1Fracture of the big toe: first signs, treatment, rehabilitation and consequences
- 1.1What are the causes of injuries to the toes?
- 1.2Open and closed fractures
- 1.3With and without offset
- 1.4What are the symptoms of a fracture of the big toe?
- 1.5Signs that determine the fracture of the finger
- 1.6First Aid for Injury
- 1.7Treatment of a fracture of a finger
- 1.8Can complications arise?
- 1.9Corneal callus
- 1.10False joint
- 1.14Rehabilitation period after a fracture of the big toe
2Fracture of the big toe: symptoms and treatment, rehabilitation and consequences
- 2.1Frequent causes of a fracture of the big toe
- 2.2Classification of fractures
- 2.3Symptoms of a broken toe
- 2.4The difference between fracture and contusion and the diagnosis of trauma
- 2.5First aid for fracture
- 2.6Treatment of a fracture of the thumb
- 2.7Rehabilitation after a fracture of the big toe
- 2.8Complications and consequences
3Definition and recovery after a fracture of the toe
- 3.1Classification of fracture
- 3.2Symptoms of a broken toe
- 3.3First aid
- 3.4Treatment of toe fracture
- 3.5Recovery after injury
4A frequent injury is a fractured toe
- 4.1Classification of fractures
- 4.2Causes of Fracture of the Toes
- 4.3Diagnosis is established in a medical institution. Diagnosis of foot injury
- 4.4First Aid
- 4.5What is dangerous fracture of the finger on the leg?
- 4.6How to protect yourself from injury
Fracture of the big toe: first signs, treatment, rehabilitation and consequences
A fracture is a violation of the integrity of the bone of the skeleton under the influence of a force exceeding the limit of resistance of the bone in question. Fractures of all kinds in the world of diseases are on the third place.
Quite often in the practice of doctors, traumatologists can be found fracture of the big toe. According to statistics, such injuries are observed in 3-5% of all fractures and make up a third of fractures of free lower limbs.
What are the causes of injuries to the toes?
According to the cause of the fracture, they can be divided into two small groups. The first group includes traumatic events that occur on healthy bones.
And the second group includes the so-called pathological fractures, developing on the bone, which is weakened by osteoporosis, tuberculosis or metastasis of a cancerous tumor.
According to statistics, about 95% of fractures are traumas, and the remaining 5% are fractures that are pathological.
There are many classifications of fractures, but the importance of the clinical character is only a single one.
Open and closed fractures
According to the division of the fractures of the big toe by the presence of damaged skin of the skin with fragments of bones, one can distinguish: an open fracture and a fracture closed.
In connection with sufficiently high mobility and flexibility of the fingers, a large number of injuries form closed fractures.
In this case, this type of fracture is well treatable, since with fractures of a closed nature, resort to surgical intervention is not so frequent, and accordingly, it is possible to avoid additional risks associated with fracture.
If your toe hurts, you can talk about a fracture.
With and without offset
Also, there are fractures that have a displacement, and fractures without displacement.
The least complexity is caused by fractures without displacement of bone fragments, since they do not require the formation of fragments in their physiologically correct position.
A fracture with displaced fragments is considered an open fracture, proceeding from the fact that the formation of pointed bony edges rupturing the skin is excluded without displacement.
What are the symptoms of a fracture of the big toe?
Having determined the presence of a fracture, it can be said that cc performed the most important stage in providing the first medical assistance, which is present in the curriculum of many general and specialized training institutions.
The presence of knowledge and the ability to apply the skills to recognize a fracture can often help to avoid severe complications associated with unprofessional primary care if the foot.
The symptoms that determine the fracture of the finger are the same as those in fractures of other localizations. To more accurately determine the presence of such an injury, the symptoms are divided into two categories - reliable and probable.
To the probable are: soreness in the place of fracture; presence of redness at the possible site of fracture; swelling of soft tissues; unnatural position of the finger; the onset of acute pain at the site of the fracture; increase in temperature of tissues at the site of fracture; the inability to arbitrarily move with your finger. Verify the correctness of the diagnosis will help x-ray foot.
Reliable signs of a fracture include: a bone defect is observed when the bone is felt; abnormal bone mobility; notable bone deformation; can shorten the broken finger; crepitus bone fragments.
