What is bacterial bronchitis, how to diagnose and treat it?
Bronchitis is a disease of the bronchi. It can be viral and bacterial. Most often, people face viral bronchitis, the bacterial is much more difficult to get sick.
But this diagnosis can be made only by a doctor, it is very difficult to distinguish between these two diseases, because they are similar to each other.If a person often suffers from bronchitis, it is very important for him to know the difference between the viral and bacterial types of the disease.Despite the fact that bacterial bronchitis is a very rare phenomenon, it is more dangerous than a viral one.
Basic information about bronchi
Bronchi are two tubes that connect the trachea and lungs. These two tubes have many branches in the lungs, which allows a person to breathe freely, saturating the body with oxygen. If we consider the structure of the bronchi, then we can note the following components:
- mucous membrane;
- fibro-muscular-cartilaginous tissue;
- adventitial shell.
As for the basic functions, here, in addition to supplying oxygen to the lungs, there are a couple more points. So, the bronchi have a protective function and protect with the help of cilia lungs from the effects of the environment. Another item is the function that is responsible for the cough reflex. For example, the person inhaled the dust, and with the help of this reflex everything returned and the lungs remained clean.
Bronchi have their own hierarchy, which defines:
- zonal bronchi;
- segmental and subsegmental;
- small bronchi;
Various bronchial diseasesLike any organ in the human body, bronchi are also prone to a number of diseases that can worsen a person's condition. Disease of the bronchi is a serious enough thing, which, if improperly treated or if it is absent, can lead to a fatal outcome. There is a disease like chronic bronchitis. It is a cough, constant or intermittent, during which sputum is secreted. It lasts at least 2 - 3 months. Cough is returned when the disease begins to exacerbate.
Another known disease is bronchial asthma. It occurs after a person has suffered an infectious disease in severe form or if someone from the family is sick or has asthma. It seems as if someone is strangling someone. Such attacks usually happen at night. The main thing is a well-chosen treatment that will reduce the incidence of bronchial seizures.
The third common disease is bronchospasm. With this disease, lungs spasmodic and dyspnea appears. With him, too, there may be suffocation and it is difficult for a person to breathe in, as the bronchi begin to give out a secret that clogs the bronchial tubes. Usually this disease does not arise from nowhere. Parallel to this problem, the two above mentioned diseases develop. There are many more bronchial diseases, but the most common is bronchitis, which can occur in both adults and children.
Bronchitis and its varieties
It is necessary to distinguish between viral and bacterial bronchitis. Only a doctor will be able to give you the correct diagnosis, however, knowing the difference, you can save time, money and nerves. If you are a person who often suffers from bronchitis, understanding the difference between bacterial and viral bronchitis is especially important to you.Viral bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial mucosa due to viruses that affect the respiratory tract. As a result, the whole body system begins to suffer and the infection spreads easily. This disease is often diagnosed in children.
It happens this way: an infected air stream enters the bronchi, the viruses stay in them and remain multiplying. Children suffer most often, because this disease can be picked up not only on the street, but also with a large crowd of people, namely in kindergartens, schools, dormitories. Sometimes viral bronchitis occurs due to a disorder of nasal breathing or infection of the nasopharynx.
Bronchitis occurs due to weakened immunity after a recent illness (flu, cold). Symptoms of viral bronchitis are fairly simple to notice:
- Pain in the thorax.
- Breathing is wheezy.
- Cough. Initially, cough is with phlegm and the person is very difficult to clear his throat, but gradually it becomes diluted and the patient becomes easier to breathe.
As for the treatment, there is an individual approach to each person here. The doctor decides what preparations to take at one or another stage of the disease. But there are some tips that apply to all people. So, it is necessary to drink a lot of fluids. Try to drink tea with lemon, raspberry or honey every hour. The human body is dehydrated and it is necessary to replenish the water balance. Together with the liquid, an infection is eliminated, and the body becomes easier to cope with the disease. Eat more often. The meal should be 4 to 5 times a day. In the room, the air should not be dry, so you need to do a wet cleaning and put wet towels on the batteries. Eat more vitamins, especially vitamin C: they strengthen the immune system and help the body fight infection.
Bacterial bronchitis can be met very rarely. Usually this is 1% of 100%. Many believe that bacterial can be infected almost as much as viral, that is, outdoors or indoors. But few know that in fact, bacterial bronchitis is a complicated version of his colleague. That is, it is a neglected form of viral bronchitis. It occurs when the treatment is wrong or if there is no response to it.
Symptoms in bacterial bronchitis are the same as in viral: temperature, headache, etc. but they add a cough, only with a thick, dark sputum.This is an indication that bacteria are involved in the process. Treatment, too, should appoint a doctor. To begin with, he needs to be diagnosed and find out which of the two types of bronchitis the patient has. This will help in prescribing certain medications to fight bronchitis. For viral and bacterial bronchitis, different approaches to treatment are needed. The doctor should find out the strain of bacteria that destroy the human body.
A person who still suffers from asthma should immediately consult a doctor. This is a precautionary measure, in order not to aggravate the situation. The doctor usually asks a series of questions, prescribes tests and a chest X-ray.
