Formation and development of the child's bearing

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  • 1The formation of correct posture in children - ABC of health
    • 1.1About the spine and its changes
    • 1.2On posture and its violations
    • 1.3Preventive maintenance of infringements of a posture
    • 1.4Formation of correct posture
    • 1.5Useful exercises
  • 2Formation of a correct preschool posture
    • 2.1Correct posture in a child of preschool age
    • 2.2The main types of violations of posture in preschool children
    • 2.3Prevention of child's posture disorders
    • 2.4General recommendations
    • 2.5Proper nutrition and daily routine
    • 2.6Children's room equipment
    • 2.7Physical activity
    • 2.8Therapeutic exercises in the case of violations of posture
  • 3Why is much attention paid to the formation of a child's bearing in the preschool age?
  • 4Methodical development on the topic: The formation of a correct posture
  • 5Infringements of a posture at the child: preventive maintenance, correction
    • 5.1Causes of a child's posture disorder
    • 5.2Caring for posture from the first days
    • 5.3Prevention of a child's posture disorder
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    • 5.4Static-dynamic mode
    • 5.5Forming the right posture
    • 5.6Selection of the right clothes and shoes
    • 5.7Rational physical education
    • 5.8Disorders of posture in the child
    • 5.9Scoliosis

The formation of correct posture in children - ABC of health

The formation of correct posture in children depends largely on the environment.

The duties of parents, as well as employees of preschool and school institutions, are to monitor the correct position children while standing, sitting and walking, as well as use exercises that develop, mainly, the muscles of the back, legs and stomach. This is necessary for the child to develop a natural muscle corset.

About the spine and its changes

The spine (vertebral column) is the main part of the human axial skeleton and consists of 33-34 vertebrae, which are interconnected by cartilages, ligaments and joints.

In the womb of the mother, the child's spine looks like a uniform arc. When a child is born, his spine straightens and takes the form of a practically straight line. It is from the moment of birth begins to form a posture.

If there is a skill of keeping the head in a raised state, the cervical spine of the baby gradually develops a bend forward, the so-called cervical lordosis.

If the time has come when the child already knows how to sit, a bend is formed in the thoracic part of his spine, only turned back (kyphosis).

And if the child begins to walk, a bend with a convexity that faces forward is formed in the lumbar region with time. This is the lumbar lordosis. That is why it is important to monitor the further proper formation of the child's posture.

On posture and its violations

Posture is the ability of a person to keep his body in a variety of positions. It is right and wrong.

Posture is considered correct, if a person who is at ease, being in his usual position, does not make unnecessary active strains and keeps his head and body straight. In addition, he has an easy gait, slightly lowered and withdrawn shoulders, forwarded chest, tightened stomach and legs, bent at the knees.

With a wrong posture, a person does not know how to properly keep his body, so, as a rule, stoops, stands and moves on his half-bent legs, lowering his shoulders and head, and also putting forward belly. With this posture, the normal functioning of the internal organs is disrupted.

Various violations of posture, whether stoop, lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine) - quite often occur in preschool and school age children. Basically, these children are either physically weakened, or suffering from any chronic illness, or already ill with severe illnesses in early childhood.

Preventive maintenance of infringements of a posture

Prevention of any violations associated with posture should be comprehensive and based on the principles presented below.

The child's continuously developing body needs useful nutrients throughout its growth. Nutrition should be full and varied, since it depends on how right the development of muscles and bones.

Exercising, physical activities, and various sports are very important for the health of the child's posture. features, skiing and swimming), gymnastics, as well as tourism, active outdoor games and other It should be borne in mind that during physical development, the child should not be forced to make sudden and rapid loads.

In order to avoid problems with posture, it is necessary not only to organize the correct regime of the day (time for walking, sleeping, wakefulness, nutrition, etc.), but also strictly observe it, without making any exceptions, for example, on weekends.

4.1. The room should have high-quality lighting. An additional desk lamp should be equipped with a children's desk.

4.2. The height of the table should correspond to the growth of the child. There are also special desks, which are designed to correct the posture of a schoolboy.

4.3. The chair must repeat the bends of the body.

True, instead of such an orthopedic chair, you can put a rag pillar behind your back at the level of the lumbar region in addition to a regular even chair.

The height of the chair should ideally be equal to the height of the shin. Use the footrest if they do not reach the floor.

4.4. The child should sit so that his back rests on the back of the chair, and the head slightly tilted forward, and between the body and the table easily ran the palm of the rib. When sitting, you should not bend your legs to yourself, as this can lead to a curvature of the spine and a violation of the circulation.