Signs that determine the fracture of the finger
Often, a toe injury occurs without a pronounced clinic, especially with a fracture that does not result in displacement or a small crack.
In this situation, the patient often does not pay attention to this.
In addition, patients simply do not want to see a doctor and conduct research to establish an accurate diagnosis.
Important in the diagnosis of fractures of the big toe is the radiography of the foot in one or two projections.
Thanks to this paraclinical research, with an accuracy of 95-99%, one can recognize whether there is trauma of the toe, determining to within a millimeter the place of the fracture and the location of the bone fragments.
First Aid for Injury
First aid in getting this injury is extremely necessary.
Firstly, to perform anesthesia, as it will reduce the discomfort that has appeared with trauma, and will allow further actions with the finger.
Secondly, it is necessary to disinfect the wound, if it is available. Thirdly, to carry out the immobilization of the fracture.
In case of a fracture, it is recommended to call an ambulance as soon as possible.
In which cases do plaster cast on the big toe?
Treatment of a fracture of a finger
The methods of treating fractures of the toes do not radically differ from the methods of treating fractures of the fingers of the hand, due to the similarity of their anatomical structure.
Depending on what type of fracture, and whether there are concomitant complications, use a certain type of treatment.
Currently, there are three approaches to the treatment of this trauma: one-stage closed reposition; skeletal traction; open repositioning. Let's characterize each of them.
Single-moment closed repositioning is used for fracture of the closed-type toe, accompanied by displacement of bone fragments. The essence of the method is the anesthesia of the fracture site and the subsequent smooth extension of the finger with the simultaneous formation of bone fragments in their physiological position.
Controls this X-ray of the foot.
Skeletal traction is used when the one-stage reposition is untenable or, in other words, in the case when combined bone fragments can not be kept in the right position after numerous attempts of their closed correction. The essence of the method is to maintain the distal detachment in the pulling position, so that the pressure on the damaged phalanx decreases, as well as prevention of a repeated divergence of the fragments.
Open reposition is an integral operation, in which the process of joining parts of the bone occurs and the correct shape of the bone is restored.
The essence of the method is its use with all kinds of open fractures, multiple closed fractures and complications arising after previous methods of repositioning.
Treating a fracture of the big toe should be timely.
Can complications arise?
Many patients who have suffered such a trauma do not often seek medical help from the as they do not consider a fracture of the finger as a significant trauma, and thereby delay the moment of successful healing wounds.
Often it goes without any problems, but sometimes there are complications that bring the patient a lot of inconvenience and experience, more than the fracture itself.
The most common of them, encountered with this type of injury, is: a false joint; vicious union; osteomyelitis; large bone callus; ankylosis; gangrene and others. We will characterize each species in more detail.
The callus is a physiological growth of the bone tissue in the place where a fracture occurred.
The values of bone calluses after a fracture often depend on qualitatively correlated fragments.
In addition, this bone formation can be a source of constant inflammation and pain that occurs when changes in pressure in the atmosphere.
The false joint is characteristic for the untreated fracture of the finger, when the bone fragments are displaced. If the fracture is not corrected during the initial period of time, the channels of the bone fragments are usually closed.
The edges of bones begin to wear off and round off as a result of continuous friction against each other. As a result, after a certain period of time, instead of one solid bone, two begin to form, which are not connected to each other.
In addition, the continuous contact of the bones forming the false joint does not entail the formation of cartilage, which reduces friction, and eventually a false joint is in continuous inflammation, growing into a chronic and accompanied by periodic exacerbations.
Ankylosis often occurs just the same with a fracture of the toes. This is explained by the fact that the phalanx of the finger has a small length and forms three joints on a small part of the body, such as a finger.
Thus, it can be assumed that if there is a fracture of the toe, not one bone and not one joint will be affected. When the joints become inflamed, they harden and, eventually, ossification occurs.
At the end of this process, instead of two or three bones located in the neighborhood, one solid bone starts having a massive bone calluses.
Proceeding from this, the degree of mobility of the limbs is reduced due to a decrease in the number of functioning joints. Unfortunately, at present there is no effective treatment for this type of complication.
So, if the finger on the leg turns blue, you need to immediately consult a doctor.