The main recommendations for the treatment of bacterial bronchitis coincide with the previous disease. The main thing is to comply with bed rest and take enough fluids. If severe pain occurs in the thoracic region, you can drink an anesthetic drug. You can take a hot shower, but do not collect a full bath of water. Try not to take a shower for long. You can also do steam inhalation on various herbs. Whatever disturbs you with this disease, it is better to consult a doctor, rather than self-medicate. However, most people believe that this is just a cough: you can drink some broth - and everything will pass. Chamomile bacteria will not kill. Antibiotics and antitussive medications are prescribed by the doctor.
A person who smokes should try not to use cigarettes for at least a few days. They contain many harmful chemicals that enter the body as a vapor and can contribute to the development of bacterial bronchitis, thereby worsening the patient's health. To prevent bacterial bronchitis, you should try to lead a healthy lifestyle, often be outdoors, tempered, vaccinated against influenza and maintain your immune system. At observance of all recommendations of doctors the human body starts to recover already in 3 - 4 days.
Bacterial and Viral Bronchitis: Symptoms and Treatment of Disease
The human respiratory system is unique. To the body cells are saturated with oxygen, the respiratory organs must be cleaned of infections, toxic substances and pathogenic microorganisms.
All these processes occur in the bronchial tree. If the activity of the bronchi is broken, the amount of mucus discharged increases, the bronchitis develops.
With viral bronchitis inflammation begins in the nasopharynx. After that, it extends to the larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Any virus that has entered the respiratory tract:
- penetrates into the epithelium;
- knocks down the normal metabolic processes in it.
As a consequence, epithelial cells die.
That's it, the "dead" epithelium is sputum. She during the treatment liquefies and clears her throat with yellow clots. Due to a strong accumulation of viscous sputum and difficult breathing occurs.
To the patient infected the people around him, he suffices to sneeze. The incubation period lasts approximately 2 to 7 days. Subject to adequate treatment after 8 weeks, the full recovery of respiratory functions occurs.
Causes, symptoms of viral bronchitisThe main source of infection is the virus of any etiology. When the person does not have tonsils removed, the entire infection settles in the throat.
In all the others, it penetrates into the bronchi without obstacles, where the inflammatory process begins.
In addition, other factors can contribute to the activation of inflammation.
- raw and cold weather;
- relapse of acute respiratory viral disease, influenza infection;
- large accumulation of people during the quarantine period (when immunity is particularly weakened);
- lesions of the nasopharynx (viral laryngitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis);
- infectious diseases of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses (sinusitis).
Viral bronchitis is transmitted by direct contact with a sick person. And there is not much difference what kind of virus is present in the patient's blood. If the defenses of the body are weak, it can be affected by absolutely any virus.
As for the symptoms, there are primary and secondary symptoms in the disease. So, to the first group carry pershenie in a cavity of a throat and unusual weariness. A person may feel weakened even after awakening or a prolonged rest. The patient is overcome by profuse sweating, headache and muscle pain.
Secondary symptoms of viral bronchitis will increase overall body temperature (up to 39 degrees), fever, dizziness, shortness of breath, shortness of breath. Also the patient will note the symptoms:
- wheezing during breathing;
- soreness behind the sternum.
In the first trimester of the disease develops a dry cough. As the bronchitis develops, the cough becomes moist, sputtered dirty yellow colored. By volume, it can be meager or plentiful.
Similar symptoms will be felt by a person if he has been diagnosed with acute bronchitis.
An acute inflammatory process in the bronchi can be the beginning of pneumonia, pulmonary edema. Therefore, do not delay the visit to the doctor and the beginning of treatment.
The mistake will be to treat at home only with the help of prescriptions of alternative medicine.
Diagnosis and treatment of viral bronchitisTo begin treatment, the doctor must determine the causative agent of bronchitis. First you need to interview the patient, find out the symptoms, and conduct a visual examination. After that, we perform auscultation and percussion (listening and tapping), lung radiography, a general analysis of urine and blood from the finger.
During the examination, the doctor will examine the overall picture of the disease, the patient's condition. You will need to listen to the patient's breathing with a stethoscope. This device can detect noises and wheezing in the chest.
X-ray is necessary for the detection of affected areas of the epithelial layer of the mucosa, the exclusion of pneumonia. But to distinguish bacterial bronchitis from viral will help blood test. In the second case, he will show:
- decrease in the number of immune cells;
- acceleration of sedimentation rate of erythrocytes (ESR).
Treatment of viral bronchitis begins only after a complete examination of the body. The disease does not require hospitalization and patient stay in a hospital. It is possible to conduct treatment at home.
In itself, the acute type of viral bronchitis is not as dangerous as it might seem at first glance. To be afraid of its complications, which will cause serious damage to health.
Standard treatment of viral bronchitis begins with the intake of immunostimulating drugs. If they do not help, the temperature above 38 degrees lasts more than 3 consecutive days, it is wise to start antibiotic treatment. In this situation, most likely, bacterial bronchitis began. That is, a bacterial infection has joined.