4.5. In a child's bed should be a flat and solid mattress. Thanks to this mattress, the weight of the child's body is distributed evenly, and the muscles relax as much as possible after the vertical position of the trunk for the whole day. Do not allow the child to sleep on a soft surface.

This provokes the formation of irregular bends of the spine during sleep. In addition, a soft mattress stimulates the heating of intervertebral discs, in connection with which the thermoregulation is broken.

As for the children's pillow, it should be flat and placed just under the head, and not under the shoulders.

  1. Competent correction of shoes.

Correct, accurate and timely selection of children's shoes allows parents to avoid and even eliminate many problems, such as functional shortening of the limb, caused by posture disorders or compensating for foot defects (clubfoot and flat feet).

  1. Uniform distribution of loads.

It is known that most often in school age, when children have a rapid growth of bone and muscle mass, they, unfortunately, get the curvature of the spine.

This is due to the fact that at such an age the spine of the child is not adapted to heavy loads. Parents should try not to overload the child when wearing a knapsack, rucksack or briefcase.

Remember that according to the standard, the weight that is allowed to lift the child is 10% of the total body weight.

The back of the school satchel should be flat and firm, its width should not be greater than the width of the shoulders.

Also, the knapsack should not hang below the belt, and the belts on it should be soft and wide, adjustable in length.

It is unacceptable for a long time to wear heavy bags on one of the shoulders, which is especially important for girls. In this case, the curvature of the spine for them can be an inevitable problem.

With regard to the correct transfer of weights, it is known that bending over, grabbing and lifting it - this is a huge load on the spine and so you can not do.

It would be right to sit down first with a flat back, then take, squeeze to chest, climb and carry.

And as advice to parents: even if you do not follow this rule, teach him your child.

Formation of correct posture

Stimulate growth and develop the child's muscles can be safely started from the moment of his birth. So their growth and strength will develop faster and multiply. For infants, massage is an excellent help in this (as prescribed by a doctor).

A kid at the age of 2-3 months can begin to do exercises to train muscle groups responsible for keeping the body in the right position.

To do this, it will be sufficient to lift the child with the help of the palms, moving from the "lying" position to the "up" position, after which you will not be able to hold it for a long time in the weight.

In this position, the muscles and joints of the baby will move, while training all the muscle groups.

After years in the game form with the child, you can begin to engage in gymnastics.

Together, you can "chop firewood "cat-like bend your back, "pump the water walk along the drawn line, like a rope, roll around on the floor, pass an obstacle course, etc.

You can ask the child to picture a bird: lie on your stomach, "spread out your wings" (spread your arms out to the sides) and hold your ankles with raised legs.

The child's posture is formed before puberty. All this time it is necessary to monitor its formation. If a child already has a certain violation, before the beginning of this period, it can be corrected.

The child should regularly visit an orthopedic doctor, while he is on dispensary registration and undergo all available types of treatment.

This can be therapeutic exercise, swimming, massage, physiotherapy, manual therapy, as well as surgical treatment (according to indications).

Useful exercises

For the formation of correct posture in children, as well as the prevention of her disorders in the process of morning exercises, physical training and time fizkultminutok at home and, mainly, in preschool and school institutions can use a variety of useful exercises. Below are examples of such exercises.

  1. The child is standing on one leg or walking on a log.
  2. Holding the hoop behind the back, the child does inclines to the sides.
  3. Holding the gymnastic stick in his hands, the child crouches, standing on his toes.
  4. Raising his hands to the sides, the child makes the slopes back.
  5. Having put his legs apart and holding a gymnastic stick in his hands, the child, bent over, makes the slopes forward.
  6. The child raises his legs up, lying on his back.
  7. The child crawls on all fours.
  8. The child, while maintaining a correct posture, walks, holding a load on his head.
  9. With the hands down, the child holds the gymnastic stick by the ends and raises his hands up, planting a stick behind his back, then alternating the slopes to the left and to the right.
  10. Using a horizontal bar or a Swedish wall, the child clasps the crossbar with his hands, bends the legs at a right angle and is in this position for several seconds.
  11. Being in the position of "legs together, hands are lowered the child takes his right foot back, and arms spreads to the sides and freezes, then repeats the exercise with his left leg.
  12. Lying on the back, the child with the help of his feet "turns the pedals of a bicycle" or depicts "scissors".
  13. Lying on the belly, the child raises her knees bent at the knees, clasps her ankles with her hands and starts to wiggle like a boat on the waves.
  14. Standing in front of the mirror, the child alternates, first violates, and then corrects the posture.
  15. The child leans against the wall with five points (the back of the head, shoulder blades, buttocks, calves and heels). These points are the main curves of our body outward and normally should touch the wall. After that, he performs various movements, for example, squats or raising the legs and hands to the sides, straining the muscles in an average of 5 seconds.
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Dear parents, to remind and tell the child "Sit down straight" or "Do not slouch" of course, it is necessary, but this is still not enough.

