What is the danger of pneumonia in children

What can be dangerous inflammation of the lungs?

Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) is an ailment that affects people of any age. Not everyone knows about the dangerous inflammation of the lungs. Although many will call the symptoms of the disease, they say that it is treated with antibiotics, and after the illness the body will recover for a long time.

The problem of pneumonia

To make sure of the danger of pneumonia, you must first understand what it is.

What is pneumonia?

This disease is caused by fungi, bacteria or viruses.Normally, for each person, pathogenic microorganisms live on the pharyngeal mucosa, nose, and lungs. But as soon as the body's immunity decreases, pathogenic microbes begin to multiply at a tremendous rate, causing pneumonia. Inflammation can begin directly in the lungs or get there gradually, starting its "journey" from the throat or nose. In such cases, doctors explain that "the infection has subsided."

Types of pneumoniaInflammation can be exposed to the whole lung or part of it.

Symptoms of this disease are: pain in the side, intensifying with deep inspiration or cough, very high body temperature, dry or wet cough, shortness of breath, chills. For the correct diagnosis, you will need a radiographic examination of the lungs, a blood test and sputum. These studies will help establish the nature of the disease and begin adequate therapy.

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When treating pneumonia, doctors usually prescribe antibacterial drugs. Depending on the severity of the disease, the patient can be placed in the hospital, where he is injected several times a day. With properly selected antibiotic, the patient's condition improves after 5-6 days from the beginning of treatment. If no improvement occurs, doctors usually prescribe a different drug to the patient. Further it is important to dilute and withdraw from the lungs formed sputum. To this end, the patient may be prescribed inhalation, massage. In parallel, the patient is prescribed antiviral and immunomodulating drugs. Complete recovery usually occurs 3-4 weeks later.

Inflammation of the lungs is a very serious disease, from which, despite a wide range of modern antibiotics, people continue to die. About self-treatment speech can not even go. This is fraught with serious consequences.

Danger of pneumonia for children

Scheme of pneumoniaFor a child's organism pneumonia is a very serious test, even if the child has received medical help on time. Most often, infirmity affects children of preschool age. Doctors believe that up to 6 years the child is developing immunity. During this period, they are very vulnerable to all kinds of infections, including streptococcal, which in most cases causes babies pneumonia.

In addition to the symptoms of pneumonia listed above, the nasolabial triangle (cyanosis) is often marked in children. This is a very serious indicator, indicating that the disease is not all right with the cardiovascular system of the child.

The danger of pneumonia is also that during the course of the disease, the lungs can not continue to function full: the baby's breathing becomes shallow, he has a feeling of lack of air. Therefore sick children sleep very badly, eat, show constant concern.

The following factors aggravate the situation:

  1. Later, seek medical help.
  2. Presence of concomitant chronic diseases in the baby.
  3. Incorrect treatment of the child.
Consultation of a doctor for pneumoniaEach of these factors increases the risk of illness for the child several times. At the initial stage, the disease is very similar to the usual viral infection, so doctors prescribe antibiotics not immediately. If antiviral treatment did not work for 3 days (high fever persists and cough does not stop), this is an excuse to contact the doctor again. Such a picture of the disease means its bacterial nature. At this stage, the intake of antibiotics is mandatory. Not all mothers know this. Many continue to treat the child according to the original scheme prescribed by the doctor, losing valuable time. Within a few days the child may develop acute respiratory failure, sometimes death occurs. This is the danger of pneumonia.

Another dangerous consequence of untreated pneumonia in children is neurotoxicosis. It is characterized by first increased activity of the child, his excitement, frequent crying, whims. This state is smoothly replaced by the opposite: the child is apathetic, does not eat, sleepy, muscle tone is reduced. At the third stage, the temperature rises, the child has convulsions, develops pulmonary insufficiency (until the breath stops).

Vaccination - prevention of pneumoniaTo reduce the risk of developing a baby's inflammation of the lungs, my mother has to adhere to a few simple rules:
  1. Try to breast-feed at least 1 year.
  2. Do not give up vaccinating the baby.
  3. Ensure the child's diet of foods rich in zinc.
  4. Engage in tempering a child, spend a lot of time walking in the open air.
  5. Observe the basic rules of home hygiene: more often to ventilate the premises and conduct wet cleaning.

Effects of pneumonia in adults

No less dangerous is pneumonia and for adults. The most common consequences:

  1. Abscess of the lung.
  2. Fibrosis of the lung.
  3. Bronchial asthma.
  4. Heart failure.
  5. Respiratory failure.
Bronchial asthma is a consequence of pneumoniaEspecially dangerous are the first two diseases.

