic diseases, which is why it is almost impossible to prevent fracture of the elbow joint. Such diseases include osteoporosis, arthritis and many others, purposefully or indirectly destroying the bone structure. Physical load or force of impact on the affected bone easily destroy it.
  • Physical attacks. A blow on the elbow can be obtained in a fight, a traffic accident or simply by accidental collision with a door jamb. Depending on what force was applied, and the one where the blow was directed, the complexity of the injury is classified.
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Significantly less injury occurs as a result of playing sports, as athletes pay special attention to equipment, and the elbow is usually protected by elastic bandage or shield.

Classification of an elbow fracture

The fracture of the arm in the elbow joint is subdivided, as well as other fractures. Classification of the elbow fracture is defined as follows:

  • closed or open;
  • intraarticular or periarticular;
  • with displacement and without displacement (usually only one bone breaks);
  • multiple, fragmented, etc.

Fracture of the ulnar bone is often accompanied by a dislocation of the entire joint or a stretching of the connective tissues and is complicated by many diseases, for example, arthrosis.

As already mentioned, the elbow consists of three basic bones and a large number of muscle and connective tissues. In addition, the complexity of the elbow joint makes it possible to have a special classification in the place of damage.

The elbow process is the weak point of the elbow. It is not closed, like the rest of the elbow, with soft and muscular tissues.

Direct fracture of the elbow process is a rare phenomenon, but with an unsuccessful fall, particles of bone can split from it.

Such damage is greatly complicated by the displacement of debris damaging the blood vessels and muscle tissue.

Injury of the bony head or neck of the radius occurs as a result of a fall on the outstretched arm. A similar violation occurs more often.

Violation of the coronoid process often occurs in conjunction with damage to the forearm and shoulder or is accompanied by a dislocation.

The most characteristic fracture for the radius, it can be accompanied by joint dislocation and damage to the humerus.

Symptomatic of fracture

Diagnosing the main signs is simple enough - they are pronounced. A serious reason for seeking medical help will be the presence of at least one of the following symptoms.

After the injury, the victim feels the following symptoms:

  • The elbow joint strongly swells, the arm increases in size. Puffiness is so extensive that it can be seen with the naked eye and without palpation - a manual examination of the victim;
  • the victim is unable to move his hand, the elbow joint after the injury is not able to move at all - the complex structure is affected;
  • At the site of the trauma, an extensive hematoma forms rapidly. The blood flowing into the soft tissue after damage to the blood vessels, has the property of thickening with time and leading to unpleasant consequences. You can remove such blood clots only by surgery;
  • the strongest pain syndrome - a pain strong, intolerable;
  • crunch and visible deformation will be another reason for concern.

Fractures of the ulna with displacement are characterized by external signs: irregularities, pronounced placement of bones and inaccuracies instead of the usual structure of the hand.

More details of the symptoms of injury can be considered on individual occasions:

  1. Injury of the ulnar process is a very common hand injury, especially in childhood. Symptoms are slightly different from the main ones - the pain is felt from the inside of the joint, it is given to the shoulder and forearm. Puffiness and bruising spread on the outside of the joint. In addition, the fracture of the elbow process is assessed by whether it is possible to make a bend in the elbow. It is possible to make rotational movements with shoulders. There is a characteristic crunch of bone fragments, as well as external deformities of the hand.
  2. Fracture of the head and neck of the radius is characterized by extensive pain transferring the joint, giving in the forearm. Hematomas and swelling are not very pronounced, crunch and deformity are absent. A clear difference between such an injury from others is the restriction in rotational movements.
  3. Injury of the coronoid process of the elbow joint is described by severe aching pain, which is enhanced by palpation. Almost impossible to move the joint itself to the fold and fold the arm. Minor edema is expressed by slight swelling of the tissues over the joint, there is no external deformation.

Thus, an external violation of the hand and a crunch of bone fragments appears only if a fracture of the entire elbow joint with a displacement occurred.

Urgent care

Provision of first aid is simply necessary. In this case, the tactics of pre-hospital care should be selected according to the severity of the damage.

However, it is not possible to establish the complexity of the trauma reliably, for example, with a closed fracture.

Nevertheless, everyone should know the basics of first aid in order to help themselves or others in time.