The patient must necessarily:
- adhere to bed rest;
- drink plenty of warm liquid;
- use drugs to dilute and evacuate sputum.
If there is a high fever, it is indicated to take an antipyretic.
When the patient's condition has stabilized, the acute period has passed, he will be prescribed a course of therapeutic gymnastics, inhalation. Treatment is always supplemented by a special diet.
To as soon as possible to withdraw from the bronchi sputum, eliminate the symptoms of the disease, it is useful to inflate a regular balloon several times a day.
The basis of therapy - is the immediate removal of the pathogen, congestion of sputum. It is a dangerous delusion to start taking antibiotics from the first days of illness. Such drugs are not capable of treating the disease of viral etiology. As noted, they are justified:
- while maintaining a high body temperature:
- to prevent the development of complications.
If you drink antibiotics thoughtlessly, they will further weaken the already reduced immune defense, will cause dysbacteriosis of the intestine. Still it is necessary to understand that this antibiotic will be ineffective when it really will be needed for treatment.
It is forbidden to carry viral, as much as bacterial bronchitis on the legs. During illness the whole strength of the organism is directed towards the fight against the virus. Any unnecessary traffic only:
- exacerbate the course of bronchitis;
- prolong the term of illness.
The patient is better not to go out, especially in bad weather. His relatives should not forget about regular airing, wet cleaning.
Diet, treatment with folk remediesTo treat an acute type of viral bronchitis and relieve its symptoms will help diet. It is recommended to abandon salty, sharp, smoked and spicy foods.
It should be limited to natural juices, diluted with water, vegetables and fruits. It is useful to drink chicken broths from poultry. The dish will help to speed up the excretion of sputum and quickly recover.
Good to eat:
- boiled beef;
- low-fat fish;
- dairy products;
- citrus fruit.
Doctors recommend to saturate the body with vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
In addition, you can drink decoctions of medicinal plants. For example, a wonderful antioxidant is a chemist's chamomile. It in a short time will help to stop the inflammatory process, to remove puffiness.
Evacuation of phlegm promotes the decoction of plantain. The suggested broths can be taken in unlimited quantities. They rarely provoke allergic reactions and are always well tolerated by the body.
A patient with viral bronchitis is useful to treat the disease with inhalations. Inhalation with bronchitis is quite effective. It is also allowed to prepare scones for cough. Their composition can be anything, but the obligatory ingredient is natural honey.
The most popular recipe was:
- crushed boiled potatoes (2 pieces);
- bee honey (1 tablespoon);
- baking soda (1 tablespoon).
All components are mixed, not allowing the potatoes to cool. From the received weight form a flat cake and put to a breast. The procedure lasts an hour and a half. It is important to avoid the heart area! Pellet warms the bronchi well, it helps to thin the sputum.
To prevent viral bronchitis, regular preventive measures should be taken. The basis of prevention - a healthy lifestyle, sports activities, proper nutrition, hardening, support for immunity.
About the bronchitis in the video in this article will tell the experts in detail.
Symptoms and treatment of viral bronchitis
Bronchitis is viral, the symptoms of which depend on the nature of the course of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient, it is a viral inflammation of the bronchi characterized by damage to their mucous membrane. Very often this pathology is diagnosed in children and the elderly, which is due to their weak immune system.
Causes and symptoms of viral bronchitis
The cause of development of bronchitis are harmful microorganisms that enter the bronchi together with air through the nasopharynx. When penetrating into the human body with weak immunity, the virus settles on the bronchi and begins to multiply there, leading to inflammation of the mucous membrane.
Such factors can contribute to the reproduction of the virus, such as:
- infectious diseases of the nasopharynx (rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis) and maxillary sinus (sinusitis);
- high humidity and low temperatures, which causes an increase in the number of patients in the autumn-winter period;
- large population of people;
- impaired nasal breathing;
- frequent manifestations of influenza and acute respiratory infections;
- weakened immunity.
The main signs of infectious bronchitis include:
- frequent shortness of breath;
- increase in body temperature to 38 ° C and above;
- rales and discomfort in the chest;
- constant fatigue.
If the above symptoms do not pay proper attention and do not begin effective treatment, then the viral bronchitis can go into a bacterial form and lead to edema and pneumonia.
Diagnosis of viral bronchitis
Only the doctor (pulmonologist or therapist) can make the correct diagnosis, as in the first stages bronchitis is very similar to an ordinary cold. For this, the following diagnostic methods are used:
- Auscultation. It is carried out with the help of a stethoscope after clarifying all the patient's complaints, the timing and nature of their manifestation. The respiratory process is characterized by the passage of air through the respiratory tract. At the same time, a specific sound is formed, which with the help of a stethoscope intensifies and is transmitted to the doctor's ears, due to which it is possible to detect wheezing in the lungs and diagnose bronchitis.
- General blood analysis. Allows you to determine the nature of the disease. With the viral nature of the pathological process, acceleration of ESR and a decrease in the number of immune cells are observed. With the bacterial form of bronchitis, a general blood test will show a high level of ESR and a large concentration of leukocytes and neutrophils.
