- What diseases of the intestines require a special diet?
- What are the signs of a bowel disease?
- Rules for compiling a diet for intestinal pathology
- Features of the diet table №3
- Dietary table №4 and its features
- When recommend table options №4?
- Related Videos
Doctors pay attention to the growth of intestinal disorders, according to statistics. They have become more frequent both among children and in the adult environment. The increase in life expectancy has aggravated the problem of atony in old age, and the "rejuvenation" of peptic ulcer, gastritis, and cholecystitis causes an early collateral lesion in adolescents.
The elucidation of the reasons shows how important nutrition is for the health of the intestine. From the proper operation of the intestine depends on the intake of energy substrates, vitamins, the level of immunity in the body. Failure leads to the occurrence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary system. To restore functions and treatment, it is necessary to introduce foods useful for the intestine.
What kind of diseases of the intestines do you need a special diet?
Among the most common pathology of the intestine are:
- functional diseases caused by impaired motor skills( dyspepsia, dyskinesia, irritable bowel syndrome);
- inflammatory bowel disease, including autoimmune and infectious nature of the lesion( enteritis, gastroenteritis, colitis, enterocolitis, Crohn's disease);
- tumors( thick and small intestine, benign and malignant).
"Culprits" of the lesion may be other diseases of the overlying organs that ensure the proper digestion of food before entering the intestine, or primary disorders that occur directly in the duodenum, the large intestine.
Digestive problems occur in response to taking medication, improper diet and diet, stressful situations, weight lifting or physical inactivity. This effect must be excluded in the treatment of diseases.
Often students and students suffer from diarrhea during exams
What are the signs of a bowel disease?
On the digestive disorder in the intestine, one should think about if there are:
- pains around the navel, in the lower abdomen on both sides, cramping or pulling associated with eating;
- diarrhea or constipation;
- constant bloating, rumbling;
- unclear nausea, loss of appetite;
- in feces admixture of blood or mucus;
- a long low temperature;
- unmotivated fatigue, weakness;
- weight reduction.
These symptoms require medical attention, clarification of the cause and timely treatment. The role of medications, regimen and dietary nutrition is equally important in therapy.
Rules for compiling a diet for intestinal pathology
The intestinal diet for various diseases has features, but it must provide:
- maximum shaking by the amount of food arrived( for example, in the postoperative period to complete hunger and switching to the introduction of nutrient solutions intravenously) - is achieved by fractional feeding in small portions 6-7 times a day, avoiding overeating;
- eliminating irritants of any type( chemical, mechanical) - dishes containing seasonings, pickles, marinades, spicy sauces, all fried, smoked, canned, alcohol are excluded;the method of cooking, quenching, steaming is allowed, the allowed set of products is dictated by a feature of the functional state of the intestine;
- patient's use of dishes of reasonable consistency( liquid, wiped, semi-liquid, crushed);
- intake of sufficient quantities of food to support metabolism, energy exchange, vitamin and water balance;
- a careful attitude to the composition of the intestinal flora, dysbiosis significantly worsens the prognosis of any disease( for example, excess protein food helps to suppress beneficial bacteria);
- adherence to a consistent transition to normal diet, if treatment of an acute disease was carried out, fulfilling requirements all life - in chronic pathology.
Diet in bowel disease is based on a difference in functional disorders, which are manifested by constipation or diarrhea. Dieticians are advised to use, approved by the classification of Pevzner, tables number 3 and number 4( with options).They allow you to choose the right menu for a specific patient's diet. Here are the basic requirements and tips for choosing the available products to maintain a balanced diet.
Features of the diet table №3
Table number 3 is used for physiological conditions( pregnancy) and intestinal diseases, with constipation. These include atony of the intestine, which arose when traveling with climate and water changes, against the background of the necessary long bed rest, enterocolitis, partial adhesive obstruction, general dystrophic disorders in old age, hypodynamia.
If constipation is caused by exacerbation of a chronic disease, then recommendations need to be adjusted, since diet 3 includes irritants. The purpose of the diet is:
- increased peristaltic active movements of the large intestine;
- exclusion of processes of increased fermentation, putrefaction;
- compensation of irritant effects on the intestines of bile acids.
Criteria of use is the regular cleansing of the intestine, the cessation of bloating. The products to be excluded include those that do not contain enough fiber, are quickly absorbed:
- buns, soft wheat bread, culinary and pasta, cakes, sweets;
- dishes from fatty meat and fish, rich broths;
- canned food, smoked sausages and sausages;
- whole milk;
- porridge of rice, mango, casseroles with these cereals;
- beans( peas, beans, lentils);
- eggs in fried form;
- garlic and onion;
- mushrooms in any form;
- chocolate, ice cream;
- alcohol, carbonated drinks.
From a set of vegetables you will need to exclude radish, radish, cabbage
Among berries, quince, dogwood, blueberry in fresh form, compote or jam are not recommended. Of fruits you need to give up pears, bananas, grapes. Favorite onions and garlic, as well as radish and radish contain a significant amount of extractive substances that irritate the intestinal mucosa. Sweets and pastries include too many light carbohydrates, provoking fermentation and supporting decay.