Fundamentals of pre-hospital care are stacked in several of the following measures, greatly simplifying the course of the treatment period:

  • Overlaying a homemade tire to immobilize a hand. It is necessary to tightly fix the hand on a solid object from the middle of the forearm and to the fingertips. To do this, it must be tied to an improvised tire (for example, a board) or to attach to the victim's body, if there is no possibility of constructing a self-made langet.
  • For general reduction of the pain syndrome, local anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Intramuscular injection will be more effective, but this is not always possible.
  • If possible, it is necessary to apply cold to the injury. This will help reduce the edema of the injury in order to diagnose without complications. Ice will also reduce the overall pain. Play the role of ice can even an ordinary bottle of cold water or a frozen semi-finished product.

Diagnosis and treatment

The trauma doctor diagnoses the injury based on several radiographic shots. The elbow is photographed in several projections - this gives a more complete picture of the injury, allowing you to also determine the possible consequences.

Fracture of the elbow is characterized by the fact that the edema increases with time. In the first week, the swelling increases. In the event that the fracture is closed, a tight plaster cast is applied to the hand.

Anesthetic and anti-inflammatory complex medicines are used to relieve pain.

It is not recommended to load the affected hand for 3 weeks, after which the gypsum is removed. In the future, it is necessary to develop the elbow joint, and for this a rigid fixator is used, which replaces gypsum and does not interfere with the movements.

The operation is allowed with open fractures with displacement. Moreover, carrying out such operations is necessary immediately, since when the function is tightened, the hands will be partially lost. In rare cases, fixation with knitting needles is used.

Internal fracture with fragments and displacement is treated by the application of bone plastic. In addition, fixing plates are installed. Due to them, a complete, but at the same time, natural fixation of the hand in one position is achieved. This contributes to the rapid growth of bones.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation actions begin during the treatment period - after 14 days it is recommended to strain the arm muscles under the plaster. After that, physiotherapy, consisting of magnetotherapy, is prescribed. The impact is made directly through the plaster bandage.

Recommendations for how to develop an elbow joint can only be given by a traumatologist. After the bandage is removed, additional physiotherapeutic actions are connected - electrophoresis, trays of mud and sea salt. The hand after the fracture must be massaged.

The elbow joint after a fracture needs a serious and focused development to fully restore all functions. Approaches to the exercises are carried out for 10 repetitions, the number of which increases gradually. They must be performed three times a day.

In addition, it is recommended to diversify daily meals with foods that contain magnesium and calcium. This will help restore and coalesce the bones. When preventive actions need to take vitamins, aimed at the renewal of missing substances in the body.

You can recover after a fracture of the elbow joint, but it will take quite some time. That is why such traumas can be characterized by a rapid cure, and a slow development of the motor function.

Any trauma, including a fracture of the elbow joint, besides, can provoke a considerable number of chronic diseases in the future. The fractured arm in the elbow is not a verdict, so do not give up.

Timely implementation of medical recommendations will promote rapid healing, and mobility in the arm will return after performing physical exercises.

A source: https://TravmaOff.ru/perelom/loktevoi-sustav.html

Fracture of elbow. Symptoms, Treatment and Rehabilitation - Joint Disease

The elbow joint is a complex mechanism formed by the radial, ulnar and humerus bones, and contains in its structure a multitude of vessels and nerves. With the help of this joint, the human hand has great mobility and allows you to make quite different in amplitude movements.

Injuries to this joint, including fracture, are a common phenomenon that requires serious treatment, including surgical surgery, sometimes even repeated.

Fracture of the elbow is the destruction of one or more bones or processes that enter the elbow joint.

Types of fractures of the elbow joint

All fractures of the elbow joint can be divided into categories.

  • Intra-articular fractures - the rupture of the tendon of the triceps muscle is observed, and the bone fragments are shifted upwards
  • Periarticular fractures - a rupture of the tendons and displacement is not observed and
  • Closed fractures - without compromising the integrity of soft tissues and skin.
  • Open fractures - the integrity of the skin is broken.
  • Splintered fractures - separation from the end of the bone of one or two fragments
  • Fractured fractures - there is a large number of small fragments.
  • Incomplete fracture - a crack is formed on the bone.
  • On the line of the fracture, transverse, longitudinal and oblique fractures can be identified.
  • Often fracture is combined with a dislocation and is called fracture-dislocation.

The most common of the above types of fracture is the intra-articular fracture of the elbow process, which does not have muscular protection.

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It occurs when you fall from the height of your growth, when a person instinctively puts his arm under him.

