Types of curvature of the spine

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  • 1Types of curvature of the spine: kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis
    • 1.1Kyphosis
    • 1.2Lordosis
    • 1.3Scoliosis
  • 2Rachiocampsis
    • 2.1Causes of development of curvature of the spine
    • 2.2Curvature of the spine: scoliosis
  • 3Types of curvature of the spine, treatment of lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis
    • 3.1What is the curvature of the spine?
    • 3.2Types of curvature of the spine
    • 3.3Lordosis: description and cause
    • 3.4Kyphosis: description and reason
    • 3.5Scoliosis: description and cause
    • 3.6Diagnosis of the types of curvature of the spine
    • 3.7Treatment of types of curvature of the spine
    • 3.8Prevention of types of curvature of the spine
  • 4Curvature of the spine (kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis)
    • 4.1Kyphosis
    • 4.2Lordosis
    • 4.3Scoliosis
  • 5Types of curvature of the spine: features of the disease
    • 5.1The essence of pathology
    • 5.2Classification
    • 5.3Causes
    • 5.4Manifestations
    • 5.5Lordosis
    • 5.6Kyphosis
    • 5.7Scoliosis
    • 5.8Complications
    • 5.9Diagnostics
    • 5.10Treatment
    • 5.11Conservative
    • 5.12Operational
    • 5.13Prevention
    • 5.14Questions to the doctor
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Types of curvature of the spine: kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis

In the spine of a person there are special bends that contribute to the correct distribution of the load.

They are in all parts of the spine - cervical, thoracic, lumbar.

Under the influence of congenital or acquired factors, vertebrae can change their position.

If the bend of the spinal column is disturbed, a dangerous pathology develops. In this case, there are different types of curvature of the spine - kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis. Without proper treatment, they can cause severe complications.


One type of curvature of the spine is kyphosis. In the arcuate form of the disorder, a certain section of the spine is uniformly curved posteriorly. The angular kyphosis provokes a sharp curvature in the region of several vertebrae.

Kyphosis can develop under the influence of the following factors:

  • congenital weakness of muscle tissue;
  • severe forms of rickets in childhood;
  • bent position of the trunk for a long time.

This curvature of the spine disrupts the posture and leads to a reduction in the respiratory excursion. As a result, kyphosis can cause blood circulation disorders. Often, in addition to problems with posture, there is a bulging belly, lowered arms.

Angular kyphosis, as a rule, occurs in the thoracic region. The reason is usually found in the development of the tuberculous process in the vertebrae. As a result, the trunk is shortened and the chest is sharply protruded.

To cure kyphosis, you must perform special exercises. Physiotherapeutic procedures and sanatorium-and-spa treatment are also useful.

To prevent the development of complications, it is important to immediately contact a specialist.

To cure angular kyphosis, it is necessary to eliminate the tuberculosis process.


The development of such a curvature of the spine can be provoked by various factors. More often lordosis cause congenital dislocations of the hip joints.

In this case, the center of gravity is transferred forward, and the body deviates, bending around the waist. This lordosis can worsen, even in the case of excess fat on the stomach.

In addition, the disease can provoke tumors of the spine.

Lordosis manifests itself in the form of deformation of the spine and pain, which are associated with an incorrect load distribution.

In addition, lordosis often provokes the omission of internal organs - kidneys, intestines, stomach.

As a result of such processes, all sorts of irregularities arise in their functioning.

To cure lordosis, you need to eliminate the cause, which it provoked. In addition, you need to do exercises and therapeutic massage. Also, to eliminate lordosis will help the bandage - this will make it easier to work organs.

Of no small importance is the prevention of the development of this disease at an early age. To prevent lordosis will help in the formation of children's correct posture and exercise.


This disease can be congenital in nature, but most often scoliosis occurs in children 5-15 years.

Usually pathology is the result of uneven distribution of the load on the back muscles - this leads to their weakening.

On the development of the disease may indicate a violation of posture, weakness of muscle tissue, protruding scapula.

Further scoliosis leads to a violation of the shape of the vertebrae and ligaments, which provokes a steady curvature. Pathology can be provoked by severe forms of rickets in childhood. In adults, scoliosis develops as a result of prolonged asymmetric loads.