Incorrect bone fusion occurs when there is no necessary treatment for a fracture of any character that has a bias.
Incorrect location of bone fragments or its absence during bone splicing can lead to improper healing. As a result, a large callus can be formed, a pathological bending of the bone, and it shortens.
As a result, there is a violation of its supporting function. And there is a possibility that at any pressure the bone is likely to break again.
With injury of the big toe, there may be other complications.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone marrow. It is the primary hematogenous and secondary traumatic. At the first, pathogenic bacteria enter the medullary canal by transferring them with blood from another existing foci of infection in the body.
With a different type of osteomyelitis, these bacteria can get into the bone as a result of direct contact with dirty objects.
Thus, osteomyelitis of the toe often enough can develop only with open fractures, when not just swelling of the thumb on the leg, but there was a rupture of the skin.
An open fracture should be treated correctly. To do this, it is important to carefully process the wound.
During treatment of the wound with antiseptics, the risk of secondary osteomyelitis can be reduced several times.
And, of course, the lack of initial treatment, in the case when the patient does not go to the hospital, can create the prerequisites for getting osteomyelitis.
Gangrene is the withering away of a certain kind of tissue of the human body. After getting a fracture of the nail phalanx of the big toe gangrene can develop gradually, starting immediately after the impact.
The algorithm of its development is the following: a sharp squeezing of the tissue site and its subsequent oxygen starvation, the cause of which is a violation of the blood circulation of the damaged site.
In younger people who have not resorted to proper treatment, gangrene most often does not border on healthy tissues and is separated independently.
But if it got into the tissue that is in the stage of death of pathogenic bacteria, suppuration begins, which can lead to further spread of inflammation to the entire limb.
In elderly people and in people with vascular diseases, gangrene is often not delimited independently and gradually progresses. If you do not provide the necessary surgical intervention, it can lead to an increase in dead tissue, and as a result to disability.
Rehabilitation period after a fracture of the big toe
Symptoms of trauma we have considered.
The recovery period after the operation often depends on the level of complexity of the fracture obtained, the age of the patient, the ongoing diseases and the existing purulent complications.
The operation for the repositioning of bone fragments in the case of a fracture of an open type having a displacement is considered relatively uncomplicated, thus, after it a fairly short recovery period - 3-4 put on. If the fracture is multi-lobed, then the recovery period on average may increase by 2 weeks.
Wounds with a purulent complication imply their re-opening and even the removal of dead tissue. In this case, the recovery period usually doubles.
The fastest rate of bone regeneration can be observed in children and adolescents. Approximately from 40 years each year the rate of regeneration begins to decline, and so to old age.
A source: https://www.syl.ru/article/332613/perelom-bolshogo-paltsa-nogi-pervyie-priznaki-lechenie-reabilitatsiya-i-posledstviya
Fracture of the big toe: symptoms and treatment, rehabilitation and consequences
Fracture of the big toe - common injury of the lower limbs, changing the structure of the bone in the specified area and causing not only a number of pathological symptoms, but also various complications.
How to determine the fracture of the thumb on the leg, what to do and how long to treat it, and what are the features of rehabilitation after the therapy? About this and many other things you will find out below.
Frequent causes of a fracture of the big toe
Humanity in ancient times invented shoes - the main protection of the toes and feet from possible damage.
However, despite the fact that this element of the wardrobe is constantly being modified and improved, injuries in the above area do not become less.
The main causes of fractures of the thumb are usually:
- Strong and sharp punches on the fingers;
- Stumbling while walking or running;
- Falling on the lower limb of gravity, moving it with an automobile wheel;
- Accelerated, uneven and sharp inflection of the foot;
- Industrial, sports or household injury associated with compression of the above area (squeezing from 2 sides);
- Strong tucking of the foot.
The provoking factors of fracture formation are considered to be problems with the musculoskeletal system, the presence of previous injuries ankle, flat feet, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, bone tuberculosis, hyperparathyroidism, certain types of oncological diseases. The above risk factors reduce the strength and elasticity of bone tissue, making it more prone to injury.
Classification of fractures
Fractures of the big toe have a varied classification according to a number of criteria. Traumatology usually distinguishes the following types of injuries.