- Radiography. With bronchitis on the X-ray, the strengthening of the basal structure of the bronchi will be seen.
- Bronchoscopy. It is usually used if necessary to exclude (confirm) pathological intrabronchial formation or to establish the form of chronic bronchitis.
Methods of treatment of viral bronchitis
To treat a viral bronchitis it is necessary in a complex, with application of medicinal preparations, physiotherapeutic procedures and medical gymnastics.
In this case, any treatment should be previously agreed with the doctor, because otherwise you can aggravate the course of the disease and cause undesirable consequences.Drug therapy in the treatment of viral bronchitis includes:
- antiviral agents (Macropen, Flemoxin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Suprax, etc.);
- mucolytics (Bromhexin, Lazolvan, Ambroxol, ACC), which dilute sputum, which improves its excretion from the body;
- antibiotics (Amoxiclav, Panklava, Augmentin), which are prescribed only at a complicated stage of bronchitis and its transition into a bacterial form;
- bronchodilators (dilate the narrowed bronchi, which improves the patency of air on them);
- antitussive drugs (Glaucin, Tusuprex, Libexin, etc.), which are prescribed if the patient has a strong cough, they are not allowed to be used together with mucolytic agents;
- antipyretics (Ibuprofen, Paracetamol), used in the presence of high temperature (above 38 ° C).
As physiological procedures in the treatment of bronchitis are widely used:
- UHF and ultrasound;
- paraffin and ozocerite applications.
Inhalations are considered one of the most effective methods of treating bronchitis of any form. The therapeutic effect is achieved due to the direct effect of therapeutic drugs on the inflammatory region. Inhalations reduce the viscosity of sputum, improve its excretion from the bronchi and eliminate their inflammation.
Several types of inhalations are used in the treatment of bronchitis:
- steam on the basis of licorice root, eucalyptus leaves, chamomile, mint, yarrow, St. John's wort, etc .;
- warm water with the addition of mineral salts, herbal collections, antibiotics and mucolytics;
- wet on the basis of aerosols (used in cases where, for any reason, steam and heat-and-moisture inhalations are not recommended).
Therapeutic exercises and massages with bronchitis have the following useful properties:
- increase the general tone of the body and increase its resistance to harmful microorganisms;
- increase gas exchange in the bronchi;
- create favorable conditions for the use of medicines;
- improve blood circulation;
- restore the elasticity of tissues and prevent their atrophy, so that a person after recovery can return to normal life.
As a massage at home, you can perform a light tapping on the back in the bronchial region, and from respiratory exercises - letting air through a tube into a glass with water or inflating balloons.
Proper nutrition with bronchitis
Together with food, the human body receives all trace elements necessary for its normal functioning and maintenance of the immune system. Therefore, nutrition in the treatment of viral bronchitis should be correct and balanced. Food should be high in calories and contain a large amount of vitamins and minerals. To eat it is necessary it is fractional, that is to accept food it is necessary small portions 5-6 times a day.
In case of viral bronchitis it is recommended to use:
- sour-milk products (normalize the intestinal microflora, which is important when taking medications);
- Fresh fruits and vegetables (strengthen immunity and increase tone);
- honey (reduces inflammation and improves the excretion of sputum from the bronchi);
- a warm liquid (milk, tea with raspberries, lemon, currants), which has an antiviral and soothing effect;
- boiled meat and fish;
- meat and vegetable broths;
- milk porridge.
It is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol and energy drinks that cause an increase in blood pressure, there are acute products, excessively salty foods, various smoked foods and preserves.
With any form of bronchitis, including viral, try to move less. Remember that all the forces of the body are aimed at fighting the virus, so excess loads can only aggravate the situation and prolong the healing process. Try not to go out, especially during the cold season. It is recommended that every day (in the morning and in the evening) air a child's room or an adult.
Bronchitis in children: acute, obstructive bronchitis, symptoms, treatment
Bronchitis in children most often occurs in the form of complications against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, influenza or a severe cold, hypothermia. The provoking factors of bronchitis are seasonal sharp temperature changes, especially periods of rain with high humidity, so this disease usually occurs in the fall or spring.
In form, all bronchitis in children are divided into: Acute, Prolonged and Recurrent.
For reasons of occurrence, depends on the pathogen of inflammation and is divided into:
- Viral - influenza, adenoviruses, parainfluenza
- Bacterial - can be acute and obstructive (the causative agent is streptococcus, staphylococcus, moraxelly, hemophilic rod, as well as mycoplasma and chlamydia)
- Allergic, obstructive, asthmatic - arises from irritating chemical or physical factors, such as household chemicals, home dust (read about the symptoms of allergy to dust), animal hair, pollen of plants, etc.
Bronchitis in a child up to a year - symptoms and treatment
Children who are breastfed and who do not have contact with sick children and adults should not have any respiratory illnesses. However, if the child was born prematurely, has congenital malformations of the respiratory organs and other diseases, and also in the family there is children of preschool age who attend kindergartens and are often ill - the development of bronchitis in a child up to a year is possible for the following reasons:
- narrower than the adult, bronchi, a more dry and vulnerable mucosa of the respiratory tract
- existing congenital malformations
- after a viral or bacterial infection
- the presence of individual sensitivity to chemical and physical stimuli - an allergy to anything.
