For the first time with giardiasis people collided in 1859. The scientist Ljambl has revealed the intestinal parasite and has described it. He defined the categories of individuals and animals that are most prone to infection. These are children, adults living in conditions of unsanitary conditions, and also some animals (for people their parasites are not dangerous). Why do lamblia appear in adults, the symptoms and treatment will be considered in more detail.
- Giardiasis in adults - what is it?
- Description of the parasite
- Causes of infection
- Symptoms of Giardiasis
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment Scheme
- Treatment of folk medicine
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Giardiasis in adults - what is it?
Lambliasis is a disease that occurs as a result of the entry into the living organism of the simplest parasites, called lamblias. At primary infection the disease can not be manifested, i.e., flow without symptoms. If it is not diagnosed in time, a person develop dyspepsia of the intestine, dyskinesia of bile ducts, dysfunction of the nervous system, allergy.
Description of the parasite
Lamblias are the simplest flagellate parasites that live in the lumen of the small intestine. They can exist in two forms: vegetative and cysts. The first is dangerous to health, as it manifests activity in the small intestine of the host. The second is controversy, from which new mobile individuals appear, but in a different host.
The vegetative form is equipped with four flagella, due to which it moves. Also, it has a suction disk, with its help lamblia is attached to the walls of the intestine. The oral apparatus does not have a vegetative form, so the nutrition occurs according to the principle of pinocytosis - through the envelope of the parasite. With the help of a disc, it sucks in the villi of the intestine and feeds on the walled products of digestion. Favorite foods for lamblia are digested sweets and flour products.
Important! The flagella multiply by division! For a day the number of individuals is doubled. Thus, the infectivity increases every day, can reach several million representatives per 1 cm².
Lamblias in an adult can move to the bile ducts for a short time, since bile flushes them from there. Upon entering the large intestine, the parasite becomes a cyst and exits outward along with the feces. In this form they can stay up to three weeks.
Causes of infection
How do lamblia get into the body of an adult? The method of infection with the disease is fecal-oral. A person emits spores into the environment, which, in conditions of high humidity, retain their viability. From soil and water, cysts fall on vegetables, fruits, greens. Further, when eating unwashed products, other people become infected. On average, the incubation period is two weeks. During this time there is a transformation of spores into an adult, its multiplication and outflow, and then getting into the form of cysts in a new organism.
The main reasons for the appearance of Giardia are:
- The use of unwashed fruits, vegetables, unprocessed meat of animals and poultry.
- Drinking unboiled water. The waterway of transmission is the culprit of epidemic outbreaks of giardiasis.
- Non-compliance with hygiene rules - unwashed hands, unsanitary conditions in the house.
- Cockroaches, flies, ants, spiders are mechanical carriers of parasites.
The provoking factor is chronic diseases, which contribute to a decrease in immunity.
Symptoms of Giardiasis
The course of the disease in an adult can be acute and chronic. The chronic form is more common. It manifests itself in the form of frequent diarrhea, which is followed by constipation. Long-term intoxication can negatively affect the work of the nervous system. For its dysfunction is characterized by such symptoms:
- deterioration of sleep;
- fatigue and fatigue;
- frequent irritability.
Chronic lambliosis takes in the case of prolonged use of drugs, malnutrition, concomitant diseases of the digestive system.
The following signs are characteristic for an acute form:
- liquid, watery, bloodless stools;
- the appearance of pain in the stomach;
- frequent eructations with an unpleasant odor;
- nausea, vomiting;
- decreased activity;
- deterioration of appetite;
- in some cases, an increase in body temperature;
- the appearance of allergic reactions - a rash on the skin;
This condition can be observed for a week. If you do not seek qualified help in time, your health will worsen. The patient refuses to eat, his weight decreases.
Important! Sometimes the symptoms disappear on their own, the illness turns into a chronic form! But the complex diagnosis and consultation of a doctor is necessary to prevent complications.
Diagnosis of the disease
Which doctor treats giardiasis? Diagnosis will help the therapist, infectiologist, gastroenterologist, neurologist, dermatologist. To detect lamblia in the body, it is necessary to undergo a series of studies - blood, feces, intestinal contents. The following methods will help in this:
- Inspection - with giardiasis, the pallor of the skin is observed, the tongue is covered with a white coating. There is a pain in the abdomen with pressure. Easily palpated enlarged liver.
