What is dysbiosis?

Contents of
  • What is?
  • Causes of
  • Symptoms of
  • How is the degree of dysbacteriosis established by bacteriological method?
  • Is it possible to detect intestinal bacteria in the stomach?
  • Treatment
  • How to warn?
  • Related Videos

The term "intestinal dysbacteriosis" refers to a disturbance in the balance of microbial bacterial flora, leading to a general disorder of human health. The condition of international medical organizations is not considered a separate disease.

However, this does not make the problem less acute. In fact, even incomplete studies show that a violation of the intestinal microflora is found in every fifth adult in the world. By "intestinal dysbiosis" is understood as more extensive changes in the composition of the flora.

They concern not only bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, protozoa, other microorganisms living in the human stomach( helicobacter), on the skin surface, in women in the genital tract. Dysbacteriosis is one of the variants of general dysbiosis. Timely treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults can save immunity, get rid of beriberi and digestive disorders.

What is?

The state can be briefly described as a change in the quantitative ratio between useful, pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, living in their majority in the large intestine of a person. Normally, among the "population" of the intestine, 95% are bifido- and lactobacilli. The remaining 5% are intestinal rods, eubacteria, cocci, mushrooms.

The ratio does not allow to activate and manifest the pathological properties of the conditional pathogens. Pathogenic microorganisms are quickly destroyed and not allowed to live. Such a "peaceful existence" is called a biocenosis.

With disbacteriosis, the ratio is disrupted by reducing the amount of bifido- and lactobacilli. Some types of Escherichia coli, mushrooms, staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci become pathogenic. The protective barrier breaks and pathogens are allowed into the intestinal lumen, which cause an infectious disease.


In the intestine, the processes of fermentation, decomposition of

are developing. The absorption of vitamins, nutrients, and water is reduced. There are pains, bloating, diarrhea, allergic manifestations. In connection with hypovitaminosis, anemia is gradually forming, immunity decreases. Therefore, the child begins to often ache, and the adult activates chronic pathology. See the features of dysbiosis in infancy in this article.

Reasons for

The reasons for changing the composition of microflora are grouped conventionally, as they often mix. The primary intestinal dysbacteriosis is considered to occur under the influence of non-pathological factors against a background of complete health:

  • under climate change( travel, relocation to another climatic zone);
  • single acute food poisoning( including alcoholic);
  • overeating, use of incompatible or previously unfamiliar products;
  • of old age.

Restoration of violations in all cases, except acute poisoning and old age, occurs quickly and does not need long-term maintenance treatment. Secondary intestinal dysbiosis - form chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It manifests itself as a symptom of gastritis, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammation of the pancreas, diseases of the biliary system, enterocolitis and functional disorders.

It can be difficult to identify what was the root cause of the pathology: the intestinal dysbiosis itself, or, on the contrary, it was caused by other diseases.

Associated pathology imbalance of intestinal bacteria becomes: in the complicated course of acute or chronic diseases, past injuries, food, occupational and domestic poisoning, parasitic infections. Therapy in such cases is complicated by the treatment and consequences of the underlying disease.

Allocate a medical dysbiosis of the intestines - which appeared due to the taking of medications, diagnostic and treatment procedures, the consequences of the operation. It is known that drugs can be active against microorganisms. Unfortunately, they include useful bacteria.

This property is possessed not only by antibiotics, but also by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sulfonamides( Sulfazol, Ftalazol), nitrofurans( Furazolidone, Furadonin), antiseptics( Miramistin), antacids( reduce acidity of gastric juice), laxatives, cytostatics.


In the photo, a popular drug used for cystitis, infection in the urinary tract

The destruction of the necessary intestinal flora occurs regardless of the route of administration of the agent. With radiation therapy, immunity sharply decreases and makes it possible to propagate a conditionally pathogenic flora. The danger of self-targeting and choice of a large dosage remains the most frequent cause of dysbiosis in this group.

Modern standards for the use of similar drugs require that the doctor simultaneously prescribe the appointment of probiotics as a method of "cover".The social form of dysbiosis - includes the transferred stress conditions, life in the megalopolis, the violation of the environment, overload at work, lack of mobility, irrational nutrition. As part of the problem, signs of a dysbacteriosis with tuberculosis, AIDS, syphilis are considered.

Symptoms of

Symptoms of intestinal dysbacteriosis do not depend on the cause. They characterize the stage of destruction of the functions of the large intestine. The severity of symptoms varies considerably from mild to severe. It was found that the dynamics of the hormonal background during pregnancy and in the climacteric period influences the clinical course of women.