The most basic symptoms of developing bronchitis are a severe dry cough, paroxysmal, accompanied by difficulty breathing, shortness of breath. Gradually, the cough becomes moist, but mucus, sputum during bronchitis in a child up to a year makes it difficult breathing, the normal functioning of the lungs is disrupted, since the airways in infancy are narrow. Bronchitis in children up to a year and even up to 3-4 years is most often the following:
- Acute bronchitis simple
- Obstructive bronchitis
On acute and obstructive bronchitis, we will dwell in more detail below. And now consider the most common in children under one year oldbronchiolitis.
Bronchitis in children under one year of age - bronchiolitis
This bronchitis affects both small bronchi and bronchioles, develops more often against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza viruses with the subsequent reproduction of pneumococci (and so on. streptococci). In case of inhalation of icy air or sharp concentrations of various gases, bronchiolitis can develop as an independent disease. The danger of such bronchitis is a pronounced bronchoobstructive syndrome with the development of sometimes even acute respiratory failure:
- Characteristic of dry cough attacks, pronounced dyspnea of a mixed or expiratory form with syndromes of swelling of the wings of the nose, with the participation of ancillary muscles, retraction of intercostal spaces of the chest, pallor of the skin, cyanosis.
- The child has dry mouth, no tears when crying.
- The child eats less and drinks than usual, respectively, and his urination is more rare.
- Increased body temperature, but unlike pneumonia, it is less pronounced (see. whether it is necessary to bring down the temperature).
- Shortness of breath to 60-80 breaths per minute, while breathing is grunting, superficial.
- On both sides are heard diffuse wet ringing finely bubbling and crepitating rales.
- Symptoms of intoxication in bronchiolitis in children are not expressed.
- X-ray is determined by the sharp transparency of the lung tissue, the variegation of the pattern, the horizontal standing of the ribs, the absence of infiltrative changes in the lungs.
- If at first there was a simple bronchitis, the attachment of bronchiolitis after a while manifests a sharp deterioration general state of the child, cough becomes more painful and intense, with scant sputum.
- Children are usually very restless, moody, excited.
- The blood test can be slightly changed, a slight leukocytosis and an increase in ESR are possible.
- Usually bronchiolitis in children up to a year has a long course of up to 1-1.5 months.
- The causes of acute bronchiolitis in children are similar to the causes of development of obstructive bronchitis in children older than 2-4 years. The local immune system of the respiratory tract in children under 2 years is weak, protection against viruses is not enough, so they easily penetrate deep into bronchioles and small bronchi.
Treatment of bronchiolitis in children
At home, you can not cure bronchiolitis. When a bronchiolitis occurs, the infant is usually shown hospitalization, so that the child is under the supervision of doctors. In the hospital pediatricians, pulmonologists will establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment. What should my mom do before the ambulance arrives?
You can only alleviate the symptoms of colds - create optimally comfortable air in the room, turn on the humidifier, air purifier.
If there is no high temperature in the child, you can ease breathing with warming creams and ointments, spread them legs, calves. Only with this you need to be cautious if the child has not had any allergic manifestations before, then it helps a lot if a child allergic, warming ointments should be excluded.
To cough softer, you can do steam inhalation-above a boiling pot with a weak saline solution, hold the baby in her arms. Or sit him down at the table and cover with a towel over a cup of hot medical solution.
Try to force the baby to drink more to avoid dehydration, if the child refuses the breast or mixture, give the child just pure water.
In the hospital to relieve the signs of respiratory failure, the baby is given inhalations with bronchodilators and allowed to breathe oxygen. Also at the doctor's discretion, an antibiotic is selected - Sumamed, Macroben, Augmentin, Amoxiclav. It is possible to use various drugs with interferon. Necessarily prescribe antihistamines for the removal of edema at the site of inflammation and a possible allergic reaction to treatment. If symptoms of dehydration are observed, then the necessary rehydration therapy is performed.
Acute bronchitis in children - symptoms
Bronchitis in children is the most common form of respiratory tract disease. Acute bronchitis is an acute inflammation of the bronchial mucosa without symptoms of inflammation of the lung tissue. Simple bronchitis in children is 20% self-contained bacterial disease, 80% - either in the program of viruses (virus Coxsackie, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza) or as a bacterial complication after these viral infections.
Clinical symptoms of bronchitis in children are as follows:
First, the child has general weakness, malaise, headache, lack of appetite, then there is a dry cough or cough with phlegm, the intensity of which is rapidly increasing, when listening to dry dry or diffuse wet rales are determined. Sometimes there may be a barking cough in a child whose treatment is slightly different.
In the first 2 days, the temperature rises to 38 ° C, but with a light form, the temperature can be 37-37.2.
After 6-7 days, the dry cough becomes wet, the sputum discharge facilitates the child's condition and is a good sign that the body is coping with the infection and the virus.