Begin to worry about the health of your kids even "from the cradle" and be sure to take time to practice with them. An important example in the formation of the correct posture of the child is a personal example.

Do exercises with the child, keep your back straight and stay healthy!

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Formation of a correct preschool posture

Agree, it is much more pleasant to look at a slim, tight-fitting passer-by with straightened shoulders and a light, relaxed gait than on a stooped, slow and heavy man. However, the appearance is only half the trouble.

Defects of posture carry in themselves more serious problems, which begin with the displacement of internal organs, and end with all sorts of diseases.

That is why it is necessary to work on correct posture from childhood so as not to face negative consequences when it is much more difficult to correct the situation.

Correct posture in a child of preschool age

Since the children's organism is constantly growing and developing, many of its systems are of an unstable nature. Therefore, violations of posture in young children - a common phenomenon, fraught with numerous disorders in the functioning of vital organs.

Changes in the posture of a preschooler can be influenced by both positive and negative factors.

At this age, the instability of posture is most often due to a mismatch between the rate of increase in bone and muscle systems: muscles grow faster than bones, and the mechanism of maintaining the right posture does not keep pace with such a rapid growth.

Correct posture of a preschool child looks like this:

  • the head is slightly tilted forward;
  • noticeably a slight dislocation of the shoulder girdle;
  • the scapula slightly away from the back;
  • natural vertebral bends are expressed implicitly;
  • the stomach has a slight bulge.

The main types of violations of posture in preschool children

Violation of posture is a deviation from the norm. At the initial stages it is not considered a disease, but it can not be called an innocuous cosmetic defect.

Violation of posture is the "first bell a signal about an increased risk of the appearance of pathological curvatures of the spine, osteochondrosis, diseases of internal organs. Such defects damage the health of the crumbs, so they need special attention from their parents.

It is much more reasonable to ask how to form a correct posture of your child, having warned of the development of violations, than to correct them in the future.

Disorders of posture, which are most often found in preschool children, lead to the fact that the child's back becomes:

The most common defect in preschool children is a flaccid back. Under this name lies a slovenly and unstable posture.

Such a violation has not yet been fixed: if the kid tries to stand upright - his spine will take the right shape, but if the child relaxes - the back will become sluggish again. From the side it may seem that the crumb is tired and "limp".

Therefore, parents often do not focus on this. However, a weak back is the first sign of the development of a violation of posture.

the reason for the appearance of sluggish posture is the inadequate development of the musculature, which is a consequence of the inadequate motor activity or morbidity of the child.

A child with a flaccid back is difficult to stay in a static position, he tries to change his position.

Very often this violation of posture is combined with defects of the lower extremities (curvature of the lower leg, flat feet).

The hunched back is also a frequent companion of the preschooler. The main reason for this violation of posture is the wrong position when sitting at the table. A hunched back can contribute to disruption of the functioning of the chest, which has an extremely adverse effect on the health of the child.

Mainly flat back occurs in weakened or retarded children. However, it can also be a rapidly growing child. Children with such a defect do not tolerate loads, they quickly get tired.

With a flat back, the cushioning function of the spine is reduced, which causes microdamaging of the brain and spinal cord, as a result of which the baby often has a headache and is constantly tired.

In addition, children with a similar disorder often develop scoliosis.

Prevention of child's posture disorders

In order for the baby to form a correct posture, it is mandatory to create conditions for a normal development of his body and the exclusion of all factors negatively affecting the musculoskeletal apparatus.

General recommendations

To prevent the appearance of violation of posture, parents should adhere to certain rules:

  1. If the child is still small, try to drive it to the same extent with both hands in turn. You can not pull a baby's hand.
  2. Observe the poses that the child takes. One leg to the other, tucked under his legs, a curved position - all this is unacceptable for the immature pediatric spine and can lead to a persistent violation of posture.
  3. Kids in all imitate their parents, so you should watch yourself. Try to get rid of the usual wrong poses and constantly demonstrate to the child that you have the right posture.

Proper nutrition and daily routine

Prophylaxis of posture disorder assumes normal development of the musculoskeletal system of crumbs. And for this, the baby should eat right. A particularly growing body needs protein and calcium - building materials for muscles and bones.

The main source of calcium in children's diets are dairy products. Butter, milk, cottage cheese and processed cheese - all these products are rich in calcium and contain vitamin A, which is actively involved in the development of the baby's skeletal system.

Protein products (meat, fish, eggs) contribute to the formation of the muscular system of your child.