However, when the skeleton is formed, the curvature does not develop as quickly as in children.Sometimes scoliosis becomes a consequence of fracture of the spine or destruction by a pathological process. Often this happens with tuberculosis.

Scoliosis appears in the event that when the muscles of the back are fatigued, the spine deviates to the side. After rest such a curvature disappears. At the second stage the pathological process acquires a stable character, which entails changes in the chest.


In this case, the shoulder and shoulder blade on the concave side are higher. Also, scoliosis provokes a sharp decrease in the mobility of the spine. Severe forms of the disease lead to problems with internal organs, which causes a significant decrease in ability to work.


To prevent the development of the disease, it is very important to prevent it. If the child is just beginning to develop scoliosis, he needs to organize the correct regimen. To do this, you should perform therapeutic exercises and massage.

To cure scoliosis, it is recommended to do gymnastics, which will help to correct the shape of the spine.

It must be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. Sometimes a corset can be assigned to correct the shape of the spine.

In difficult situations, it is difficult to do without surgical treatment.

Curvature of the spine is a serious enough disorder that can lead to problems in the functioning of internal organs. Therefore, it is so important to start treatment of violations of posture in time.

To do this, you need to see a doctor who will determine the shape of the curvature - lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis, after which he will prescribe effective exercises and massage. Sometimes it is necessary to wear a bandage or corset to correct the shape of the spine.

A source: http://VashPozvonok.ru/raznye-zabolevaniya/vidy-iskrivleniya-pozvonochnika/


Curvature of the spine is a widespread pathology that occurs mainly in childhood and adolescence. Outline the pathological curvature of the vertebral column anteriorly (lordosis), posterior (kyphosis) and lateral curvature (scoliosis).

It is also possible a combined pathology - kyphoscoliosis. With poorly expressed violations of work capacity is preserved, a significant curvature of the spine becomes the cause of disability and has a negative impact on the work of internal organs.

Orthopedics, traumatologists and vertebrologists are involved in the treatment of curvature of the spine.

Causes of development of curvature of the spine

Congenital curvature of the spine arises from abnormalities in the development of the skeleton, most widespread of which are the wedge-shaped vertebrae, underdevelopment of the vertebrae, congenital torticollis and additional vertebrae.

Acquired curvature of the spine can develop due to rickets, poliomyelitis, pleurisy, acquired or congenital difference in the length of the legs more than 2-4 cm, cerebral palsy, tuberculosis, tick encephalitis, spastic paralysis, syringomyelia, traumas, amputations, metabolic disorders, joint hypermobility syndrome, tumors, Sheyerman-Mau disease, some other diseases and incorrect posture. About 80% of scoliotic distortions occur for an unknown reason.

Curvature of the spine: scoliosis

Normally, the human spine has no lateral curvature. In the presence of even a minimal lateral flexure, a diagnosis of scoliosis is made.

As a rule, the disease occurs in childhood and especially actively progresses during periods of rapid growth.

Given the time of the manifestation, infantile scoliosis (occurs at the age of 1-2 years), juvenile scoliosis (develops at the age of 4-6 years), adolescent scoliosis (occurs at the age of 10-14 years) is singled out.


Depending on the shape of the curvature of the spine, C-shaped scoliosis (one arc of curvature), S-shaped (two arcs), Z-shaped (three arcs) are distinguished.


Taking into account the angle of lateral curvature of the spine, 4 degrees of scoliosis are distinguished: 1 degree - angle 1-10 degrees, 2 degrees - the angle of 11-25 degrees, the third degree - the angle of 26-50 degrees, the 4th degree - the angle of more than 50 degrees.

Given the localization of the curvature of the spine, we distinguish between thoracic scoliosis (pathological bending in the thoracic region), lumbar scoliosis (curvature in lumbar division), thoracolumbal scoliosis (one pathological bend in the region of the thoraco-lumbar junction) and combined scoliosis (double S-shaped bending).

Deformed deformities are visible at any position of the body, a slight curvature of the spine is revealed when the patient tilts forward. In this case, the doctor evaluates the symmetry of the spine and other structures: thighs, scapula and ribs.

For a more accurate determination of the angle of deformation, the spine radiography is performed.