According to bone fragments:
- Open. Formed with the formation of skin defects, bone elements are in contact with the external environment;
- Closed fracture of the big toe. The wreck does not break the outer covers.
- Without bias. The normal position of the bone structures does not change;
- With offset. Bone structures deviate from the normal position.
By the nature of destruction:
- Without splinters. Ordinary cracks or breakage;
- One- and two-lobed. A fracture produces 1 or more fragments;
- Multisplash. The heaviest type of injury, the bones are severely fragmented.
- Fracture of the main phalanx of the big toe. Fracture closer to the foot;
- Fracture of the nail phalanx of the big toe. Fracture is closer to the nail plate.
On the mechanism of education:
- Straight lines. Fractures and defects of bone structures coincide with the place of application of the traumatic effort;
- Indirect. Localization of traumatic stress and defects of bone tissue does not coincide.
Symptoms of a broken toe
Symptoms of a fracture of the big toe can be absolute and relative. In the first case, we can talk about a reliably confirmed trauma, the second option is conditionally attributed to a number of pathological acute conditions of the musculoskeletal system.
Reliable symptoms and signs of a fracture of the big toe:
- Abnormal mobility of the thumb;
- Apparent unnatural curvature of phalanges;
- Formation of open fragmental bone wounds in the affected area;
- Audible cracking of bone fragments during the movement of the thumb.
In most cases, the above symptomatology refers to complicated, open and fragmented types of fractures, which is rare in patients. That is why additional relative signs of acute pathology are considered:
- Pain in the area of the thumb, which is strengthened by the movement of the phalanx;
- Edema of the area of the trauma and the area around it, which spreads further to the entire foot;
- Local redness of the skin;
- Formation of subcutaneous and nail hematomas;
- Decrease or disappearance of the motor activity of the foot.
The above manifestations can also be diagnosed with dislocations, bruises and other injuries, so if there is a suspicion of a fracture, a comprehensive diagnosis should be performed.
The difference between fracture and contusion and the diagnosis of trauma
At a fracture, open wounds can be formed with visible fractured phalanges. When you try to move your thumb, you hear a distinct crunch. In the case of bruising, there is no unnatural curvature of the phalanx of the thumb, its mobility is reduced.
In the absence of a clear symptomatology of the fracture or the presence of similar signs with a bruise, it is necessary to go to the hospital for additional diagnosis.
The complex of diagnostic measures includes a primary examination of the traumatologist and instrumental methods of investigation.
At the first reception in the hospital, the doctor listens to the patient's complaints, examines the injured thumb, and makes his palpation for the presence of curvatures of phalanges and other signs of fracture.
After the initial diagnosis, the victim is referred for radiography - obtained in 2 projections, the snapshot will assess the overall nature of the injury and the complexity of the trauma with the degree of displacement of the bone structures.
If necessary, as an additional instrumental methods can be used MRI and CT- they are designed to detect soft tissue damage, as well as diagnosis of intraarticular injuries, mainly in complicated forms of fracture.
First aid for fracture
If there is a suspicion of a fracture of the big toe, it is desirable to call an ambulance team, then proceed to the basic activities:
- Lay the person horizontally. The leg where there is damage, it is necessary to lift above the trunk, placing an improvised pillow under the ankles and shin from improvised materials, for example, clothes;
- If the fracture is closed, then dry ice (or cold water in bottles) can be applied to the foot and damaged finger - this will reduce subcutaneous bleeding and will not give rise to severe edema;
- With open fractures, the wound is treated with antiseptic topical preparations and a sterile bandage is applied;
- The big toe must be immobilized as much as possible, having imposed a tire from improvised materials. The simplest method is several wooden sticks of the necessary length, which are applied to the side parts of the finger and tightly wound with a bandage;
- Primary pain syndrome is removed by NSAIDs with nimesulide, ibuprofen, ketorolac, analgin or analogues in oral form;
- A severe shock after a fracture in the case of a low pain threshold in a person can lead to short-term fainting - be sure to follow the victim's condition, avoiding tongue twisting and choking with vomit, if they are will appear;
- Transportation of the patient is carried out on stretchers lying on the back with a raised leg with a superimposed tire. In the absence of a medical team, an independent transfer to the emergency room is carried out in a semi-recumbent or sitting position without resting on the foot with a damaged finger.