Deficiency of protein can negatively affect both physical and mental health of crumbs.

With insufficient caloric content of food, proteins are spent primarily on providing the child's body with energy, and they simply do not have enough to create new cellular structures.

The correct regime of the day also contributes to the formation of the child's bearing. And the order should be firmly maintained on weekdays and on weekends of the baby.

Children's room equipment

The presence of high-quality lighting is mandatory in the children's room. Correct posture will not form if the crumb will play or draw in the twilight, bending unnaturally.

Children's writing desk should be a couple of centimeters above the elbow of a child standing next to each other. It's great if parents get a special desk for the preschooler, which will protect them from a violation of posture. It is desirable that the design of the chair provided for the natural bends of the child's body.

The bed should be larger than the height of the child. The mattress must be chosen for it firmly and evenly. The ideal option is to purchase an orthopedic mattress, on which the mass of crumbs is evenly distributed, and his muscles are completely relaxed.

If the surface on which the child sleeps is too soft, it can lead to unnatural bending of the spine.

Remember that an insufficiently hard mattress provokes overheating of the intervertebral discs, which disrupts the overall thermoregulation of the child's body.

Pillow for crumbs is better to pick up flat and stack it solely under the head of the child.

Physical activity

To prevent violations of posture in children are very important training and sports, active outdoor games.

Especially useful is swimming, the advantages of which are not only in the physical load, but also in the positive effects of water. Stay in the water strengthens the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, hardens the baby, promotes the activation of metabolism and the improvement of heat exchange.

During swimming, the child's spine is naturally unloaded, the intervertebral muscles starts to work symmetrically, the optimal conditions for the correct growth of bodies are restored vertebrae. The spine is stretched, the near-vertebral muscles are strengthened, coordination of movements is improved. All this prevents the occurrence of violations of posture.

Therapeutic exercises in the case of violations of posture

How to form a correct posture if defects are already detected? Correction of violations is a lengthy process, and posture correction exercises should be conducted regularly. The course of medical gymnastics for preschool children is at least a month and a half, and there should be two or three courses per year (with a break in one or two months).

The main tasks of gymnastics are:

  • Strengthen and improve the whole organism (improve physical development, temper the body, normalize the psycho-emotional state of the baby).
  • Increase the power endurance of the muscular system.
  • Improve coordination of movements.
  • Form and fix the correct posture.
  • Teach a child to unload the spine.

Classes with children who have been found to have problems with their posture should be carried out near a smooth wall, opposite which there must be a mirror, so that the kid sees himself at full height. Do not forget about comfortable clothes. To improve control over the performance of exercises, the crumb should be picked up a short shorts and a T-shirt.

The starting position for all exercises: the baby stands, huddled against the wall with the back of the head and shoulder blades, buttocks and heels. At the same time, the head is slightly raised, and should be lowered and slightly withdrawn.

Exercise 1. Hands stretch down, and head up. Stretching his neck, exhale. Breathing is done while relaxing.

Exercise 2. Exhaling, stretch out his whole body, without rising to his toes. Breathe again during relaxation.

Exercise 3. Exhaling, hands to attach to the head and stretch out all over, except the neck. Relaxed - exhale.

Exercise 4. Blinking, step forward. Try to get up right. Opening his eyes, in the mirror to assess the correct posture.

Exercise 5. Take a few steps from the wall and sit down. Then try to stand up correctly.

Exercise 6. Glide your back along the wall, climb to your toes. Stretch and briefly stay in that position. Then return to the starting position.

How to properly perform exercises to correct posture, should show specialist. And it is under his supervision to go through several courses of treatment. However, after fixing the basic skills, many of these exercises can be done at home.

Even if parents do not pay proper attention to the education of correct posture from an early age of crumbs, it is very important not to miss the moment when the defects that have been formed can still be eliminated.

If the preschooler complains of pain in the chest or back, stoops, quickly becomes tired and shows inattention - these are the first signs of violations of posture.

A timely call to a doctor will help prevent the progression of the disease and avoid possible negative consequences.

A source:

Why is much attention paid to the formation of a child's bearing in the preschool age?

Good posture favors blood circulation and breathing, creates a feeling of vivacity, self-confidence.

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Posture is formed under the influence of the structure and development of the bone, ligamentous-joint and neuromuscular system, as well as the external environment - nutrition, clothing, furniture.

It should be closely monitored in the preschool age for the development of the thorax.

Incorrect positions or abnormal movements of the child's body can deform the chest, reduce its mobility, entail limitations on the mobility of the lungs, and, consequently, the gas exchange in organism.

The upbringing of correct posture should be considered as an important condition for the overall strengthening and recovery of the body. Meanwhile, not all families are given due attention to this.

