Sinusitis is a disease in which the mucous membrane of the maxillary, or maxillary sinus, is inflamed. The main cause of the disease is infection. Diagnosis of sinusitis during pregnancy and its treatment is done only by a doctor. Symptoms in the form of a common cold are many women seem insignificant, but self-medication or ignoring the disease can lead to serious consequences.
- Description of the disease
- How to treat sinusitis in pregnancy
- Home Treatment
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Description of the disease
During sinusitis, the maxillary sinus becomes inflamed. Most often, the disease occurs against the background of a cold or cold, the treatment of which has not been given due attention. Patients have nothing to breathe, since their nose is constantly embedded. The paranasal sinuses are filled with thick mucus, the outflow of it is difficult. Any movement of the head causes severe pain.
The disease can be unilateral or bilateral, when one or both sinuses become inflamed. The maxillary sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity and throat. These structures have narrow outlets. When supercooled, bacteria easily penetrate into the sinuses. Begins swelling of the mucous, which makes it difficult to release mucus. Especially dangerous is purulent maxillary sinusitis, since the infection can get into the brain.
Depending on the way the infection penetrates into the maxillary sinus, sinusitis occurs:
The rhinogenic develops against the background of a cold or flu. The virus enters the sinuses, nasal congestion arises, a large amount of mucus is formed, which hardly leaves. With hematogenous sinusitis, the infection of the infectious agent in the sinuses occurs through the blood. Traumatic type is associated with a fracture of the nose, if the wound is not processed well enough.
Odontogenic sinusitis occurs due to inflammation of the tissues near the roots of the teeth. Sometimes the disease develops when the upper tooth is removed, when a message is formed between the sinus and the oral cavity. If the doctor did not remove the fistula in time, complications may occur. Sometimes in the treatment of teeth, the filling material gets into the sinus and causes inflammation.
Important! To correctly determine the cause of sinusitis, you need to do a radiograph of the upper jaw! If there is no inflammation in the pictures, the origin of the disease is associated with an infection in the nasal passages or other causes.
The most common cause of sinusitis in pregnant women are various infections (streptococci, chlamydia, staphylococci, viruses, fungi).
Provoke the disease can hypothermia, weakening of the immune system, hormonal failures. Often, the disease occurs as a complication after a flu or cold. Problems with upper chewing teeth, injuries, curvature of the nasal septum, cyst, polyps, smoking, allergies are also the causes of sinusitis.
Important! What is dangerous sinusitis? The launched form of the disease in some cases leads to meningitis. For a day a woman can fall into a coma. In 80% of cases it ends with death.
Sinusitis in pregnant women is acute (catarrhal or purulent) or chronic. The acute form develops as a complication after the transferred infectious diseases or due to inflammatory diseases of the teeth. Chronic maxillary sinusitis occurs after an untreated acute, in which the outflow of accumulated secretions in the sinuses is difficult.
Symptoms of acute sinusitis:
- arises suddenly;
- develops rapidly;
- nasal breathing is difficult;
- high temperature (38 degrees and above);
- dull pain in the forehead, nose;
- lasts about 10-14 days;
- nasal congestion;
- a large number of watery discharge.
Symptoms of purulent sinusitis:
- pain between the eyebrows or in the entire head;
- tenderness when the head is tilted;
- edema of the face;
- swelling in the nose bridge;
- slime thick, greenish color;
- absence of smell;
- temperature 39 degrees and above;
- lasts more than two weeks (without treatment).
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis:
- fast fatiguability;
- temperature 37.5 degrees (subfebrile);
- nasal congestion;
- highlighting white, yellow or green;
- the smell of mucus can be putrefactive;
- nasal voice;
- in the throat due to the constant flow of mucus;
- the sense of smell is broken;
- Edema in the cheeks, eyelids;
- loss of appetite.
The diagnosis is established by the doctor on the basis of examination of a sick woman, her complaints. Assign a blood test to see the leukocyte formula - the degree of leukocytosis, ESR, cell shifts. It is necessary to conduct a cytological study of mucus to determine its cellular composition. For clarification of the pathogen, bacilli of excreta are assigned.
Usually, sinusitis is determined with the help of radiography, but during pregnancy it is undesirable to conduct it, as well as computed tomography. If necessary, cover the stomach with a lead apron and scan the sinuses of the nose. Women with a severe purulent form of the disease recommend a sinus puncture. This diagnostic and therapeutic method - the sinus cavity is washed, injected with antibacterial drugs.
How to treat sinusitis in pregnancy
To eliminate nasal congestion in the 3rd trimester, vasoconstrictive drops (Nazivin) are recommended. At the beginning of pregnancy, he is appointed according to strict indications. The drug reduces the swelling and stuffiness of the nose. Nazivin is dripped into both nostrils for 5 days. You can use a plant anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory drug Sinupret in the form of tablets and drinking drops. Assign 2 tablets three times a day for 7 days.