Treatment of a fracture of the thumb
After entering the hospital and determining the diagnosis, the victim is transferred to the trauma department.
- Assigning analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs injectively: ketorolac, analgin, nimesulide. In rare cases - narcotic analgesics.
- In the case of a closed fracture without displacement, application of cold to the foot, regularly, with sessions of 10-15 minutes.
- Immobilization of the big toe with the help of tires and bandages. It is produced only after the finger is adjusted.
- Moderate bed rest. Movement - only on crutches, without resting on the foot with a damaged finger.
- Closed repositioning. The local area of the injury is treated by local anesthetics, after which a single finger pull is performed with the return of phalanges to the physiological state. Applicable only with closed fractures without fragments with displacement. If necessary, the procedure is repeated several more times before the normalization of the physiological motion of the finger joints. After the control radiography, a tire is placed on the damaged area.
- Skeletal traction. It is performed when the closed reposition is ineffective. The scheme consists in a long-term retention of bone fragments in a retracted position.
The traumatologist treats the toe with a local anesthetic, passes through the skin or fingernail a nylon thread, makes a "ring" that is attached to the gypsum with a wire hook. In this position, the damaged phalanx is 2 weeks.
The anchoring zone is treated daily with local antiseptics to prevent suppuration. After the specified time the system is disassembled, the control radiography is made, and the finger is fixed with a classical tire with supports or gypsum until the fracture is fully fused.
The operation is usually prescribed in case of open fractures of the finger, as well as fragmentation of phalangesand accompanying elements into several or more fragments.
The surgeon's job is to restore the physiological anatomy of the finger.
Bone fragments are fixed inside the plates, knitting needles, screws and wire by the method of complex osteosynthesis.
After the procedure and cleaning of the wound in the damaged area, a drainage channel is formed, after which a longi is applied, and on top of it - a plaster "boot" on the entire foot.
The area of damage is regularly disinfected to prevent secondary bacterial infection.
After the intergrowth of all structures and the formation of a sufficient amount of bone callus, the gypsum is removed, leaving only the supporting bandage - the patient is transferred to the rehabilitation stage.
Rehabilitation after a fracture of the big toe
On average, the rehabilitation of a victim with a fracture of the big toe takes 4-8 weeks. Main activities include:
- Massagefeet, feet with a damaged finger and nearby trauma areas;
- Exercise therapy. The general strengthening complex of exercises of physiotherapy exercises is aimed at maintaining the general tone of the body, restoring blood circulation and mobility of the lower limbs;
- Physiotherapy. The patient is prescribed courses of electrophoresis with novocaine, calcium salts and nicotinic acid, UHF, UFO, magnetotherapy, amplipulse, myostimulation, paraffin-ozocerite applications;
- Proper nutrition. Introduction in the diet of more protein foods, sour-milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables. Exclusion of fried foods, soda, coffee, alcohol and products rich in simple carbohydrates;
- Limitations of fines. Temporary abandonment of active sports, where the primary load is distributed to the lower limbs;
- Wearing the right orthopedic, comfortable shoes in size, medium hardness and with good adhesion to surfaces.
Proper rehabilitation is very important to avoid serious complications after trauma.
Now you know how to develop a big toe after a fracture.
Complications and consequences
Wrong treatment or lack of qualified therapy for fractures of the big toe can lead to:
- Visible curvature of the finger with a restriction of its mobility and functionality;
- The formation of false joints, ankylosis;
- Gangrenamus due to secondary bacterial infections.
In most cases, untimely treatment, even with a simple slight fracture, leads to improper splicing and bone healing,to correct which even by surgical methods is rather difficult. In this situation, problems with the musculoskeletal system will remain with you forever.
A source: https://1travmpunkt.com/perelom/nogi/bolshogo-palca.html
Definition and recovery after a fracture of the toe
Such a trauma of the toe is sometimes partial or complete. Depending on the etiology, it is classified into pathological and traumatic.
Pathological fractures are traumas due to the destructive effect of a disease. To such ailments include: osteoporosis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis and others.Such diseases reduce the calcium content in the bone tissue, so the bones become brittle.
But, basically, the toes on the legs break due to the force impact on the limb.