Abscess of the lung is the decomposition (decay) of the lung tissue in the part where there was inflammation. The hearth can be one. Sometimes there are several. During the period of abscess formation, the patient's fever rises, weakness, lack of appetite, difficulty breathing, severe pain in the chest, cough. In the next stage, the formed abscess is opened, sputum in large quantities (up to 1 liter per day) exits through the respiratory tract. With the right treatment for several years, the tissue of the lung becomes scarred, and a full recovery comes.

Fibrosis of the lung is a condition of the patient, in which the connective tissue begins to form on the site of the damaged pulmonary tissue. Lungs can not work at full power, breathing becomes difficult, chest pain occurs. The disease progresses very quickly, so it requires immediate treatment in a medical institution. It is impossible to get rid of lung fibrosis completely. Treatment is usually aimed at alleviating the symptoms and preventing the further development of the disease. In extreme cases, the patient is shown lung transplantation.

How to avoid the negative consequences of pneumonia?

The mortality from pneumonia in our country, despite the sufficient level of development of medicine, remains quite high.

To quickly recover and avoid negative consequences, you need to be very attentive to health.

In Russia it is accepted to go to the doctor when there are already very serious problems. It is not right. In the case of pneumonia, this can lead to death. Medical care should be handled as soon as the first symptoms of the disease have appeared, and the temperature is still not so high. Do not neglect and analysis, which appoints the doctor. Their results will help the doctor immediately make a scheme for effective treatment.

Mom, caring about the health of her baby, should know that at the slightest suspicion of any disease she must show the child to the doctor. Statistics show that the largest infant mortality from pneumonia is observed among toddlers under the age of 1 year. In the case of children's pneumonia, do not neglect hospitalization.

Both adults and children can be protected from pneumonia by physical training, proper nutrition, saturated with vitamins and microelements, hardening, frequent stay in the open air and close attention to one's health.

respiratoria.ru

Pneumonia in a child - symptoms, treatment, causes


Inflammation of the lungs or pneumonia is one of the most common acute infectious and inflammatory diseases of a person. Moreover, the concept of pneumonia does not include various allergic and vascular lung diseases, bronchitis, and also impaired lung function, triggered by chemical or physical factors (injuries, chemical burns).

Especially often there are pneumonia in children, the symptoms and signs of which are reliably determined only on the basis of X-ray data and a general blood test. Pneumonia among all pulmonary pathologies in young children is almost 80%. Even with the introduction of advanced technologies in medicine - the discovery of antibiotics, improved methods of diagnosis and treatment - so far this disease is among the top ten most frequent causes of death. According to statistics in various regions of our country, the incidence of pneumonia in children is 0.4-1.7%.

When and why can a child develop pneumonia?

Lungs in the human body perform several important functions. The main function of the lungs is the gas exchange between the alveoli and the capillaries, which envelop them. Simply put, oxygen from the air in the alveolus is transported to the blood, and from the blood carbon dioxide enters the alveolus. They also regulate body temperature, regulate blood coagulability, are one of the filters in the body, promote purification, removal of toxins, decay products arising from various injuries, infectious inflammatory processes.

And if food poisoning, a burn, a fracture, surgical interventions, any serious injury or disease, there is a general decrease in immunity, it is easier to cope with the toxin filtration effort more easily. That is why very often after a child has suffered or is suffering from injuries or poisonings, pneumonia occurs.

The most common pathogens are pathogenic bacteria - pneumococci, streptococci and staphylococci, and recently cases of lung inflammation from such pathogens, legionella (usually after staying at airports with artificial ventilation), mycoplasma, chlamydia, which are not often mixed, associated.

Pneumonia in a child, as an independent disease that occurs after a serious, strong, prolonged hypothermia, it is extremely rare, as parents try not to allow such situations. As a rule, in most children, pneumonia occurs not as a primary disease, but as a complication after an acute respiratory viral infection or influenza, less often other diseases. Why is this happening?

Many of us believe that acute viral respiratory diseases in the last decades have become more aggressive, dangerous their complications. Perhaps this is due to the fact that both viruses and infections have become more resistant to antibiotics and antiviral drugs, so they are so hard for children and cause complications.