Behind the position of the back and shoulder girdle of children, many parents usually watch, but the position of the legs often escapes the attention of adults.

Often children sit either with their legs crossed and resting on the floor with the outer edge of the foot (this can lead to deformation of the foot), or by hooking their feet behind the front legs of the chair and moving to the edge.

In this position, the pelvis can be tilted to the left or right, and then the spinal deviation from the vertical line appears.

It is necessary to check the poses that children take during gymnastics, drawing, table games and games in the sandy court, where children squat for a long time. The stoop, the tilt of the head forward, the protruding abdomen most often occurs as a result of the wrong posture of the child, as well as the weakness of those muscles that hold the body in the right position.

Preschool age- the main period of posture formation.

The most commonviolation of posture:

  • curvature of the spine in the form of lateral abnormalities (scoliosis);
  • excessive deviation of the spine in the thoracic (kyphosis) and lumbar (lordosis);
  • asymmetric position of the shoulders, etc.

Parents should knowsigns that characterize the correct posturechildren:

  1. vertical position of the head and spinous processes (head and trunk held straight)
  2. symmetrical position of the angles of the blades, shoulders are symmetrical and slightly retracted
  3. stomach taut, equal waist triangles
  4. the thorax is unfolded and protrudes
  5. in the lumbar part there is a slight bend forward,
  6. symmetrical gluteal folds
  7. the same length of lower limbs

Reasons for incorrect postureand its defects are many:

  • hypodynamia and, as a result, insufficient development of the muscles of the back, abdomen, thighs, neck, chest, holding the spine in the right position;
  • walking with lowered head, sitting with lowered shoulders and bent back;
  • inadequate furniture for the child's growth;
  • uncomfortable clothes;
  • incorrect postures and habits of children (for example, support when standing on one foot, reading and drawing, lying in bed on one side);
  • monotonous movements (repulsion by the same foot when jumping during games, carrying a load in the same hand);
  • unsatisfactory general mode of life of the child (passive rest, absence of walks in the open air, lack of sleep, irrational diet);
  • frequent infectious and acute respiratory diseases, weakening the body and worsening physical development
  • constant adherence to the child when walking for the same hand
  • Wrong posture during sleep, if the child is sleeping, with his legs tucked to the stomach, and etc.

The main means of forming a correct posture and correcting its violations arephysical and gymnastic exercises performed both without items and with different ones with different objects(rubber and tennis balls, hoops, sticks, bags of sand, etc.).

Recommended initial positions in gymnastics classes.

  1. Lying on the back
  2. deflection in the thoracic area with support on the forearm, on a ball of large diameter,
  3. all movements in the hip joint (initially with a shortened arm): retraction / reduction; flexion / extension; "a bike"
  4. Lying on the stomach
  5. extension of the trunk with movement and without movement of the upper limbs (performed in static and dynamic mode)
  6. extension of the lower extremities (initially with a shortened arm); lead / cast (performed in static and dynamic mode),
  7. simultaneous extension of the trunk and legs, performance of imitative exercises
  8. Knee-cord("All fours")
  9. flexion / extension of hands;
  10. alternating extension of arms (arm up);
  11. alternate removal of lower limbs;
  12. alternating extension of lower limbs (short and full arm)
  13. Standing on my knees
  14. pendulum movements of the body forward / backward with different position of arms
  15. slopes of the trunk with different position of hands (mean amplitude

Directivity of the impact of physical exercises

  • relaxation and stretching of the muscles of the anterior surface of the chest
  • strengthening and training of abdominal muscles
  • strengthening and training the muscles of the posterior surface of the trunk
  • strengthening and training of the gluteal muscles


  1. running, jump jumping (with all kinds of posture disorders)
  2. somersaults, groupings, rifts in the grouping (with kyphotic posture)
  3. extension of the trunk and legs with a large amplitude - "boats "baskets rolling in them (with a lordotic posture)
  4. torsion of the trunk from various initial positions (with asymmetric posture)
  5. prolonged performance of exercises in a standing position (for all types of violation of posture)

A source:

Methodical development on the topic: The formation of a correct posture

Posture is the habitual posture of a person who is at ease, who he takes without unnecessary muscle tension. The main factors affecting posture are the position and shape of the spine, the position of the pelvis, the strength of the muscles.

Correct posture is a normal posture when standing and sitting: the shoulders are deployed and are on the same level, the shoulder blades are not stand symmetrically, the stomach is tightened, the legs in the knees are not bent when standing, the heels together, the head is held straight.

Natural bends of the spine can maintain a normal posture. The posture of a man not only affects the beauty of his figure, the whole external appearance, but also has a direct impact on his health.