Classification of fracture
In addition to dividing such a fracture into traumatic and pathological fractures, there is a classification according to the type and condition of the trauma.
Thus, a fracture of the toes on the legs is open - a fracture characterized by a violation of the entire structure of the skin, and also by the fact that a broken bone is seen through the wound.
Closed fracture is characterized by preservation of the holistic state of soft tissues.
Trauma can be with or without bias. Traumatized bones are displaced because of the force action on the limb.
In this case, there is a risk of injury to the nerve endings, vessels, muscles adjacent to the bone.
Fracture of the finger is also complete (the bone breaks down into two or more parts) and incomplete (a crack appears in the bones). Among other things, the trauma can still be comminuted - appears when the bone is fragmented and the fragments are in the wound.
Depending on the location, the fracture is divided into trauma in the nail phalanx, the middle phalanx, the main phalanx. In addition, there is a combined fracture - two or more finger phalanges are injured.
Symptoms of a broken toe
When the toe is fractured, the following symptoms are manifested: acute pain syndrome, in particular, in the process movement, swelling of the injured finger, improper functioning, hemorrhage under the nail or cutaneous cover.
There are also unconditional signs in the form of unnatural position of the finger, pathological immobility, crepitation (the appearance of a crunch in case of pressure on the injured limb).
The intensity of the symptoms depends on the location of the lesion. for example, a fracture of the main phalanx causes pain much stronger than trauma to the distal phalanx of the finger, since the main phalanx has a connection with the bones of the foot.
Fracture of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers may not remain unnoticed. However, the growing pain forces you to go to the emergency room.
A broken big toe has more pronounced signs. It depends on the larger size of the finger and on the fact that the thumb consists of two phalanges, not three. In addition, the thumb carries a heavy load, in contrast to its "neighbors."
Fracture is not always possible to establish by external phenomena (swelling, cyanosis). In the emergency room, you should always take an X-ray in several projections.
The first help can be provided by every person who is nearby at the time of injury, or you can help yourself. The main purpose of first aid is to create a foot motionless.
If there is an open wound, the first thing to do is put a wound bandage to stop bleeding and prevent infection from entering the wound.
When providing first aid, the sterility rules (clean hands and sterile bandage) should be strictly observed. In the same sterile way, it is necessary to work with the tire overlay. Immobilization of the fingers will help to remove the pain syndrome and prevent injury to the skin with bone fragments.
Treatment of toe fracture
The method of therapy is selected according to the nature of the damage.
For example, with an open fracture, in addition to limb immobilization, antibacterial therapy is necessary because of the presence of an open wound.
Antibiotic therapy includes the use of antibiotics, in certain situations, tetanus vaccination can be made.
In the case of a simple closed fracture, doctors impose a standard gypsum dressing.
In the therapy of a broken finger, analgesics are provided, which will help alleviate the pain syndrome in the patient after trauma.
If the nail phalanx is damaged, the nail perforation is performed, the blood under the fingernail is removed, the place of damage and the nearest phalanges of the fingers fix the plaster.
Fractures of the middle and main phalanges without bias are immobilized with a plaster for 2 weeks.
Trauma with displacement is treated by stretching the broken finger along the axis or by the method of repositioning the bone fragments (returning the fragments to the site) and finally applying a gypsum "shoe". gypsum "shoe" is also used for multiple fractures.
Closed fractures with bias or comminuted lesions are eliminated by closed reposition. The closed type of reposition must be very point and neat to prevent wrong bone fusion and further deformation.
Injuries of the second, third, fourth and fifth phalanges of the fingers are fixed with a gypsum longus (long band of gypsum bandage, including several layers).
If the big toe is damaged, a plaster bandage is applied, which begins with an injured limb to the knee.
The intra-articular fracture is corrected by an operative intervention, during which the joint is fixed with special knitting needles. The period of wearing a plaster bandage is 6-8 weeks.
Upon completion of the course of therapy, the function of the broken limbs is fully rehabilitated after 8 weeks. To accelerate the processes of bone regeneration and complete recovery, general restorative therapy is used.
Recovery after injury
Rehabilitation includes physiotherapy, massage, and therapeutic gymnastics. In the process of rehabilitation it is recommended to minimize walking, not to mention running.