However, the process itself rarely breaks down, more often fragments break out from it, which often injure vessels, nerves and ligaments.

Signs and first aid for fracture of the elbow joint

With an elbow fracture, the following symptoms are noted.

  • Sharp pain in the elbow area, giving in the forearm, wrist and fingers.
  • Swelling, swelling and bruising at the site of the fracture.
  • Impossibility of movements or strongly limited mobility.
  • With an open fracture - bleeding and exposure of bones.
  • Atypical lateral mobility of the forearm, not characteristic of healthy mobility.
  • In some cases, when nerve fibers are affected, numbness and tingling in the forearm zone is observed.
  • Impossibility to hold your own hand, but only supporting it with the other hand.
  • Squeak or click when moving with your hand.
  • Deformity of the elbow joint.
  • Cold, pale bluish skin in the area of ​​a sore spot.

If at least one of the above symptoms is present, emergency medical care is necessary.

How to help the victim before the arrival of a doctor

  • Transport immobilization - fixing the limb to the maximum immovable position for transportation to the emergency room.
  • An open wound, if any, must be covered with a clean bandage or cloth.
  • If bleeding occurs, raise your arm as high as possible.
  • Apply cold compress or ice to the damaged area to remove swelling.
  • Do not try to fix the broken bone yourself, especially with an open fracture.

Diagnostic Methods

Before the examination, the doctor is obliged to ask you important questions about the patient's health for chronic diseases, previously the transferred traumas and intolerance to certain substances or preparations, the way of getting this trauma and accompanying it circumstances. This is done in order to have a complete picture of the situation and to make the diagnosis as authentic as possible.

To diagnose an elbow fracture, the doctor must perform radiography. The main x-ray is produced at two angles. If the pain is completely unbearable, then the X-ray can be done under slight anesthesia.

In some cases, X-rays of both extremities are carried out, for example, in children, because at an early age unformed cartilage can be taken for a fracture.

To do this, you need to compare a healthy and damaged arm.

It is possible to refer the victim to an ultrasound examination, computer or magnetic resonance imaging.

When the artery ruptures, the doctor can prescribe an arteriogram. This procedure consists in introducing a contrast medium into the arterial blood so that To determine - in what place and how much the artery is damaged, so that you can quickly reestablish.

Methods of treatment

Fracture of the elbow - the injury is serious and, of course, requires treatment. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the injury.

In any case, after injuring the elbow joint and providing first aid to the injured person, a qualified specialist makes an accurate diagnosis after a thorough examination.

On its basis, treatment is chosen.

Specialists distinguish two major major categories of fractures - a simple fracture and a bias with a bias.

With a simple fracture, without debris and displacement, a plaster cast is applied to the large area of ​​the arm, from the humerus to the toes. The hand is fixed bent at the elbow joint. The gypsum langete is worn by the patient for 4 weeks, then another with a periodic withdrawal to begin the development of the joint.

With a periarticular fracture, conservative treatment, all traditional procedures and rehabilitation measures are indicated.

With a fracture with a shift, a fragmented, fragmented treatment will be more serious and prolonged. The physician will need to assemble the joint completely into anatomically the original position through a surgical procedure.

In some cases, the bones are fastened with special tools - screws, bolts and spokes, which are removed after a few months. After surgical intervention, the hand is fixed at an angle of 30-60 degrees.

This is done to improve blood flow, reduce edema and hematoma. Gypsum is applied for 5-6 weeks, depending on the severity of the fracture.

In addition to all, medicamentous treatment with drugs aimed at removing inflammation, edema, general strengthening and maintenance of the body during the postoperative period is carried out.

Rehabilitation activities

Restorative period after fracture of the elbow is better to start 2-3 days after the application of gypsum lingitis or surgery. On the second and third day you can move your fingers, as far as the state allows.

After 8-9 days, you can try to unclench and compress the muscles under the gypsum, since in a fixed position the ligaments and tendons can atrophy.

After 2 weeks, the doctor can prescribe magnetotherapy, and after removing the gypsum - other physiotherapy procedures aimed at restoring the functions of the elbow joint. This is electrophoresis, UHF, mud therapy, baths with sea salt.

An integral part of the rehabilitation period is exercise therapy, which includes a specially designed set of exercises. Here are some of them.