If it worsens, the function of respiration and circulation is disturbed, the activity of the liver and the oxidative processes decrease, which leads to a decrease in the physical and mental working capacity.

Defects of posture often cause visual disturbances and lead to the formation of scoliosis, kyphosis and osteochondrosis.

In pre-school children, posture defects are usually not pronounced and are not permanent.

The most common defect is a flaccid posture, which is characterized by an excessive increase in cervical and thoracic flexure of the spine, slightly lowered head, lowered and forwarded shoulders, sunken chest, backward (pterygoid) scapula, hanging stomach. Often the legs are slightly bent at the knee joints. On the basis of sluggish posture, lateral and flat-concave spin, round and round-concave back, as well as lateral distortions (scoliosis) or combined distortion can form.

Defects of posture can adversely affect the state of the nervous system.

At the same time, small children become withdrawn, irritable, capricious, restless, feel uncomfortable, embarrassed to take part in games with peers.

Older children complain of pains in the spine, which usually arise after physical or static stress, on a feeling of numbness in the interblade area.

The main effective means of preventing postural defects is the correct and timely begun physical education.

Since the environmental conditions, parents and employees of preschool institutions influence the growth and formation of posture, they should control the poses of children when sitting, standing, walking.

Of great importance are:

- timely proper nutrition;

-Fresh air;

- selection of furniture in accordance with the length of the body;

- Optimum illumination;

- the habit of correctly carrying heavy objects;

- Relax the muscles of the body;

- Follow your own gait.

Motor coordination, physiological curves of the spine, the arches of the child's foot are formed gradually in the process of its development.

A major role in these processes is played by the basic factors of development, sensorimotor coordination, the environment of the child.

It is these factors that determine the development of the child's posture, foot, motor stereotype. Among the basic factors of development are:

- modal-specific - associated with the senses (tactile, auditory, visual, vestibular, olfactory, taste stimuli);

- kinesthetic, kinetic, spatial (the space of the world, the scheme of the body);

- arbitrary regulation;

- power supply;

Interhemispheric interaction.

The child's posture is formed from birth to 9-10 years. It is during this period of life that it is necessary to create conditions for the formation of a correct posture and an optimal motor stereotype.

By the end of the first year of life, the child has four natural (physiological) flexes of the spine: cervical and lumbar - convex forward, thoracic and sacral-coccygeal - convex back.

The child starts moving, using all limbs for support. The upper limbs do not have a grasping function, it is developed later. The newborn gradually straightens out the total kyphosis.

In the supine position, the arcuate curvature of the spine under the action of the gravity of the head on the cervical spine, and the lower limbs - on the lumbar region is smoothed.

When the strength of the neck muscles increases, the child begins to lift his head and sits down. In the sitting position, the lumbar kyphosis increases, this phenomenon is normal.

The abdominal muscles of the baby are very weak, so in the vertical position the stomach is protruded under the action of gravity and a small lumbar lordosis appears.

In the first period of walking the posture of the child is as follows: a protruding abdomen, a lumbar lordosis is indicated, a straight upper part of the trunk, sometimes a small thoracic kyphosis, a small contracture of the hips, bent.

Transient type of posture in children holds almost the entire pre-school period. Stomach protrusion decreases, but does not disappear, lumbar lordosis becomes more noticeable.

The ribs, due to the pull of the abdominal muscles, lean forward, so the chest is somewhat flattened, and the shoulders are rounded, but remain in their place behind and do not move forward.

The knees straighten up in an upright position, but remain slightly bent during walking.

In early childhood and younger school age, children often have posture disorders that can lead to serious disorders of normal activity of the body, and in neglected cases - to loss of efficiency and early disability.

Variants of violation of posture.

Round back - an increase in thoracic kyphosis with an almost complete absence of lumbar lordosis.

To compensate for the deviation of the center of gravity from the center line, the child stands with his legs bent in the knee joints.

With a round back, the chest sinks, the shoulders, neck and head lean forward, the stomach is pushed forward, the buttocks flattened, the pterygoids are paddle-shaped.

Round-concave back - all the bends of the spine are enlarged, the pelvic incline angle is increased. The head, neck, shoulders are tilted forward, the belly protrudes.

This is the most common violation of posture in the senior preschool age - more than 60%. This form of posture is determined by the presence in children of the upper and lower cross syndrome, i.e.

The muscles prone to shortening are shortened, the muscles prone to inhibition are relaxed.

Flat back - a flattening of the lumbar lordosis, the pelvic inclination is reduced. The thoracic kyphosis is poorly expressed, the thorax is shifted forward. Shoulder pterygoids.