Imbalance of the intestinal microflora quickly causes a change in the composition of the flora on the mucous membrane of the vagina. This is the main cause of "thrush" or candidiasis. It is also possible to reverse the process of intestinal damage on the background of long-term treatment in the department of gynecology about bacterial vaginosis.

The signs of dysbacteriosis in adults are divided into 4 degrees. They are precisely determined by the laboratory method by bacteriological study of feces on the intestinal flora, but are confirmed by clinical symptoms.

  • I degree - manifestations are minimal or absent. Perhaps a little malaise, increased fatigue, decreased appetite. Sometimes there is a rumbling in the abdomen or a feeling of heaviness. More often patients do not pay attention or explain symptoms by other reasons.
  • II degree - the condition worsens, there is a long period of absence of appetite, possibly nausea, rare vomiting. The taste of bitterness or acid is noted in the mouth. The stomach is constantly swollen, grumbling. The character of the chair changes( alternating constipation and diarrhea).There is insomnia, mood instability, irritability, tearfulness. Chronic diseases are often exacerbated or acute inflammatory processes occur.
  • III degree - become more pronounced signs of the second degree. Pain in the abdomen becomes permanent, aching with rare colic, without specific localization. The chair changes to stable diarrhea, has a specific smell, in impurities - undigested food remnants, mucus, pus, blood.
  • IV degree - the appetite is absent, the person is losing weight, tongue, teeth, smell from the mouth, hypovitaminosis( bleeding gums, hair fall out, nails break, skin becomes dry, flakes), persistent weakness, loss of sleep, depression. If at this time the intestinal infection joins, the risk of development of erosions and ulcers, intestinal obstruction is increased.

The emotional state of women is very vulnerable, the causes can be hidden in the dysbiosis

How is the degree of dysbacteriosis determined by the bacteriological method?

The main method that confirms the diagnosis is sowing on a dysbiosis. Sowing feces for a variety of nutrient media allows you to quantify the existing microorganisms. The growth of colonies lasts 4-5 days. The results are calculated in CFU / g( colony forming units).The table shows the changes in the ratios of the main bacteria, depending on the degree of dysbiosis.

Type of bacteria Norm I II III IV
Bifidobacteria 108-1010 106-108 deficiency expressed is replaced by staphylococci, streptococci, proteus, clostridia, klebsiella, E. coli, fungi. appearance of pathogenic bacteria: shigella, salmonella, causative agents of intestinal infections. Lactobacilli
106-109 104-108 deficit
expressed E. coli 106-109 104-106 appearance pathogenic strain Bacteroides
107-109 not changed
growth of Streptococci, Staphylococci, Clostridia, fungi Candida 103-105 not changed growth

When examining infants, the norms differ: bifidobacteria are 1010-1011, lactobacillus 106-107.There are practically no other microorganisms.

To assess the general condition of the patient, the doctor appoints a general blood test, urine, feces for coprogram, biochemical hepatic tests, an expanded immunogram. To distinguish the state from diseases of the digestive organs, X-rays of the stomach with contrasting, fibro-esophagogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging are performed.

Is it possible to detect intestinal bacteria in the stomach?

The spread of intestinal dysbacteriosis to the stomach and other digestive organs under normal conditions is impossible. Protective barrier form:

  • hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice destroys some bacteria;
  • , the existing peristaltic wave system is directed from the small intestine to the thick one, moving in the same direction due to synchronous contractions of the circular and longitudinal muscle fibers;
  • ileocecal valve between the iliac( last in the small intestine) and the caecum( the initial part of the large intestine) serves as a sphincter and does not allow bacteria to enter the above-located departments.

The destruction of these barriers is possible with inflammatory diseases( gastroenteritis), intestinal atony. The detection of pathogenic intestinal flora in the stomach indicates the destruction of the valve, the breakdown of the mechanism of peristalsis, the fall of immunity.


Helicobacter is a representative of microorganisms adapted to acidity, is not part of the intestinal microflora

Treatment

The aim of the treatment is to restore the necessary ratio of intestinal microorganisms. The task is complex if the deviation is caused not by simple overeating of rough food, but by a chronic disease. In addition, to eliminate the effects of impaired digestion, you will need lost vitamins, microelements, strengthening of local and general immunity. Do I need a special diet?