  1. Brushes of hands must be closed in the lock and gradually thrown by the left, then by the right ear, stretching the muscles.
  2. Conjugation of hands on the back.
  3. Playing the ball.
  4. Rolling a children's toy car on the table back and forth. When performing this exercise, the elbow joint performs many movements that restore its mobility well.
  5. Exercises with dumbbells weighing not more than 2 kg can be used after the reduction of the pain syndrome, since with an existing edema and residual inflammation, the extra load on the joint is contraindicated.
  6. Gradual development of rotational movements in the forearm.

It is not necessary to make sharp movements, vainly thinking that having suffered the pain, you can achieve quick results. All exercises require slow and smooth execution, with a gradual increase in the number of times and intensity.

A source: http://my-sustav.ru/perelom-loktya-priznaki-lechenie-i-reabilitaciya/

Fracture of the elbow joint: treatment, symptoms and consequences

Fracture of the elbow joint takes about 1/5 of all intra-articular fractures. Because of the complex anatomical structure of the elbow, there is a high risk of complications.

Its structure is in the connection: the bones of the elbow and the ray (forearm) and the bones of the shoulder. And the joint itself is divided into 3 small:

  • upper radiolucent;
  • adnate;
  • the humerus.

In addition, the joint concentrates the passage of a large number of vascular and neural bundles. Therefore, it is very important to get timely and correct treatment.

Symptoms and signs

Characteristic signs of fractures of the elbow:

  1. The main complaint that occurs when a fracture in the elbow joint is pain. It will concentrate on the back surface of the elbow. In addition, it can spread to all the anatomical parts of the limb, even on the fingers. The palpation of the injured part of the hand will also be accompanied by acute pain;
  2. In the case of the displacement of bones and their fragments, their crunch will be heard, and their displacement will be seen with the naked eye, giving the joint a form that is not typical for it. For example, the skin area that is in this place can sink;
  3. The damage of blood vessels will be indicated by the presence of edema and hematoma. This is due to filling the cavity of the joint with blood;
  4. Limited or complete absence of extensor movements of the hand;
  5. If nerve bundles are damaged, numbness may occur in some parts of the limb.

It is not necessary to have all these symptoms at once to make sure there is a fracture of the elbow joint.

However, it must be remembered that even a doctor, without hardware diagnostic methods, can not always pinpoint the bruise or fracture.

Therefore, even if as a result of the trauma showed at least one of the signs, you should immediately go to the trauma center for examination.

Varieties

Since the elbow joint consists of 6 anatomical units, in addition to the neurovascular bundles, a variety of possible fractures is quite diverse. In general, the following are distinguished:

  • Fracture of the head of the radius, it is the most common. This is because he lacks protection in the form of muscles and he is more prone to injury;
  • Fracture of the cervix of the radius;
  • Over-cracking;
  • Fracture of the coronoid process of the ulna (as a rule, it combines with itself a dislocation or other trauma of the forearm).

In turn, they are divided into different types.

  1. Depending on the place of injury:
    1. intraarticular - characterized by a rupture of ligaments, a violation of the integrity of the joint, there may be a displacement of bones and their fragments;
    2. periarticular - proceed without displacement of bones and their fragments.
  2. By the number of affected bones:
    • multiple;
    • single.
  3. By the nature of the damage to the skin:

All these factors are taken into account when assessing the severity of a person's condition. Particular attention is paid to intra-articular fractures, since they are more unfavorable for treatment and rehabilitation.

Elbow fracture with displacement

In most cases, fracture of the elbow joint with displacement occurs due to indirect injuries. For example, in the event of a person falling on his arm at a time when the triceps muscle is strained. This displacement is due to this particular muscle.

Since as a result of a violation of the integrity of the bone, it pulls this bone up. Breaking a bone can cause a lot of trouble. To avoid all possible consequences of additional injuries, the immediate immobilization of elbow fractures plays a key role.

Treatment depending on the type of fracture

The choice of treatment tactics directly depends not only on the type of fracture, but also on the age of the patient. Suppose, if it is a fracture of the radial process without displacement or with displacement, but minimal (no more than 3 mm), then, most likely, the treatment will be conservative.

The operation is performed in the event that there was a fracture with displacement, intraarticular fracture, fracture of the condyle. It is staged in stages:

  1. Restoration of the location of fragments of the previous trauma;
  2. Their fixation by any surgical devices;
  3. Stitching.

In the case of fractures of the elbow, when the bone is fragmented so much that it is not possible to compare it, one resorts to implanting the transplant. For these purposes, the bone tissue of the donor or directly the patient is used. The method of endoprosthetics is also widely used.