A good effect is provided by ultrasonic inhalation and drug treatment with the use of Acetylcysteine, Carbomethylcysteine. With the help of these medicines, the mucus in the sinuses is liquefied, its excretion is facilitated.
- Women who have 3 trimester without complications, can take antibiotics to remove the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses (Azithromycin, Spiramycin). In the early stages, such drugs are prescribed according to strict indications. Chronic sinusitis requires additional medical treatment. The course of taking antibiotics - 5-10 days.
- With purulent discharge, homeopathic remedies are used - Mercurius solubilis, Kalium bichromicum. Preparations are prescribed when there are greenish discharge from the nose.
In the first trimester, it is recommended to wash the nose. There are two ways of doing this procedure:
- With jet drip irrigation a woman needs to tilt her head forward and open her mouth. In one nostril, an antiseptic solution is poured through the tube, which is poured out of the other nostril.
- Another way is called "cuckoo". It is used even at 39 weeks of pregnancy. The woman lies on her back, using a syringe in one nostril, warm Furatsilin or Miramistin is injected, and the vacuum solution injected solution together with the mucus is sucked from the other nostril. The patient needs to constantly say "ku-ku" during the procedure.
The disease can be treated with a device called YAMIK (sinus catheter). From the sinuses, pus is removed, medications are poured into them. The disease in this case is treated without a puncture.
Genyantritis in pregnant women (2nd trimester) is also treated with the help of physiotherapy procedures. Apparatus UHF stimulates blood circulation and promotes the removal of mucus from the sinuses. Electrophoresis is used to improve the yield of excreta. With the help of magnetotherapy, they affect the places of mucus accumulation, and this leads to an improvement in the outflow of sinus contents. The consequences for the fetus from such procedures are minimal.
In severe forms of the disease, a puncture of the maxillary sinuses is used. Through the nasal cavity a needle is inserted into the sinus and purulent contents are pumped out. Then the mucous membrane is washed with a disinfectant solution and an antibiotic is injected. Immediately after the procedure, the woman will feel relief. Pregnancy after sinusitis usually proceeds without complications.
Important! If the puncture is done incorrectly, complications can develop: abscess of cheeks, meningitis, otitis, phlegmon of the orbit. Severe consequences in patients arise due to anatomical features, low qualification of the doctor conducting the procedure. Care must be taken to select an otolaryngologist.
To get rid of mucus in the sinuses, folk treatment is often used. At home, folk remedies can get rid of the painful symptoms of the disease. They act more gently than medications, so they are recommended for women in early and late pregnancy.
Methods of treatment:
- Preparation of home ointments. 1 tbsp. l. Honey is melted in a water bath, a few drops of vegetable oil and garlic or onions are added. This ointment is impregnated with turuncas and inserted into the nose. The course of treatment is 14 days. Ointment improves the outflow of mucus.
- Home drops. Squeezed juice of aloe or calanchoe (2 drops three times a day) should be dripped into each nostril. You can add a couple drops of honey or beet juice. Drops remove puffiness and inflammation, remove mucus.
- Washing. The nose is washed with a decoction of chamomile, propolis, celandine. You can use saline solution.
- Steam inhalation. Boil water, add essential oils of eucalyptus, ginger, tea tree, cumin. Before the procedure you need to clean your nose and drink an infusion of licorice root, an althea for liquefaction of sputum.
- Massage. To eliminate stuffiness, massage the paranasal zone for 10 minutes.
- Rinsing. Prepare herbal tinctures of yarrow, calendula, chamomile. Chilled infusion should rinse your nose several times a day. It will take 1 hour. l. dried herbs for 1 cup of boiling water.
Important! To reduce the risk of negative consequences for the child, it is better to use safe methods. But the effectiveness of folk remedies is challenged by many otolaryngologists. Do not self-medicate. Before the procedure, you should consult a doctor, especially during pregnancy.
To not get sick of sinusitis during pregnancy, you need to carefully monitor your health. Any runny nose should be treated immediately with drops prepared independently, or bought at a pharmacy. You can not bring the disease to a chronic form.
- A special role in prevention is played by proper nutrition, enriched with fresh fruits and vegetables, and abundant drink.
- It is necessary to avoid contact with people with signs of a cold. During epidemics, a bandage should be worn.
- It is necessary to regularly brush your teeth, monitor their condition.
- Try not to eat allergenic foods - citrus fruits, chocolate, nuts.
- It is required to observe the regime of the day, do not overwork.
Sinusitis reacts sharply to hypothermia. During pregnancy, you need to dress for the weather, do not catch cold. If symptoms appear, consult a doctor. In time, the treatment will relieve sinus infection without sinus puncture.