Flat-concave back - reduction of thoracic kyphosis with normal or slightly enlarged lumbar lordosis. The thorax is narrow, the abdominal muscles are weakened.

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Special tasks at preschool age when forming a correct posture include:

- development of basic development factors;

- formation of correct posture and images of correct movements (optimal motor stereotype);

- stimulation of the activity of organs and systems, improvement of physical development;

- Improved coordination of movements;

- Improvement and normalization of the emotional state, education of socially-confident behavior of the child;

- activation of metabolic processes;

- increase in the nonspecific resistance of the child's organism;

- stretching and strengthening the muscles of the anterior surface of the body and strengthening the muscles of the abdominal press, with simultaneous correction of the bend of the lumbar spine (POP);

- Strengthening the muscles responsible for setting the shoulder blades and directional strengthening of the back muscles with simultaneous correction of the thoracic spine (GOP);

- strengthening the muscles of the hands and feet with an emphasis on the development of the arch of the foot.

All these tasks are united by one, without the solution of which it is impossible to achieve a positive result - this is the education of the reflex of correct posture, the conscious desire to become healthy, beautiful, strong.

The development and consolidation of the habit of correct posture occurs during the performance of various general development exercises, in which it is compulsory the correct position of the body is maintained; exercises in balance and coordination, providing for the development of sensorimotor connections of the central nervous system.

5 - 6 year old child should already be able to combine the work of the right and left hands, hands and feet, be able to make movements with resistance, work on overcoming the heaviness of his body, coordinate the work of the front and back halves of the body. Many children lose the ability to move if they close their eyes. Often great difficulties arise when crossing the midline of the body, a combination of head and eye movements, body twists and movements of the hands and eyes.

But it is these types of coordination that underlie such vital locomotions as crawling, walking, running. And all this inevitably turns into difficulties in teaching to writing and reading, where the necessary movements of the hand, eye, and head are also connected with the intersection of the midline of the body.

The result of sensorimotor development is:

1. Coordination of the work of the right and left half of the body (laterality).

2. Consistency of the work of the upper and lower halves of the body (centralization).

3. Consistency of the front and back of the body (focus).

Any lag in the development of these coordination affects not only the formation of the child's bearing, his health, but also his ability to adapt in the environment, working capacity, success, the ability to communicate with peers and adults, the development of self-doubt, learning difficulties. The presence of even one of the listed deviations can already serve as the reason for the formation of an incorrect posture. The appendix gives tests for the degree of development of sensor and psychomotor coordination. p. )

Correction and development exercises without items

In the first month of classes you should start working with children from walking, crawling, climbing.

It is these forms of movement that are the basis of sensorimotor development, they will help children to restore lost ability to coordinate their movements, work the body together with the activities of the senses, sight, hearing and nervous system.

Let's consider examples.


1) without a task - 16 steps;

2) on the toes, hands on the sides - 8 steps;

3) on the heels, hands behind the head - 8 steps;

4) on the outside of the foot, arms on the belt - 8 steps;

5) stepping through the modules - 8 steps.

Guidelines. Children perform ordinary walking in a column one at a time. When walking on your toes, do not bend your knees, steps are small, hands exactly in the direction, do not lower your head, look straight.

When walking on the heels, do not stomp, put your foot gently, put your hands behind your head, dilute your elbows, look straight, do not set the pelvis aside. When stepping over the modules, raise your hip high, pulling your toe off.

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Infringements of a posture at the child: preventive maintenance, correction

The state of posture is an indicator that characterizes the health of a child and adolescent. Disorders of posture in the child serve as a prerequisite for the development of certain functional and morphological disorders of life, negatively affect many diseases.

The formation of a correct posture requires patience and persistence not so much from the child as from the parents, with the help of a pediatrician.

  • Direct position of the head.
  • Symmetrical neck lines.
  • Symmetrical position of the shoulder and shoulder clavicles.
  • Both shoulder blades are at the same level and are pressed against the chest.
  • Wave-uniform physiological curves of the spine.
  • The crests of the iliac bones are horizontal; direct position of the pelvis.
  • The triangles of the waist (formed between the lateral surfaces of the trunk and the lowered arms) are symmetrical and equal.
  • Correctly formed vaults of feet and absence of defects of development of feet.
  • Symmetry of skeletal muscles and their normal tone.

Posture determines the state and interaction of individual components of the musculoskeletal system of the baby.

These are bones, ligaments, joints, muscles, whose work is regulated by the nervous system.

The ability of the spine to perform various movements is largely determined by physiological curves in the anteroposterior direction that are formed during the period of growth and development of the baby.

Any deviation from the norm is called a violation of posture, the prevalence of which in different age groups is from 30 to 100%.