Also for the treatment of fractures and not only use a bandage. It can also be used during rehabilitation. Its main qualities are: reliable fixation of the damaged joint, as well as removing the load from it.

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For most of the treatment period, anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs, pain medications, and antibiotics are prescribed. In cases of open fractures, an injection of tetanus is given without delay.

How much is the gypsum worn

This question interests many with ulnar fractures. In this role plays a very large number of factors:

  • Age of the person;
  • Severity of damage;
  • Accompanying illnesses;
  • Timely appeal to specialists;
  • Correctly provided first aid;
  • Attached human efforts during treatment and rehabilitation.

With the most favorable course of treatment, in young patients with a fracture without bias, the plaster bandage is adjusted for a period of 3 weeks.

And after a month or a half people come back to their old life.

But if the injury is serious and there is a displacement of bones, then the term of the casting of gypsum in that case will be a minimum of 3 months.

Elderly people, as well as having concomitant diseases, for example, such as diabetes mellitus, gypsum are set up for a longer period, which can reach 4 or more months. After the gypsum is removed, it is replaced by a retainer, which will regulate the volume of motor activity by hand for a week.

Elbow joint development after fracture

Therapeutic physical training plays a huge role in the reconstruction processes of the injured area.

That's why you need to start practically in the first days. At this stage, exercise therapy will remove swelling, improve blood circulation, and reduce pain.

And here already at the second stage the main goal is restoration of mobility.

  1. The first stage begins on the next day after the plaster has been applied. Exercises that are performed in this period are intended for joints that are free of gypsum. For this purpose, you can use circular motions of low intensity in the wrist and shoulder joints. After the first week, they begin to develop the muscles of the elbow. To do this, strain the muscles under the plaster, without making any movements;
  2. The second stage consists of more serious exercises, such as flexion and extension of the elbow. To implement these movements, part of the cast is temporarily removed. However, not with all fractures is possible the implementation of this method. With a fracture of the elbow process, you can provoke a second fracture.

To develop an arm after a fracture is rather difficult, since even for a short period of its presence in the cast, muscles are atrophied. Therefore, active gymnastics, massage, physiotherapy sessions, should be an integral part in restoring the efficiency of the hand.

Effects

Any disturbance in the integrity of the structure of bone tissue or even of the skin does not pass without a trace.

The most innocuous, than can end a fracture of the elbow joint is a bruise. But usually everything is much worse.

Often, a stable contracture can develop, that is, the arm does not unbend at all in the elbow or it does not bend.

To avoid this, you should strictly follow the prescribed exercises by the doctor. It should be remembered that if a shoulder hurts when practicing exercise therapy and this does not allow you to perform any movements, you need to tell the doctor about it. Very often this helps to cope with saline baths, their use helps:

  • Warm and anesthetize the injured area;
  • Improve metabolism in it;
  • Remove the flow;
  • Accelerate the regeneration of bone and cartilaginous tissue.

A very terrible complication is not the adhesion or wrong fusion of the bone. This entails surgical intervention, and sometimes even more than one. Fracture of the hand is very dangerous for health and can end even with disability.

The most important way to avoid complications is of course to avoid fractures. To do this, you need to be more careful and observe the safety rules at work and at home.

A source: https://travmagid.ru/perelomy/perelom-loktevogo-sustava.html

Fracture of the elbow joint (elbow)

The elbow joint is formed by combining the bones of the forearm and the proximal (lower) part of the arm. To fractures in the area of ​​the elbow joint are: a fracture of the ulnar process, fracture of the head and neck of the radius, and fracture of the coronoid process of the ulna.

Symptoms for fractures of the elbow joint

Fracture of the ulnar processis a common hand injury. With a fracture of the ulnar process, pain is seen on the back of the elbow joint, pain can be given to the shoulder and forearm.

Tumescence and bruising extend to the anterior surface of the elbow joint, which is associated with the outflow of blood to the elbow joint area. Also, with the fracture of the elbow process, active extension in the elbow joint was violated, tk.

The three-headed muscle of the shoulder is attached to the elbow process, which is responsible for the extension of the forearm. Rotational movements of the forearm (supination and pronation) suffer to a lesser extent.

A crunch of fragments and visible deformation are felt when there is a displacement of the fragments.