Wear comfortable and spacious shoes without a high heel. During rest the sick leg should be in a raised state (for example, it can be put on the pillow).
Strong edema is eliminated in the first 2-3 days by cold compresses, but in no case should they be abused.
Food should be rational, saturated with useful vitamins and minerals. In the food must necessarily include vegetables and fruits in sufficient quantities.
Here it is necessary to separately note the products saturated with calcium (cheese, eggs, cottage cheese), which are extremely necessary for the construction of bone tissue.
It is also necessary to exclude or limit strong coffee, carbonated and alcoholic beverages in connection with the ability of these products to the withdrawal of calcium from the human body. Still doctors advise to accept multivitamins, With, D, В12.
A source: http://drpozvonkov.ru/travmy/fracture/perelom-paltsa-na-noge.html
A frequent injury is a fractured toe
The human body is a complex system that requires an attentive and careful attitude to itself.
Every day, we are faced with various situations in which, under external influences or physical exertion, under certain conditions, it is likely to be damaged.
Fracture of the bones is one of the most popular injuries, when a full treatment may require long-term treatment and a long rehabilitation period. Most often fractures of the limb are exposed, as they are more vulnerable.
Next, we will consider in detail the fracture of the toe, the signs, the characteristic symptoms, the methods of diagnosis and treatment of trauma, as a common type of fracture of bones and joints.
The foot is a part of the human musculoskeletal system, the farthest from the trunk is the lower limb section, responsible for a stable position, balance, movement of the body in space.
The foot has a flexible, flexible and movable vaulted design that allows the load to be distributed to limb, adjust to irregularities, achieve a smooth gait due to the powerful ligamentous apparatus. In interaction with other parts of the leg is responsible for the movement of the body.
The first department consists of seven bones arranged in two rows:
- back - calcaneus and talus,
- front - navicular, three wedge-shaped and cuboidal.
All of them are connected with each other by joints, which allows a person to bend, unbend and make circular movements of the foot. The second department is a plus, consisting of five short tubular bones, located between the tarsal and fingers.
The third department - phalanges - tubular bones (14 pieces), connected by muscles and joints form five toes.
In this case, the thumb consists of two phalanges, and the rest - of three.
All of them are much shorter compared to the fingers, and the middle phalanx of the little finger is often inseparable from the nail. The phalanges are joined together by joints.
Classification of fractures
Fractures of the toes, depending on the cause of injury can be divided into two categories:
Traumatic fractures- mechanical damage to a conditionally healthy bone
(with a bruise, podvorachivanii foot).
- breach of strength of bones and their weakening in connection with diseases such as tuberculosis, malignant tumors, osteoporosis.
By type and condition, fractures are divided into:
- Open - the integrity of soft tissues is broken by bone fragments, a part of the bone is seen through the wound.
Open fractures are most often accompanied by bone displacement, while the skin, muscles and blood vessels are damaged. Complicated by bleeding.
- Closed - the skin is not broken, the bone is not visible. This type of fracture allows to avoid surgical intervention and additional risk.
- With displacement, the damaged bones can move to the side, infringing the nearby nerves, muscles, or blood vessels.
- Without bias.
- Complete - with a bone fracture in one or more places.
- Incomplete - with the formation of a crack in the bone.
- Splintered - the appearance of fragments during the fragmentation of the bone and getting them into the wound.
Splinter fractures often occur when a trauma is caused by a blunt object (stone, hammer, bit). When falling and bruising fragments usually does not happen.
Causes of Fracture of the Toes
Situations in which there is a risk of a fracture of the toes, a lot of both in everyday life, and during the production process. Such cases include: an unsuccessful fall, a jump from a height, non-compliance with occupational safety and negligence in sports.
The main causes of foot injury:
- Strong blow or falling of a heavy object on a foot;
- a situation where a person stumbles or stumbles;
- a traumatic injury that results in forced over-extension of the foot;
- kick the front of the leg against a hard object (for example, furniture, a step on the stairs, a curb on the sidewalk).
Symptoms of fracture are divided into absolute and probable.
Probable signs suggest a fracture, absolute - prove and confirm the fracture.