On average, the duration of acute bronchitis in children is 7-21 days, but the nature of the disease, the severity of the inflammatory process depend on the child's age, the strength of his immune system, the presence of concomitant chronic and systemic diseases. In case of inadequate or untimely treatment, acute bronchitis can lead to addition - bronchiolitis, pneumonia.
Sometimes after the flu, for some time, the child's condition improves, and then a sharp deterioration, a rise in temperature, a rise in the cough - this is due to the weakening of the immune system in the fight against the virus and the attachment of a bacterial infection, in which case an antibiotic is indicated.
With mycoplasmal or adenoviral acute bronchitis in children, the symptoms of intoxication, such as high fever, headaches, chills, lack of appetite, can be about a week. Usually acute bronchitis is bilateral, however, with mycoplasma bronchitis it is most often one-sided, sometimes combined with conjunctivitis.
Acute bronchitis in children - treatment
Most often, the duration of acute bronchitis in children, whose treatment is correct and carried out on time, should not be more than 14 days, however, in infants, cough can persist for up to a month, as well as for older children with atypical-mycoplasma bronchitis. If suddenly the bronchitis in the child is delayed, it is necessary to exclude a number of diseases:
- aspiration of food
- cystic fibrosis
- foreign body in bronchi
- tuberculosis infection
A pediatrician prescribes a full treatment package. In addition to implementing all the recommendations of the doctor, you should provide the child with special nutrition and quality care. It is desirable to create in the room the optimum humidity and purity, for this purpose it is convenient to use a humidifier and a cleaner air, often ventilate the room and conduct daily wet cleaning in the room in which the child is. And:
- Abundant drink
Ensure abundant reception of fluids in a warm form. To soften the cough, warm milk with butter or Borjomi mineral water helps, can be replaced with honey.
With fever, the temperature just above 38C should take antipyretics - paracetamol in syrup.
Antibiotics for bronchitis in children, if recommended by a doctor, should be given strictly by the hour. If taking antibacterial drugs is necessary 3 times a day, this does not mean that you should drink from breakfast, lunch and dinner, which means, that their reception should be 24/3 = 8, every 8 hours, if 1 time per day, then give it only at the same time, for example at 9 o'clock in the morning. 11 rules - how to take antibiotics correctly.
- Cough medicine
With a dry cough, the child can be given antitussive medicines as prescribed by the doctor, and when it becomes wet to go on expectorants. With a dry cough, the means can be combined (Sinekod). If the cough is wet, then expectorants are shown - Mucaltin, Bromhexin, Gedelix, Alpine syrup, Thermopsis herb infusion or its dry extract, Bronchicum, Evcabal, Prospan, breastfeeds.
Inhalation in bronchitis in children, the symptoms of which are very pronounced, are well helped by inhalation with the usual food soda, called over hot pots, inhalation of sodium bicarbonate using a nebulizer, inhaler.
- For babies
For small and infants who do not know how to clear themselves, doctors advise turning the child more often from one side to the other. In this case, sputum is shifted downward, irritating the bronchial wall, this leads to reflex cough.
For older children, cans, mustards, hot foot baths, they still help, and if the child has strong immunity, such procedures will help to avoid taking antibiotics. You can soar the baby's legs after 1 year, and also rub them with warming agents - turpentine ointments, Barsukor, Pulmaks baby, etc., but only in the case when there is no high temperature, after rubbing, you should warm your feet and wrap up your baby. However, in case of an allergic bronchitis in a child, neither the mustard nor the warming ointments can be used, since the composition of ointments and mustard can worsen the child's condition.
When bronchitis in children, the treatment is helped by compresses from warm oil. Warm sunflower oil to 40 ° C and moisten them with gauze folded several times. This compress should be imposed only on the right side and back of the baby, from above put a plastic bag and a layer of cotton wool, bandage the child around several times. Dress warm clothes, do this procedure for the night, if there is no temperature in the child.
- Folk remedies
Old folk way - radish juice with honey, cabbage juice, turnip juice - any of these juices should be given 1 teaspoon 4 times a day. You can give and cranberry juice, mixing it with honey in a ratio of 3/1, a tablespoon 3 times a day.
The first week is well helped by chest massage, older children would be good at performing breathing exercises.
Physiotherapy with bronchitis
In children, these procedures are prescribed and conducted only at the physician's discretion, these are physiotherapy methods that promote the fastest recovery, since they have an anti-inflammatory effect, however, they can not be performed more than 2 times a year:
- Ultraviolet irradiation of the chest
- Mud, paraffin applications on the chest and between the shoulder blades
- Inductometry on the same areas
- Electrophoresis with calcium
- SOLLUX ON THE BREAST
- Aeronisation by the hydroionizer of the respiratory tract with solutions of chamomile, antibiotics.
Prevention of acute bronchitis in children:
Do not allow a prolonged runny nose in a child, timely treatment of any cold and infectious diseases will be the best preventative against penetration of the infection into the lower respiratory tract.