The risk of developing a violation of posture in a child increases in those age periods when the child is intensively growing. These are the periods of the first (in 5-6 years) and the second (13-15 years) growth shift, they are called critical in the formation of posture.

Causes of a child's posture disorder

  1. Hereditary predisposition (the so-called anatomical-constitutional type of the structure of the spine).
  2. Lack of regular physical training.
  3. Vision and hearing impairment.
  4. Unsatisfactory food.
  5. Not observance of hygienic and regime norms (for example, improper organization of the child's work place).
  6. Hormonal disorders and concomitant diseases.

Among the causes of defects in posture is the habit of walking, with the head bowed down, resting more on one leg or sitting unevenly at a table, etc.

In the skeleton of a preschooler there are many cartilaginous parts, the bones are softer, more supple than those of adults, easily curved.

Caring for posture from the first days

Care of the posture should be present in the treatment of the baby from the first days of his life. Newborns react reflexively to light, sound, color, smells.

The baby's bed is set so that it is approached from either side.

After feeding, during the waking period on the hands of parents should often shift the baby from one hand to the other, supporting along the spine).

When breastfeeding, it is necessary to ensure that the baby enters the mouth not only of the nipple, but also of the nipple (areola).

The position of the mother in the process of feeding should be sedentary, and the chair - with a high and firm back.

At the same time, the child should be freed from restraining clothes, to be held at an angle of 45-60 ° from the horizontal plane. An example is the magnificent painting by Leonardo da Vinci "The Madonna of Litta"

Swaddling, especially tight, is contraindicated in the newborn. Proper clothing - one that allows free movement in the joints of the hands and feet, does not limit the mobility of the spine.

Toys are hung over the crib so that the child does not have to constantly turn his head in one direction. Later in the game, the baby is offered to take items alternately in the right and left hands.

Do not actively teach the child to sit, stand and walk on their own, speeding up the physiological timing of acquiring these skills.

On the street, during a walk, it is not recommended to always take the baby by one hand, creating a slope of the body in one direction, should support the baby for both hands; While the walking of young children is uncertain, you can use special devices (rein). At the stroller, the seat and the back are tight.

Prevention of a child's posture disorder

Static-dynamic mode

Alternating vertical static loads with rest. Rest after long static loads. Performing part of the training assignments in the prone position on the abdomen.

Forming the right posture

  1. Standing pose. Standing freely, without stress, with equal loads on both legs.
  2. Pose while walking.The head should be placed straight, the forelegs should be at the same level, the thorax should be straightened, and the belly should be drawn.

Working posture.

The gap between the table and the chest is, cm, the optimal distance from the eyes of the child sitting at the table before his surface - 30 cm, the angle between the thighs and shins - 90 °, the length of the seat should be approximately equal to the length hips.

It is recommended to wear a knapsack. If this portfolio is an alternation of hands, matching the weight of the knapsack to the age of the child.

Selection of the right clothes and shoes

The load of clothing should extend symmetrically to the shoulders. Shoes for daily wearing should be chosen with a firm sole and straight, uncombed socks, heel height 3-4 cm.

Rational physical education

Recommended walking on skis, walks, outdoor games, exercise, light dumbbells, dancing, sports: swimming, running, volleyball, basketball, boxing. The specific sport should correspond to the age of the child. Special physical exercises and massage.

Disorders of posture in the child

Properly selected physical exercises are a good method of preventing and correcting a child's posture disorder.

With kyphosis(round back, narrowing of the chest, shoulders extended forward and lowered down), the children can not stand even for even a few minutes. For the prevention of kyphosis, the child must sleep on the back, on a hard mattress without a pillow.

Limitation of lifting and wearing weights, time spent in sitting position. Recommended breathing exercises. To rise on socks, simultaneously making an inhalation with a nose, inflating a stomach, then to exhale, to involve a stomach, to fall on the heels, to keep the back straight.

When kyphosis is useful swimming.

Lordosis- curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, with an arch facing forward. To prevent it, you also need physical exercises that strengthen your muscular corset.


Lateral curvature of the spine -scoliosis- There are 2 forms.

True scoliosisAnatomical skeleton defect. Children with such scoliosis need special orthopedic treatment.

In children with a flexible spine and weak skeletal musculature, it is possible to developscoliosis, when one shoulder is higher than the other. Correct this violation can be with corrective gymnastics, and better - swimming.

Effective for the formation of good posture and prevention of its violation - gymnastic exercises with objects (ball, hoop, stick).

Children with impaired posture should not be exempt from physical education. It is recommended to include them in the main group without restrictions of physical activity and are allowed to participate in competitions.

This is all about the violation of the child's posture. Stay healthy!

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