Products that help to cleanse the intestine:
- yesterday, dried rye or rye-wheat bread, "Dietetic", "Otrubnoy", "Multi-grain", dry bread;
- lean meat and fish soup;
- steam cutlets, meatballs, boiled chicken meat dishes;
- sausages "Dairy";
- yogurt, yoghurt, yogurt, ayran and other sour-milk drinks made no more than 3 days( at other term they have a fixing effect);
- cottage cheese is low in fat, rough cheese of solid grades.
Milk allowed to add to the porridge. Cereals are boiled on water, the most useful in composition are buckwheat, millet, pearl barley, oatmeal).Eggs can be eaten hard-boiled or added 2 times a week in the first course. From fresh vegetables it is recommended to cook salads with vegetable oil more often. Useful: cauliflower, cucumber, zucchini, carrots, pumpkin, beets, tomatoes, vegetable juices.
Showing fresh berries and fruits( including excluded), dried fruit compote. Particularly prized is dried apricots, figs, raisins. For drinking use a weak green tea, herbal decoctions. You can eat sweets based on fruit jelly( marmalade, pastille), honey in small quantities, jam from the permitted berries and fruits.
Table number 3 allows you to eat a day total weight, not exceeding 3 kg, it is useful to drink liquid in a volume of 1.5-2 liters. Diet in full compliance with the requirements gives the possibility of long-term use, selection of products. Some nutritionists consider it a significant disadvantage - a ban on whole milk.
Dietary table №4 and its features
Diet №4 is used for diseases and conditions accompanied by diarrhea( intestinal infections, enteritis, enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome, traveler's diarrhea), in the postoperative period with surgical intestinal interventions.
The diet has the following objectives: reducing the inflammation in the intestines, reducing peristalsis, eliminating the processes of fermentation, avoiding rotting. In addition to general requirements for the protection of the intestine, special:
- all dishes should be ground, liquid and semi-liquid in consistency;
- is allowed to reduce the calorie content to 1,700 calories due to limited inclusion of carbohydrates and fats for a period of not more than a week, while observing the norms for the amount of protein;
- from food, any products containing substances that increase the secretion of gastric juice are excluded.
Soup with white rusks complies with the requirements of diet number 4
- fatty, rich fish and meat broths, vegetable soups with dressing with coarse groats( pearl barley), dairy soup with vermicelli;
- buns, bread with bran, rye flour;
- dishes from fatty meat or fish in the form of a roasted piece;
- canned food;
- herring and salted fish;
- whole milk, products from yoghurt, sour cream, high fat cottage cheese, hot cheeses;Eggs like fried and boiled eggs;
- porridge of pearl barley, millet, millet;
- any legumes, soy products;
- fresh vegetables and fruits, salads;
- spicy seasonings, spices;
- sweets, confectionery, honey and jam;
- the addition of milk in tea and coffee.
You can include bread in the menu:
- only wheat, dried or yesterday without crusts( up to 200 g per day), crackers;
- soups and broths of lean meat and fish with the addition of meatballs, minced meat, egg white;
- liquid, boiled to mucous condition, porridge( rice, oatmeal, semolina, buckwheat), cooked on water or broth;
- cutlets, meatballs are prepared from low-fat, double-scrolled minced meat, poultry steamed;
- cottage cheese is nonfat, non-acidic;
- a teaspoon of butter is added to the prepared dish in the plate;
- eggs in a steam omelette, soft-boiled;
- vegetable soups from broths, stewed mashed potatoes;
- fruit stewed, in jelly, grated apple.
It is allowed to drink broth of dogrose, juices from berries( plum, apricot, grape are excluded), weak green and black tea, coffee.
When are table options 4 recommended?
Diarrhea, as one of the symptoms, occurs with various diseases of the digestive system. Therefore, dietary variants 4a, 4b, 4c and 4g allow you to select the food for a particular case. Diet 4a - is indicated for patients with colitis and increased fermentation, expressed by flatulence. It limits bread mass to 100 grams per day, sugar to 20 g. More protein products such as fresh low-fat cottage cheese, steamed meat and fish dishes are allowed. The best is calcined cottage cheese.
Calcined curd is obtained by adding to the milk solution or powder of calcium chloride salt
Diet 4b - it is recommended for patients with chronic colitis during the period of symptomatology submentia( subacute).The list of allowed products includes dry biscuits, biscuits, sandwiches with mild cheese, kefir. In porridge, coffee, tea, you can add milk. The amount of salt increases( up to 10 g per day).Add vitamins to ready meals.
Diet 4b - is prescribed when a combination of enterocolitis with other diseases of the digestive system during the recovery period. Its task is to prevent functional intestinal problems. It plays a preventive role. In cooking, you do not need to twist, grind, grind. The allowed amount of carbohydrates and proteins is 2 times higher than with the classical diet, fats up to 100 g. The energy intensity is 2500 kcal.
Diet 4g - is used if bowel diseases are combined with chronic pancreatitis at the stage of recovery, in the clinical course prevails diarrhea. Immediately after the "hungry" diet, it is impossible to transfer such a patient to the table number 5.The composition is almost no different from 4c, but the calorie content is lower( 1800 kcal / day).
With good tolerability, you can sweeten porridge, honey tea. Of fruits, only sweet varieties are useful, berries can be eaten without dense skin. Indications for diets and the time of transition from one species to another depends on the course of bowel disease. Determine in advance how long it is impossible to apply them. In each case, consult a doctor.