Walking in the fresh air in the park, playing at the cottage, physical exercise in nature, tempering, daily the intake of natural vitamins in fruits and vegetables, and not in tablets is the way to your child's health.
Obstructive bronchitis in children - symptoms
In young children, usually up to 3-4 years of acute bronchitis may be accompanied by an obstructive syndrome - this is an acute obstructive bronchitis. In children, the symptoms of such bronchitis begin more often after viral infections or allergic manifestations on the stimulus.
The main symptoms of obstructive bronchitis:
- Harsh, audible long breath with whistling
- Coughing with attacks, before vomiting, debilitating
- During inhalation, the intercostal spaces are drawn in and chest is swollen with breathing
When obstructive allergic bronchitis in children there is no temperature, it starts because of an allergic reaction to the strongest irritant for the child, and parents can often recall, that recently they bought something for the child - a feather pillow or a blanket made of wool of a camel or a sheep, houses were inhaled with paint from repair or went to visit, where there are cats.
In obstructive bronchitis in children, symptoms can begin on the 3rd-4th day of the flu or ARVI, and may also be caused by other bacteria, which is manifested in the appearance of expiratory dyspnea - an increase in the respiratory rate to 60 per minute, and there are also difficulties in inspiration.
The child begins wheezing, noisy breathing, especially a prolonged wheezing exhale, which is heard by persons near the baby. The thorax is as if swollen, that is, the ribs are horizontally arranged. Cough is dry, obtrusive, bouts, arises suddenly, it does not bring relief and intensifies at night.
If this disease develops not after ARI, then the temperature in the early days is not increased.
Headache, weakness and nausea, are very rare.
When listening there are dry wheezing in the lungs.
X-ray revealed increased transparency, increased pulmonary pattern, in the absence of infiltrative changes in the lungs.
The analysis of blood as a viral infection - lymphocytosis, leukopenia. accelerated ESR, if allergic bronchitis in a child, then eosinophilia.
Almost always obstructive bronchitis is associated with a virus or mycoplasmal infection, relapses of obstructive bronchitis in children most often spontaneously stop by 4 years.
If the bronchioles and small bronchi are affected, then this is an acute bronchiolitis.
Obstructive bronchitis in children differs from asthma attacks, in that obstruction develops slowly, and with asthma the child abruptly begins to suffocate. Although the first attacks of bronchial asthma in children also begin during ARVI. If the obstruction occurs several times a year, it is a signal that the child is at risk for developing bronchial asthma in the future.
Obstructive bronchitis in a child can be due to passive smoking, it can be distinguished by a strong cough with a whistle in the morning, while the child's condition is quite satisfactory. Obstruction with allergies occurs when contact with an allergen and recently it becomes a very frequent manifestation in children prone to allergies, these bronchitis are recurrent and are threatened by the development of bronchial asthma.
Allergic and obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment
In obstructive bronchitis in children up to a year or 2 years, treatment should be performed in a hospital under the supervision of a pediatrician, in other cases at the discretion of the doctor and parents. Treatment is best done in a hospital if:
- In addition to obstruction in the child, the symptoms of intoxication are decreased appetite, fever, nausea, general weakness.
- Signs of respiratory failure. This is shortness of breath, when the frequency of breathing increases by 10% of the age norm, counting is better done at night, and not during games or crying. In children under 6 months, the respiration rate should not exceed 60 per minute, 6-12 months - 50 breaths, 1-5 years, 40 breaths. Acrocyanosis is a sign of respiratory failure, manifested by cyanotic nasolabial triangle, nails, that is, the body experiences oxygen deficiency.
- It is not uncommon for obstructive bronchitis in children to mask pneumonia, so if the doctor suspects pneumonia from hospitalization can not be denied.
Bronchiolithics extend the bronchi, so they are designed to relieve obstruction. To date, they are presented in various forms in the pharma industry:
- In the form of syrups (Salmeterol, Clenbuterol, Ascoril), which are convenient for young children, their disadvantage is the development of tremors and palpitations.
- In the form of solutions for inhalation (see. Berodual for inhalation) - this is the most convenient way for young children, diluting the drug solution fiz.rastvorom, inhalation 2-3 times a day, after the improvement, it is possible to use only at night. The multiplicity and dosage, as well as the course of treatment is determined only by the pediatrician.
- Inhalers-aerosols can be used only for older children (Berodual, Salbutamol).
- Such tableted forms of bronchodilators, like theophylline (Theopack, Euphyllin) are not indicated for the treatment of children with obstructive bronchitis, they have more pronounced side effects, are more toxic than local inhalation forms.
Can be used to reduce bronchial spasms. This is papaverine or Drotaverin, No-shpa. Their reception can be carried out with the help of an inhaler, orally in the form of tablets or intravenously in a hospital.
Means for coughing
To sputum better departed, various mucoregulatory drugs are used, they help dilute sputum and accelerate its excretion:
- These are preparations with active substance ambroksol (Lazolvan, Ambrobene). These drugs can not be taken for more than 10 days, it is most convenient to use them in the form of inhalations, as well as carbocisteine preparations (Fluiditek, Bronhobos, Mukosol).