One of the factors contributing to the increase in the incidence of pneumonia in children in recent years has been the overall poor health of the growing generation - how many children are born with congenital pathologies, malformations, CNS lesions. Especially severe pneumonia occurs in premature or newborn babies, when the disease develops against the background of intrauterine infection with an insufficiently formed, not mature respiratory system.

In congenital pneumonia, the herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, mycoplasmas are not infrequently causative agents, and when infected with childbirth - chlamydia, group B Streptococcus, conditionally pathogenic fungi, E. coli, Klebsiella, anaerobic flora, when infected with hospital infections, pneumonia begins on day 6 or 2 weeks after birth.

Naturally, pneumonia often happens in cold weather, when the organism is subjected to seasonal adjustment from heat to cold and vice versa, there are overloads for immunity, at this time there is a lack of natural vitamins in foods, temperature changes, damp, frosty, windy weather contribute to children's hypothermia and their infection.

In addition, if a child suffers from any chronic diseases - tonsillitis, adenoids in children, sinusitis, dystrophy, rickets (see. rickets in infants), cardiovascular disease, any severe chronic pathologies, such as congenital central lesions nervous system, malformations, immunodeficiency states - significantly increase the risk of developing pneumonia, aggravate its course.

The severity of the disease depends on:

  • Extensibility of the process (focal, focal, draining, segmental, lobar, interstitial pneumonia).
  • The child's age, the younger the baby, the narrower the airways, the less intense gas exchange in the child's body and the heavier the course of pneumonia.
  • Places where and for what reason there was a pneumonia:
    - community-acquired: most often have an easier flow
    - hospital: more severe, because it is possible to infect bacteria resistant to antibiotics
    - Aspiration: when inhaled foreign objects, mixture or milk.
  • The most important role in this is played by the general health of the child, that is, his immunity.

Improper treatment of influenza and ARVI can lead to pneumonia in the child

When a child falls ill with an ordinary cold, SARS, influenza - the inflammatory process is localized only in the nasopharynx, trachea and larynx. With a weak immune response, and also if the causative agent is very active and aggressive, and the treatment in the child is done incorrectly, the process of reproduction of bacteria descends from the upper respiratory tract to the bronchi, then bronchitis may occur. Further, the inflammation can affect the lung tissue, causing pneumonia.

Pneumonia in a child symptoms treatment

What happens in the body of a child in a viral disease? The majority of adults and children in the nasopharynx always have various opportunistic microorganisms - streptococci, staphylococci, without causing harm to health, because local immunity inhibits their growth.

However, any acute respiratory disease leads to their active reproduction and with the correct action of the parents during the illness of the child, immunity does not allow their intensive growth.

What should not be done during ARVI in the child, so as not to cause complications:

  • You can not use antitussives. Coughing is a natural reflex that helps the body to clear the trachea, bronchi and lungs from mucus, bacteria, toxins. If, for the purpose of reducing the intensity of dry cough, to use the antitussive drugs that affect the cough center in the brain, such as Stoptusin, Broncholitin, Libexin, Paxeladin, then sputum and bacteria may accumulate in the lower respiratory tract, which ultimately leads to pneumonia.
  • It is not possible to conduct any preventive therapy with antibiotics for colds, with a viral infection (see. antibiotics for colds). Against the virus, antibiotics are powerless, and with opportunistic bacteria immunity should cope, and only when complications arise according to the doctor's appointment is shown their use.
  • The same applies to the use of various nasal vasoconstrictors, their use contributes to a faster penetration virus in the lower respiratory tract, so galazolin, Naphthysine, Sanorin used in viral infection is not safe.
  • Abundant drink - one of the most effective methods of removing intoxication, dilution of sputum and rapid cleansing of respiratory There are plenty of ways to drink, even if the child refuses to drink, parents should be very persistent. If you do not insist that your child drink enough fluids, in addition, the room will have dry air - it will be promote drying of the mucosa, which can lead to a longer course of the disease or complication - bronchitis or pneumonia.
  • Permanent ventilation, lack of carpets and carpeting, daily wet cleaning of the room in which the child is, moisturizing and cleaning the air with a humidifier and air cleaner will help to quickly cope with the virus and prevent the development of pneumonia. As clean, cool, moist air helps to dissolve sputum, quickly remove toxins with sweat, cough, wet breath, which allows the child to recover faster.

Acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis - differences from pneumonia

With SARS usually the following symptoms:

  • High temperature in the first 2-3 days of the disease (see Fig. antipyretics for children)
  • Headache, chills, intoxication, weakness
  • Qatar upper respiratory tract, runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat (it does not always happen).