- You can determine the parasite in the blood. In general, clinical analysis will increase eosinophils. A biochemical test can reveal a malfunction of the liver.
- In the feces of lamblia are found in the form of cysts, which in acute form are released on the fifth day. Therefore, feces are taken once a week, for a month.
- Ultrasound examination of the patient's abdominal cavity reveals concomitant changes in the gastrointestinal tract.
- The presence of the vegetative form of giardiasis can be confirmed with the help of duodenal sounding. This method is not routinely used because of its complexity and poor patient tolerance.
The results of the research will help to identify the disease, allow the doctor to prescribe effective treatment.
Treatment of invasion should not begin with the use of potent medicines, since complications may occur. The therapy of Giardiasis takes place in several stages:
- Elimination of signs of intoxication. To improve the work of the intestine, you need to eat right. The doctor prescribes a diet that lasts at least two weeks. In this case, conditions are created that worsen the vital activity and reproduction of parasites. The diet includes cereals, vegetable oils, vegetable dishes, dried fruits. Prescribed cholagogue, antihistamines, enzymes.
- Antiparasitic therapy. The doctor prescribes medicines that are aimed at destroying lamblia and their cysts. The most effective drugs are Metranidozole, Furazolidone, Nimorazole, Albendazole. The intake of sorbents and antihistamines does not stop. At this stage Allochol is prescribed - a medicinal preparation that strengthens the secretion of bile and reduces the harmful effect of antiparasitic drugs on the liver.
- The supporting stage. In this period, all efforts are directed at restoring the body's defenses. A diet is prescribed, which restores intestinal peristalsis, vitamin complexes, plant adaptogens, probiotics and prebiotics, enzymes. The duration of the stage is up to 3 weeks.
Important! During treatment, the patient is forbidden to eat sweets, flour confectionery, as carbohydrates are a favorable environment for lamblia, their rapid division!
Treatment of folk medicine
Recipes of traditional medicine are used only in combination with medications. They can be used at home until the diagnosis is confirmed, to eliminate problems with the intestines.
- Tincture horseradish will cope with parasites. They take a fresh horse-radish, twist it in a meat grinder. Kashitsu is placed in a jar and poured with boiled chilled water. Insist for three days, then filter. Take 1 tbsp. l. before meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
- Quickly bring the simplest helps tansy. To prepare the infusion, take the dried flowers. At 1 tbsp. l. medicinal raw materials will require 0.5 liters of boiled water. Insist in the thermos for two hours. For five days, drink infusion of 1/3 of the glass before meals, three times a day.
- Fight with lamblia can be with the help of tar and rye bread. A few drops of birch tar drip onto a piece and sprinkled with sugar to improve the taste of the product. Take before meals once a day. The course of treatment is five days. The product is dangerous by the development of complications from the digestive system, poisoning. It is forbidden to use in children.
- Garlic with milk has no less effectiveness in giardiasis. Within 10 days, use warm milk with the addition of chopped garlic cloves. Cocktail is advised to drink on an empty stomach.
- You can drink cabbage brine, there is onion gruel, but remember that treating lamblia in children is not recommended in such ways, as intestinal disorders can intensify.
What is a dangerous parasite? The lamblia live in the intestine. A healthy microorganism responds to a healthy person for digestion. With the appearance of flagella it is disturbed, which means that there are problems with the intestines.
The small intestine is necessary for digestion and absorption of nutrients into the body, with giardiasis, the products of their vital activity fall into the blood. There are serious diseases of the digestive tract - gas formation, diarrhea, bloating and steatorrhea.
Consequences can negatively affect the work of the liver. Often lamblia prefer to multiply in this organ, violating its function.
The parasite is a strong allergen. Without timely medical intervention, skin problems such as dermatoses, urticaria, and eyelid swelling may appear. Allergies often arise in response to drug treatment. To avoid this, you can not carry out therapy without the supervision of a doctor.
Prevention requires compliance with personal hygiene:
- Wash your hands before eating, after working with the ground and after going to the toilet.
- Boil raw water and fresh cow's milk.
- Carefully boil and roast the meat.
- Take care that the child does not touch the food after a walk, playing in the sandbox.
- Regularly spend in the house of general cleaning.
- Wash fruits and vegetables bought in the store or collected in the garden. You can use special detergents, which are sold in hardware stores.
These rules should be the norm of life for every person. Since childhood, the child has been taught cleanliness and accuracy in order to minimize the risk of parasite infection.