- After the cough became wet, the seizures became less intense, the sputum diluted, but it departs badly, ambroxol should be changed to expectorants means for coughing for children, which should be given no more than 5-10 days, including Gedelix, Bronchicum, Prospan, Bronhosan, Herbion (see p. herbion from dry and wet cough), Tussin, Bronchipret, breastfeeding , ,, .
- Codeine-containing drugs for children should not be taken if the child has a seizure-like compulsive cough, as directed the doctor can use Sinekod, Stoptusin Fito, Libexin (with caution in childhood), Bronhicum, Broncholitin.
- Erespal - promotes and removes obstruction, and reduces sputum production, and it also has anti-inflammatory activity, is applied from the first days of the disease, reduces the risk of complications, is contraindicated in children under 2 years old.
To facilitate the departure of sputum, parents can themselves do their child massage the collar zone, chest, back. Especially strong massage should be done for the muscles of the back along the spine. Useful for obstructive bronchitis in children postural massage - that is, efflorescence of the baby's back in the morning, it is necessary to suspend the child from the bed upside down (padding the pillow under his tummy) and tapping the palms folded in the boat for 10-15 minutes. For older children, with a massage, ask the child to take a deep breath, and on an exhalation, tap. Useful and additional exercises such as inflating balloons, blowing out candles.
AntihistaminesAntihistamines are prescribed to children in the presence of allergic reactions. Such medicines for allergies like Eryus in syrup can be taken to children from 1 year, with the half a year it is possible to use Claritin and Zirtek, from 2 years in syrups and drops Cetrin, Zodak, Parlazin (cf. list of medicines for allergies). Such antihistamines of the 1st generation as Suprastin and Tavegil are used less often, only for drying with abundant liquid sputum.
Allergy or virus
If the obstruction is caused by an allergy or a virus - antibiotics can not be used, and even dangerous (see. antibiotics for colds and orgs). The appointment of antibiotics is possible only with the proven infectious origin of bronchitis in children.
When antibiotics are indicated
Treatment of bronchial obstruction with antibiotics is not indicated, only if the child has a fever over 4 days, or has occurred the second temperature jump to 39C after 4-5 days after the onset of the disease, is accompanied by severe intoxication, a strong cough, if with adequate the child suddenly becomes apathetic, sluggish, refuses to eat, has weakness, nausea, headaches and even vomiting. In such cases, the use of antibiotics is justified. They are prescribed only by a pediatrician on the basis of a clinical picture, the presence of purulent sputum (indicating bacterial bronchitis), inflammatory changes in the analysis of blood, as well as with other signs of bacterial bronchitis or pneumonia (wheezing, x-ray signs).
Most doctors recommend that for ARVI and flu, take antiviral drugs, for babies, candles Genferon, Viferon, and also in the form of drops Gripferon, Interferon, take syrups by Orvire (remantadine), and after three years of age tableted forms such as Kagocel and Arbidol, Cytovir 3. But it is worth remembering that if in a family history (close relatives) there are any autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diffuse toxic goiter, vitiligo, multiple sclerosis, pernicious anemia, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, uveitis, Addison's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, scleroderma), it is impossible to take immunostimulants (Kagocel, Tsitovir, Amiksin), it can cause a debut of an autoimmune disease in a child, perhaps not now, but later (see. more antiviral drugs for orvi).
Hormonal therapyHormonal drugs, such as Pulcicort, are indicated only in severe or moderate-onset obstructive bronchitis (usually with the help of a nebulizer), they quickly stop obstruction and inflammation, they are prescribed only by a doctor.
What not to do
When obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment by rubbing and smearing the body of the child with various warming ointments (ointment Dr. Mom, ointments with medicinal plants, essential oils), the use of mustard plasters is unacceptable, since they cause an even more allergic reaction and bronchospasm, especially in children under 3 years old. Also categorically it is impossible to carry out inhalations with bronchitis with various medicinal herbs and essential oils. It is only possible to use such folk remedies for warming up - heat compresses with potatoes, salt, buckwheat.
PhysiotherapyPhysiotherapeutic procedures in the acute period are contraindicated, when the obstruction is already stopped, it is possible to perform UHF, electrophoresis or laser.
Hypoallergenic diet and plentiful drink
Any natural drinks - mineral water with milk, tea, broth of a dogrose, it is necessary to drink to the child as often as possible. The diet should be hypoallergenic, but at the same time maximally vitaminized, high in protein and fat content. Exclude from the diet of the child anything that can cause an allergic reaction:
- citrus, red and orange fruit
- purchased spices, sweets, milk cheeses, yoghurts, carbonated drinks, sausages and sausages - everything that contains dyes, flavors, preservatives and flavor enhancers
- honey and other beekeeping products
- fish, grown on fish farms, broiler chickens, as they are stuffed with hormones and antibiotics, which causes allergies.
When caring for a child, you should daily aerate, moisten the room where the child is. It's hot in the apartment should not be, it's better to have a cool, fresh, clean air. After the recovery of the child should be put on a dispensary record with an allergist.