In acute bronchitis with Orvy, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Minor increase in body temperature, usually up to 38C.
  • First the cough is dry, then it becomes wet, there is no shortness of breath, unlike pneumonia.
  • Breathing becomes hard, on different sides there are variously scattered rales that change or disappear after coughing.
  • On the roentgenogram, the intensification of the pulmonary pattern is determined, the structure of the roots of the lungs decreases.
  • There are no local changes in the lungs.

Bronchiolitis occurs most often in children up to a year:

  • The difference between bronchiolitis and pneumonia can be determined only by X-ray examination, based on the absence of local changes in the lungs. According to the clinical picture, the acute symptoms of intoxication and the increase in respiratory insufficiency, the appearance of dyspnoea - very much resemble pneumonia.
  • With bronchiolitis, the breathing in a child is weakened, shortness of breath with the help of an auxiliary musculature, nasolabial triangle to become a bluish shade, a general cyanosis, a pronounced pulmonary-cardiac insufficiency, is possible. When listening to a boxed sound is detected, the mass of scattered small bubbling rales.

Signs of pneumonia in the child

With a high activity of the causative agent of the infection, or with a weak immune response of the body to it, when even the most effective preventive medical measures do not stop the inflammatory the process and the condition of the child deteriorates, the parents can for some symptoms guess that the child needs more serious treatment and urgent examination of the doctor. In this case, in no case should not begin treatment by any popular method. If it really is pneumonia, it will not only not help, but the condition may worsen and time for adequate examination and treatment will be missed.

Symptoms of pneumonia in a child 2 - 3 years and older

How to identify attentive parents with a cold or viral illness that it is necessary to urgently call a doctor and suspect a pneumonia in the child? Symptoms that require an X-ray diagnosis:

  • After Orvi, influenza within 3-5 days there is no improvement or after a slight improvement again there is a temperature jump and increased intoxication, coughing.
  • Lack of appetite, sluggishness of the child, sleep disturbance, capriciousness persist within a week after the onset of the illness.
  • The main symptom of the disease remains a strong cough.
  • The body temperature is not high, but the baby has shortness of breath. At the same time, the number of breaths per minute in a child increases, the rate of breaths per minute in children aged 1-3 years is 25-30 breaths, in children 4-6 years - a rate of 25 breaths per minute, if the child is in a relaxed calm state. With pneumonia, the number of breaths becomes larger than these figures.
  • With the other symptoms of a viral infection - cough, temperature, cold, severe pallor of the skin is observed.
  • If the temperature is high for more than 4 days and antipyretic agents such as Paracetamol, Efferalgan, Panadol, Tylenol are not effective.

Symptoms of pneumonia in infants, children under one year of age

The onset of the disease can be noticed by the mom by changing the behavior of the baby. If a child constantly wants to sleep, become listless, apathetic or vice versa, he is a lot naughty, cries, refuses from food, with a slight increase in temperature - mom should immediately contact the pediatrician.

Body temperature

In the first year of life, pneumonia in a child, a symptom of which is considered to be a high, not knocked down temperature, differs in that at this age it is not high, does not reach 37.5 or even 37.1-37.3. The temperature is not an indication of the severity of the state.

The first symptoms of pneumonia in an infant

This causeless anxiety, lethargy, decreased appetite, the baby refuses the breast, the sleep becomes restless, short, appears a loose stool, there may be vomiting or regurgitation, a runny nose and paroxysmal cough that increases during crying or feeding the baby.

Child's breathing

Pain in the chest with breathing and coughing.
Sputum - with a damp cough, purulent or mucopurulent sputum (yellow or green) is secreted.
Shortness of breath or an increase in the number of respiratory movements in young children is a clear sign of pneumonia in a child. Dyspnoea in babies can be accompanied by nodding to the breath, as well as the baby blows his cheeks and extends his lips, sometimes there are foamy discharge from the mouth and nose. The symptom of pneumonia is considered to be the excess of the number of breaths per minute:

  • In children up to 2 months - the norm is up to 50 breaths per minute, more than 60 is considered a high frequency.
  • In children, after 2 months to a year, the norm is 25-40 breaths, if 50 or more, this is an excess of the norm.
  • In children older than one year, the number of breaths more than 40 is considered a shortness of breath.

The skin relief during breathing changes. Attentive parents can also notice the retraction of the skin during breathing, more often on one side of the patient's lung. To notice this, it is necessary to undress the baby and observe the skin between the ribs, it retracts when breathing.