Fracture of the ulnar process: a) without displacement, b) with displacement

With fracture of the head and neck of the radiusThe pain is felt on the front surface of the elbow joint, it can be given in the forearm. Bruising and swelling are not very pronounced.

Rarely a crunch of fragments is heard, and visible deformations are not observed, even with the displacement of fragments. A distinctive feature of this fracture is a sharp limitation of the rotational movements of the forearm.

Fracture of the coronoid process of the ulnais accompanied by pain on the front surface of the elbow joint, the pain increases with palpation. Limited flexion and extension in the elbow joint. There is a slight swelling above the elbow joint, no deformations are observed.

First aid for an elbow fracture

For fractures in the elbow joint area, the first help is to immobilize the elbow joint with a tire from improvised means, but it should be remembered that if you can not get a tire on your own, it's better not to experiment, but tie your hand to kerchief. The pain syndrome is eliminated by any improvised analgesics: ketorol, nimesulide, analgin. Do not move the damaged joint and try to fix the fracture independently.

Diagnosis of fracture of the elbow joint

X-ray examination is performed for diagnosis. In some cases, a CT scan is done to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of fracture of the elbow joint

Fracture of the ulnar process without displacementtreated by applying a cast band from the upper third of the shoulder, with the seizure of the elbow and wrist joints. Gypsum must be worn for 6 weeks.

If the fracture with displacement, then the operation is performed and the fragment is fixed with the help of metal wire and spokes.

The direction of the displaced fracture rarely brings a positive result, which is due to the tension of the fragments with the triceps brachium muscle. Next, a gypsum langeta is applied for 4-6 weeks.

After removal of gypsum, they start rehabilitation, the general term of treatment is 2-3 months. Spokes are removed a few months after the injury.

With a fracture of the cervix and the head of the radius without biasgypsum immobilization lasts 2-3 weeks. If there is a bias, then they try to correct it, in case of failure, an operation is performed to remove the broken fragment of the bone. The general term of treatment is 1-2 months.

Fracture of coronary processrequires gypsum immobilization for a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The general term of treatment with rehabilitation is 1-2 months.

Rehabilitation for fracture of the elbow joint

From the first days after the injury, we actively move the fingers of the injured hand and the shoulder joint.
After 7-10 days we proceed to isotonic contractions of muscles (muscle tension without making movements) under the gypsum.

Two weeks after the injury, physiotherapy is prescribed - magnetotherapy. After removal of gypsum, the range of procedures is expanded, ozokerite, UHF, electrophoresis, baths with sea salt and mud therapy can be used.

After removing the plaster bandage, we proceed to develop the movements in the elbow joint of the damaged arm.

All exercises are done together with the elbow joint of the healthy side for 10-15 repetitions, with gradually increasing load, 3-4 times a day.

Part of the exercises are performed in the bath with sea salt, which improves recovery of the function and relieves pain syndrome.

An approximate set of exercises for developing the elbow joint:

• Brushes are closed with a lock, we do exercises like throwing a rod, alternately setting the lock for the left and right ear • Also, but throwing the brush behind head • We try to close hands on the back • We put our hands behind the head, the brushes are closed in the lock and stretch, straightening the lock with the palms upwards • We take in the brush a children's typewriter and skate on the table, making movements in the elbow joint • Play with the ball • We do various exercises with a gymnastic stick, the main emphasis is on flexion and extension at the elbow joint • After a sufficient reduction in the pain syndrome, we proceed to exercises with dumbbells (weighing not more than 2 kg);

• Development of rotational movements in the forearm (supination and pronation) - bend the elbow joint to the angle 90 degrees, then do the movements of the forearm around its axis, it is important to make rotational movements with the forearm, not by the shoulder.

It is worth remembering that the elbow joint is the most "whimsical" for the development of movements. In some cases, the use of special apparatus for the development of persistent disruption of movements in the elbow joint is required.

From the massage in the elbow area at first time should refrain, and you need to massage the muscles of the forearm and shoulder. Only after the removal of the inflammation and pain syndrome can you proceed to a gentle massage of the elbow joint.

Prognosis for an elbow fracture

Fractures of the elbow joint can result in a rapid recovery and restoration of the function, and a prolonged, not bringing a weighty result, the development of movements.

All these fractures are intra-articular lesions and are fraught with the development of contracture (restriction volume of movements) of the elbow joint or arthrosis in a remote, after a few years, period after injury.

A source: http://www.medicalj.ru/diseases/emergencies/1073-perelom-loktevogo-sustava