Diagnosis is established in a medical institution.Diagnosis of foot injury
The traumatologist interrogates the victim, conducts a visual examination determining the signs of a fracture of the finger on the leg, and radiography, which allows to see the localization of the fracture and possible displacements of bone fragments.
Based on all received data, the necessary treatment is prescribed.
If a fracture is suspected, the injured finger and the foot need fixing in one position. If possible, attach ice to the damage site.
In the presence of an open wound, the damaged limb is bandaged with a sterile bandage to avoid possible infection in the blood.
Then the tire is attached to the foot and fastened with a bandage.
This fixation of the foot will help to avoid further traumatization of the bones and soft tissues of the damaged area of the finger.
Watch the video where the trauma doctor gives recommendations on how to act immediately after getting an injury to ease the condition of the victim and avoid complications in the future:
Depending on the nature and location of the injury, a different treatment is prescribed.
Injury of the nail phalanx.
From the nail, blood accumulations are removed, fixing the fragments, attached with a plaster, an injured phalanx to the adjacent finger. Complete removal of the nail is required in the case when the hematoma under the fingernail is too large.
Trauma of the middle and main phalanges.
In the absence of bias, phalanges are immobilized with a patch from two to four weeks for proper healing.
Fracture with displacement.
The injured finger extends axially. With multiple shifts, a manual repositioning of bone fragments is performed, and then applying a gypsum "shoe" for up to 3 weeks.
With closed fractures with displacement, as well as comminuted fractures.
Bone fragments return to the place in a closed manner, this is a painstaking and complex work that requires accuracy to prevent improper splicing of bones and deformation of bones in the future.
Fracture of several fingers.
The imposition of a gypsum plate is a langet.
Damage to the big toe.
Imposition of a plaster bandage from the size of the fingers to the knee. When intra-articular fracture requires surgery with fixation of the joint with special spokes. Gypsum is applied for 6-8 weeks.
First, recovery of bone from the fragments is performed, and then antibacterial therapy is prescribed, which allows to avoid infection with secondary infections, a tetanus vaccine is introduced. Sometimes the displacement and curvature is eliminated, the tire is applied to ensure immobility before healing.
What is dangerous fracture of the finger on the leg?
Often after the injury, the victim ignores weak pain and does not treat the injury to medical facilities. It is fraught with complications and unpleasant consequences, such as:
- incorrect fusion of damaged bone;
- the formation of bone calluses, which slow the restoration of bones and are a clear cosmetic defect;
- formation of a false joint;
Such a complication as a false joint can occur if there is no timely correction of the fracture with bone fragments. During the first two days after the fracture, the bone canals begin to close, the edges of the bones are rounded and blurred, resulting in the formation of two bones instead of one broken. They are not connected to each other, which reduces the supporting function of the limb and prevents the full movement. The false joint is constantly in a state of inflammation due to the absence of the formed cartilage bones between the ends, which reduces friction.
- osteomyelitis - an inflammation of the bone marrow, associated with infection at an open fracture. Harmful bacteria can get into the blood, as well as into the bone itself with a fragmentation fracture. To avoid infection, it is necessary to treat the wound with antiseptic solutions as soon as possible and consult a doctor for further treatment;
- gangrene - the death of body tissues, associated with oxygen starvation and impaired blood circulation at the site of the fracture. Without emergency intervention, gangrene can spread from the affected area to healthy tissues, which increases the risk of complete loss of the limb.
How to protect yourself from injury
- Shoes should be comfortable and fit the size of the foot.
- In the diet should always be foods that contain calcium.
Sour-milk products, potatoes, apples, beans, cabbage and other useful products will help maintain the necessary level of calcium for the normal functioning of the body.
- In addition to proper nutrition, take the necessary vitamins - C, D, B12.
- Do not neglect the safety rules in places with an increased risk of injury - in the workplace, sports grounds.
- Regularly undergo medical examinations for the early detection of chronic diseases that can lead to bones weakening and unexpected injuries.
Life is filled with exciting activities and moments, I want to catch everything and try as much as possible. The main thing is not to forget to monitor your health, because it is much easier to follow simple rules of personal safety than to undergo a long recovery after unpleasant injuries.
A source: http://pomogispine.com/travmy/perelom-paltsa-nogi.html