With extensive lesions, there may be a lag of one side of the lung with deep breathing. Sometimes you can notice periodic stopping of breathing, disturbance of rhythm, depth, breathing frequency and the child's desire to lie on one side.

Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle

This is the most important symptom of pneumonia, when the blue skin appears between the lips and the spout of the baby. Especially this sign is pronounced when the child sucks the breast. With severe respiratory failure, a slight blueing can be not only on the face, but also on the body.

Chlamydia, mycoplasmal pneumonia in children

Among the pneumonias, the causative agents of which are not banal bacteria, but various atypical representatives secrete mycoplasmal and chlamydial pneumonia. In children, the symptoms of such pneumonia are slightly different from the course of the usual pneumonia. Sometimes they are characterized by a hidden sluggish current. Symptoms of SARS in a child can be as follows:

  • The onset of the disease is characterized by a sharp rise in body temperature to 39.5C, then a stable low-grade fever -37.2-37.5 is formed or even a temperature normalization occurs.
  • It is also possible the onset of the disease with the usual signs of ARVI - sneezing, choking in the throat, a bad cold.
  • Persistent dry debilitating cough, shortness of breath may not be permanent. Such a cough usually occurs with acute bronchitis, and not pneumonia, which complicates the diagnosis.
  • When listening to a doctor, scanty data are usually presented: rare variegated rattles, pulmonary percussion sound. Therefore, according to the nature of wheezing, it is difficult for a doctor to determine atypical pneumonia, since there are no traditional signs, which greatly complicates the diagnosis.
  • In the analysis of blood in atypical pneumonia there may be no significant changes. But usually there is increased ESR, neutrophilic leukocytosis, a combination with anemia, leukopenia, eosinophilia.
  • On the x-ray of the chest reveals a pronounced enhancement of the pulmonary pattern, non-uniform focal infiltration of the pulmonary fields.
  • Both chlamydia and mycoplasma have a feature that exists for a long time in the epithelial cells of the bronchi and lungs, therefore, pneumonia usually has a prolonged recurrent character.
  • Treatment of atypical pneumonia in the child is carried out by macrolides (azithromycin, josamycin, clarithromycin), since the causative agents to them are the most sensitive (to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, too, but they are contraindicated for children).

Indications for hospitalization

The decision on where to treat a child with pneumonia - in a hospital or at home, the doctor takes, while he takes into account several factors:

  • The severity of the condition and the presence of complications - respiratory failure, pleurisy, acute disorders of consciousness, cardiac insufficiency, falling blood pressure, lung abscess, pleural empyema, infectious-toxic shock, sepsis.
  • The defeat of several lobes of the lung. Treatment of focal pneumonia in the child at home is entirely possible, but with croupous pneumonia treatment is best done in a hospital.
  • Social indications are poor living conditions, inability to perform care and doctor's prescriptions.
  • Age of the child - if the infant is sick, this is the reason for hospitalization, because the pneumonia of the baby is a serious threat to life. If pneumonia develops in a child under 3 years of age, treatment depends on the severity of the condition and most often doctors insist on hospitalization. Older children can be treated at home provided that the pneumonia is not severe.
  • General health - in the presence of chronic diseases, weakened overall health of the child, regardless of age, the doctor may insist on hospitalization.

Treatment of pneumonia in children

How to treat pneumonia in children? The basis of therapy for pneumonia is antibiotics. At a time when there were no antibiotics in the arsenal of doctors for bronchitis and pneumonia, a very frequent cause of death of adults and children was pneumonia, therefore, in no case can not refuse to use them, no folk remedies for pneumonia are effective. From the parents it is required to strictly follow all the doctor's recommendations, the proper care of the child, the observance of the drinking regime, nutrition:

  • Admission of antibiotics must be carried out strictly in time, if the appointment of the drug 2 times in day, this means that there should be a break between meals at 12 o'clock, if 3 times a day, then a break of 8 hours (see. 11 rules how to take antibiotics correctly). Antibiotics are prescribed - penicillins, cephalosporins for 7 days, macrolides (azithromycin, josamycin, clarithromycin) - 5 days. The effectiveness of the drug is estimated within 72 hours - an improvement in appetite, a decrease in temperature, dyspnea.
  • Antipyretics are used if the temperature is above 39C, in infants above 38C. Initially, antibiotic treatment of antipyretics is not prescribed, as the evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy is difficult. It should be remembered that during a high temperature in the body produces the maximum number of antibodies against the causative agent of the disease, so if the child can tolerate the temperature of 38C, it is better not to knock it down. So the body quickly cope with the microbe that caused pneumonia in the baby. If the child had at least one episode of febrile seizures, the temperature should be knocked down already at 37.5C.
  • Nutrition of the child with pneumonia - lack of appetite in children during illness is considered natural and the child's refusal to admit food is explained by the increased burden on the liver when fighting infection, so you can not force a child to feed. If possible, prepare light food for the patient, exclude any ready-made chemical products, fried and fatty, try to feed the child simple, easily digestible food - cereals, soups on a weak broth, steamed cutlets from low-fat meat, boiled potatoes, various vegetables, fruits.
  • Oral hydration - in water, natural freshly diluted juices - carrot, apple, slightly boiled tea with raspberries, rose hips infusion, water-electrolyte solutions (Regidron and others) are added.
  • Airing, daily wet cleaning, use of air humidifiers - ease the condition of the baby, and the love and care of parents works wonders.
  • No restorative (synthetic vitamins), antihistamines, immunomodulating agents are not used, as often lead to side effects and do not improve the course and outcome of pneumonia.

Reception of antibiotics for pneumonia in a child (uncomplicated) usually does not exceed 7 days (macrolides 5 days), and if bed rest is observed, follow all recommendations doctor, in the absence of complications, the child quickly recovers, but for a month there will still be residual effects in the form of a cough, minor weakness. With atypical pneumonia, treatment can be delayed.

In the treatment of antibiotics in the body, the intestinal microflora is broken, so the doctor prescribes probiotics - RioFlora Immuno, Acipol, Bifiform, Bifidumbacterin, Normobakt, Lactobacterin. Analogues of Linex - a list of all probiotics). To remove toxins after the end of therapy, the doctor can prescribe sorbents, such as Polysorb, Enterosgel, Filtrum.

With the effectiveness of treatment for general regimen and walks, it is possible to transfer the child from the 6th to the 10th day of the disease, the hardening to resume after 2-3 weeks. With a mild pneumonia, large physical exertion (sport) is allowed after 6 weeks, with complicated after 12 weeks.

zdravotvet.ru

Signs of pneumonia in the child

priznaki pnevmonii u rebenkaVery often children's colds can be complicated by pneumonia. This is a very serious disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat, pneumonia can be different, they depend on which zone of inflammation is covered. The most common form of pneumonia affects children who have not yet reached the age of three, they are atypically leaking, because children can not cough up phlegm and do not say in which area they feel pain. In young children, pneumonia is almost not audible, because children are restless, cry. It is very important to identify this disease in advance so that there are no serious complications.

Causes of pneumonia in children

Most often pneumonia occurs due to microbes - pneumococci. In children under 3 years old, pneumonia can cause staphylococcus, very rarely a chlamydial or microplasma pathogen, as well as pneumonia in children occurs due to several microbes.

Very rarely, children have pneumonia on their own, most often it is the result of a viral infection or a complication after the flu. This is due to the fact that the cold reduces immunity in the respiratory tract and immunity ceases to fight. Due to the fact that viruses affect the mucous membranes in the airways, microbes that are in the upper and lower respiratory ways are not completely destroyed, they start multiplying more strongly, and form a microbial process and pneumonia.

Often, pneumonia runs the risk of getting sick of children who are very tired and overcooled when they have frozen their legs. The cold becomes complicated when the baby is surrounded by pneumococci and other microbes, both children and adults can bear them. Also, pneumonia develops if germs or other infectious foci, kidney or intestinal, have been introduced into the bloodstream. When lung tissue is dominated by heat and humidity, microbes rapidly multiply, and pneumonia develops.

Danger of pneumonia for children

For infants, this is a deadly disease, when microbes begin to enter the lungs, they begin to destroy tissues, and there may be swelling and inflammation. Thus, the permeability of the lungs to oxygen is violated, that is, the baby begins to suffocate, while there is a marked disturbance in the metabolism, carbon dioxide is removed from the tissues, and they are no longer supplied with oxygen.

When there is inflammation, a lot of toxins start to appear, because of this the child intoxication and disrupted general health, this further worsens the patient's well-being. It is important to consider how much tissue in the lung is affected, it depends on it, how serious the disease is.

Types of pneumonia in children

1. Focal pneumonia occurs when a small area of ​​the lung becomes inflamed.

2. Segmental pneumonia occurs when only a certain segment of the lung is inflamed, this lesion is more extensive than the previous one.