Since nutrition is one of the provocation factors, you will have to think about the right regimen and reasonable restrictions in the food you eat. It is necessary to exclude irritating digestive tract products. Provide the most gentle loading for the stomach and intestines.

The diet should be discarded:

  • from carbonated drinks;
  • of any alcohol;
  • strong coffee;
  • sweets, confectionery, fresh baked goods;
  • spicy seasonings, ketchups, sauces;
  • smoked, fried foods;
  • of fatty meat;
  • pickles and marinades;
  • of mushrooms;
  • fresh vegetables, fruits, berries;
  • canned food;
  • production of fast food.

It is necessary to strictly adhere to the diet, go to 6-7 meals a day, but in small portions. It is equally unacceptable as overeating, and long intervals of hunger. Showing a light meal that contains enough protein. Meat, fish and vegetable dishes should be cooked in a boiled form, use products from minced meat( meatballs, knels, meatballs).

Recommended sour-milk products( kefir, yogurt), porridge on the water without sugar. Broths can be prepared from lean beef, chicken. Must be cottage cheese. From eggs prepare a steam omelet or boil soft-boiled. How long to continue restrictions will tell the attending physician after the control check of the composition of the bacterial flora.


Even a single overeating causes a sharp overload of all digestive organs

What drugs are used in treatment?

Therapy has its own characteristics in each case. The treatment regimen is developed individually:

  • if pathogenic flora is found in the analysis, antibacterial preparations will have to be used in a short course;
  • in case of insufficiency of digestive enzymes, they are prescribed for substitution purposes;
  • a violation of acidity requires the restoration of a normal level with antacids for hypersecretion or stimulants in the hypoxecretory state;
  • intestinal peristalsis should not lead to undigested food, therefore, drugs that restore the correct motor function are prescribed.

In the scheme for the recovery of microflora, three groups of drugs are used:

Fecal culture on the dysbacteriosis
  • Prebiotics - create favorable conditions in the intestine for the propagation of beneficial microflora, are a good nutrient medium for the bacteria. They themselves do not contain microorganisms. These include: Dufalac, Lactofiltrum, Lizotzim, Hilak Forte.
  • Probiotics ( eubiotics) are drugs that are ready-made combinations of microflora for colonization of the intestine.appoint according to the indications depending on the primary deficit. In this group: Bifiform, Bactisubtil, Bifikol, Lineks, Acipol.
  • Symbiotics of are combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. Assign for mild dysbiosis, caused by a temporary negative effect( overeating on holidays, unfamiliar food on travel).

Enterosorbents are necessary for the removal from the intestine of slags and toxic substances left from the action of bacteria being destroyed, drugs, undigested food. Popular drugs group: Smecta, Polyphepanum, Polysorb, Enterosgel.

A detailed description of medications for treatment and a comparative characteristic can be found in this article. The doctor should be engaged in treatment. Some patients mistakenly believe that the main thing is to stop diarrhea. In the case of dysbacteriosis, this effect does not allow you to get rid of toxins and prepare the intestinal mucosa to receive healthy bacteria.

Is it possible to cure dysbacteriosis in adults with folk remedies?

In folk medicine, the concept of "dysbacteriosis" does not exist. All directions of phytotherapy are aimed at a specific disease or a separate symptom( constipation, diarrhea, acidity change, flatulence).Therefore, the use of medicinal charges is not only unreasonable, but it can also interfere with the action of the main drugs.


The method for the compensation of lost beneficial bacteria includes recommendations for the preparation of domestic sour-milk drinks from special ferments
Kefir, yogurt can be used in the first 2 days with constipation, from the third day - with diarrhea.

How to warn?

The prevention of dysbacteriosis should be made known to all patients taking medications. The damage to self-medication with antibiotics leads not only to multiple drug resistance, but also to dysbacteriosis. But patients do not pay attention to the fact that such properties are possessed by drugs from heartburn, headache, alcohol, "hungry" diets for weight loss.

If I had to eat "delicious" in the evening, it is recommended to drink fresh kefir the next morning and eat oatmeal. The correct diet, compensation of work overloads with sufficient rest on the nature serve to strengthen local immunity and maintain useful intestinal microflora.

Dysbacteriosis of the intestine does not occur without a cause. More often complication of any disease. At treatment it is not necessary to forget, that many signs are caused by the broken structure of microflora. A prolonged uncompensated condition causes symptoms of avitaminosis, leads the patient to exhaustion, anemia, and expressed problems with the psyche.