3. Fracture pneumonia is considered a very severe form, because breathing is disturbed, due to the fact that a large section of the lung tissue can fall out.

4. Very dangerous for the child is total pneumonia, it affects the entire lung, it can be of two types - one-sided and two-sided. This is a serious disease.

Pneumonia is characterized by the fact that the metabolism is disturbed, because the inflammation of the lung begins to affect all the systems of the body. Microbes at the same time secrete toxins, can affect the nerve tissue, while the mind is depressed and the person is overexcited. There may be hypoxia, because of this, blood circulation increases, while a person feels a heavy load on the cardiovascular system, because of this very much loses weight and he develops neurasthenia. It is very important to recognize the symptoms of pneumonia in time and start treatment on time, if it is not treated in time it can have serious and deplorable consequences for the child.

How is pneumonia manifested in children of different species?

Pneumonia depends on which area of ​​inflammation, if it is large and active, means the disease will be severe. Most often pneumonia in children is treated well.

Bronchopneumonia or focal pneumonia is a complication of ARVI, it can begin with the common cold, runny nose, cough and drowsiness, then the infection goes very deep. The virus begins to affect the bronchi, then the lung tissue, microbes join it and the disease worsens.

Signs of pneumonia in children

1. Sharp deterioration in the health of the baby.

2. The appearance of a very dry or wet cough that is deep.

3. There may be shortness of breath when sucking, crying and exercising, and even in a dream.

4. In the breath begin to participate thoracic cellular muscles.

5. The temperature rises from 38 to 39 degrees, and almost does not go astray.

6. If the baby has problems with immunity, there may be no fever and body temperature on the contrary decreases.

7. The body temperature with pneumonia lasts for several days, even after the active treatment has begun.

8. The baby is pale when examined, blue may appear around the mouth and nose.

9. The child is restless, does not eat well and sleeps a lot.

10. When listening to the bronchi can be observed hard breathing, this indicates the inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.

11. Over the lungs small rattles are heard, they are damp, they do not disappear after the baby coughs.

12. In the heart there may be tachycardia, vomiting and nausea, stomach aches, a loose stool appears, because of this, intestinal infection also joins.

13. With pneumonia, the liver is enlarged.

14. The child comes in serious condition.

So, it is very important to diagnose the lung disease of a child in time and begin timely treatment, so you can get rid of complications and help the child cope with the disease. Diagnosis of the disease can be with the help of an X-ray, in the picture visible darkened areas of the lung, this indicates inflammation and tissue tightening. A general blood test has an increased amount of white blood cells, which also indicates an inflammatory process.


medportal.su

How is right-sided upper-lobe pneumonia manifested and treated?

As the name of the disease shows, right upper-lobe pneumonia develops in the upper part of the right lung. This disease is severe. The victim suffers from shortness of breath, fever with a possible transition to a state of delirium.

The problem of right-sided pneumonia

Pneumonia affects the right lung more often than the left one. This is due to the anatomical structure of the body: the right bronchus is shorter and broader, so the infection is easier to spread over it.

Inflammation of the lungs is another name for pneumonia. The disease was very dangerous until the discovery of penicillin. At this time, the disease is well treated, especially if diagnosed at the beginning of its development. But about 5 percent of the number of people who die fall to this day. Therefore, pneumonia should be taken seriously.

How is manifested upper lobe pneumonia

Scheme of lobar pneumonia

Diseases of the infectious and inflammatory nature are difficult to distinguish from each other, so the sick person does not always understand if he simply has caught a cold or is already starting to develop a more serious illness.

With right-sided pneumonia, the inflammatory process develops in the right lung. Accordingly, the left-sided affects the left.

Blame for the development of the disease of pneumococcus bacteria and Klebsiella. The human body into which they fall, for example, by airborne droplets, does not immediately react to their presence. Pathogens are delayed for some time on the mucous membranes, for example, the nose or larynx. The disease does not start to overpower a person, but his immune system understands that foreign organisms have appeared, and it's time to get ready to fight them.

If, for some reason, the immunity weakens, the bacteria from the mucous are transferred to the lungs. Here they are actively multiplying. The cause of reduced immunity may be hypothermia, colds, repeated contact with a sick person.

Upper-lobar pneumonia differs from others in severe disease. The patient's condition worsens very sharply. He feels a prolonged fever. Perhaps the onset of delirium. There is a poisoning of the whole organism, the health of other systems is disrupted.

This disease is most affected by elderly people and those who have problems with the immune system.

Symptoms of the disease resemble fever:

Dry cough - a symptom of upper-annual pneumonia
  • the patient is constantly shivering;
  • he experiences muscle aches;
  • it causes severe headaches.

Upper-lobar pneumonia manifests itself suddenly. If the patient was sick in the evening and experienced some malaise, it is so insignificant that he did not associate it with a possible ailment. And already in the morning there are difficulties with breathing: it becomes superficial. The person even is afraid to take a deep breath, as it experiences thus a pain. It begins a painful cough, dry and exhausting.

The temperature that has appeared is not lost, and if it can be done, then only for a short time. Gradually, the following symptoms are added:

  • digestive problems, nausea;
  • the whites of the eyes turn yellow due to the destruction of red blood cells in the blood;
  • on the lips appear rashes;
  • at rest, shortness of breath does not stop.

Sometimes there comes a state similar to what happens with meningitis. Sometimes the patient is haunted by hallucinations.

Diagnosis and treatment of right-sided pneumonia

Laboratory blood test for diagnosis of the disease

Determine the presence of pneumonia with the help of radiography.

At the reception the doctor examines the patient and interrogates him. The specialist must listen to wheezing in the lungs, because this method remains to this day the best in detecting pathology. Even with modern technology, an experienced doctor will be able to correctly hear and understand what kind of noise in the respiratory organs.

The radiograph shows how much of the lung is affected by inflammation. This is a very objective method. It is also good that in the absence of an experienced doctor it will always help to correctly diagnose.

Other methods of diagnosis - a laboratory blood test, bacterial culture of sputum. By blood, changes in leukocytes, ESR and others are determined. A sputum indicates the type of pathogen. But this analysis is ready only a few days after the sampling of the biomaterial. Doctors do not wait for the result, and prescribe the treatment immediately, using the standard scheme. And after receiving data from the laboratory, additional drugs are prescribed.

Right-sided pneumonia of the upper lobe is fraught with dangerous complications if it is not treated. It happens that the pathology leads to disability of the patient and even to death.

Treatment of pneumonia in hospital settings

Treatment of the disease is carried out with antibacterial therapy. Penicillins, ampicillins and many other things are applied, depending on the type of pathogen. The patient takes them strictly according to the doctor's prescription. The entire medical process is controlled by radiographs and laboratory analyzes.

It happens that a patient enters a hospital in a serious condition. In this case, the treatment begins with the normalization of the patient's condition. This can be ventilation with artificial means, adjusting the balance of water and salts, restoring blood pressure and other measures.

The doctor can prescribe antipyretic drugs, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, painkillers.

Without fail the patient accepts the funds that help to strengthen or correct the immunity.

To all medications can add therapeutic massage, physiotherapy procedures, therapeutic exercise.

Inflammation of the lungs is a serious disease, therefore, only the doctor prescribes all the treatment procedures. Often the patient needs appropriate care, special procedures. Therefore, upper-lobe pneumonia is most often treated in a hospital.

Upper-lobe right-sided pneumonia in children

High fever in a child with pneumonia

This disease most often develops in those children who have recently had a flu, colds or inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. The main cause of the disease is weakened immunity.

Pediatric right-sided pneumonia refers to focal ailments. It develops after diseases of the bronchial system. Several foci of varying degrees of inflammation develop in the upper lobe of the right lung. Bacteria can not penetrate into one vast area, but affect different foci. Subsequently they can unite into one big one. This complicates further treatment.

Symptoms of this disease in a child are similar with more mild ailments. This cough, fever, excessive sweating. The doctor can listen in the child's lungs with constant wheezing with gurgling. The baby does not have enough air, so he has difficulty breathing: it becomes intermittent and stiff. Children's health can not be risked. Malicious bacteria have a harmful effect on the immunity of the child. Delay in treatment is unacceptable.

Treatment for a sick child is prescribed depending on the stage of the disease. The most effective is considered antibacterial therapy.

Right-sided inflammation in a child requires in-patient treatment, since proper care and constant monitoring of the patient's condition due to the action of antibiotics is necessary.

With properly organized treatment, the child's condition improves on the 6th day. At the end of the treatment course, radiography is mandatory, as this is the best way to diagnose pneumonia.

Upper-lobar pneumonia on the right side of children is not so common. Prevention of this disease is possible in the form of vaccinations. They are carried out with special vaccines, pneumococcal and influenza. But not all children are shown. There are risk groups that can not be done.

respiratoria.ru

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