The pictures are analyzed by a special technique, taking into account not only the angle of lateral curvature, but also the degree of torsion (rotation) and rotation (twisting) of the vertebrae.

In periods of active growth, when rapid progression of scoliosis is possible, images with low irradiation are performed, non-radar techniques are used: ultrasound or contact sensor, light-optical measurement and scoliometry according to the Bunnel. This approach allows to reduce the total radiation dose. Significant curvature causes secondary deformations of the chest, leads to a decrease in the volume of the abdominal cavity, disruption in position and impairment of function internal organs, therefore patients with severe scoliosis should regularly undergo necessary examinations and consultations of pulmonologist, gastroenterologist and cardiologist. All patients are prescribed spirometry. According to the indications, ECG, MRI of the spine and other studies are performed.

Treatment of lateral curvatures of the spine can be conservative and operative. Programs of conservative therapy include specially developed complexes of exercise therapy, respiratory Gymnastics (according to the Schroth or similar programs), corsets, recliners, physiotherapy procedures and massage.

At a deformation angle of up to 15 degrees, a specialized gymnastics is prescribed. Exercises are selected individually, in the initial period they should be performed under the supervision of the instructor in order to master the correct technique. The goal of gymnastics is to strengthen the muscles of the back, creating a good muscular corset.


With an angle of curvature of the spine of 15-25 degrees, exercises of exercise therapy are supplemented by wearing corsets.


At the angle to 20 degrees, the corset should be used at night, and at an angle of more than 20 degrees - most of the day and night (at least 16 hours per day).

Apply corrective corsets Milwaukee, Chenot and their counterparts. The period of wearing is from 6 months or more. As the child grows and the deformation is reduced, the corsets are replaced.

Correcting devices can eliminate not only lateral and anteroposterior curvature, but also rotation of the spine. Adult patients are recommended to use supporting corsets and recliners.

Therapeutic massage in scoliosis helps to strengthen the muscles of the back, normalization of lymph and blood circulation. The course of treatment, consisting of 15-20 sessions, is carried out 2-3 times a year. In addition, patients are prescribed hydrotherapy, heat treatment (paraffin, ozocerite) and electrostimulation.

Indications for surgery for scoliosis are determined individually and depend on the patient's age, type and localization of curvature and some other factors.

At the same time, generally accepted criteria for the need for surgical treatment are a 45-70 degree curvature when measured by Cobb in combination with ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, persistent pain syndrome, steady progression of scoliosis, impaired lung function and hearts. Chaklin, Tsilke, Dubusset, Harrington and others are used.

The essence of all surgical techniques is the withdrawal and retention of the spine in the correct position with the help of metal structures. At the same time, the fixed part of the spine loses mobility.


Surgical interventions are performed from the front or rear access. To fix the spine, use metal rods, which are attached to the vertebrae with screws or hooks.


Later, the fusion of fixed vertebrae into a single block occurs.

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Pathological kyphosis - strengthening of the thoracic bend of the spine (angle of curvature exceeds 15 degrees). It appears as a stoop, round back, in severe cases - a hump.

Due to excessive curvature of the spine, the thorax narrows, the diaphragm descends downwards, the upper part of the trunk leans forward, the shoulders drop.

The prolonged existence of kyphosis can cause the destruction of intervertebral discs, wedge-shaped deformation of the vertebrae, and impaired function of the muscles of the back and abdominal press. With severe pathology, heart and lung function may be disrupted.

There are many kinds of kyphosis, including congenital (due to spinal anomalies), genotypic (inherited), mobile (arising from the weakness of the back muscles), senile (due to degenerative-dystrophic changes of the spine), total (with Bekhterev's disease), compression (arising from compression fractures of the vertebrae), rachitic, tuberculous, paralytic and forming in the disease Sheyerman-Mau. Given the magnitude of deformation, 4 degrees of pathological kyphosis are distinguished: 1 degree - angle curvature of 31-40 degrees, 2 degrees - 41-50 degrees, 3 degrees - 51-70 degrees, 4 degrees - more 71 degrees.

The diagnosis is established taking into account external signs and radiography data. If necessary, MRI and CT of the spine are additionally prescribed.

In the presence of neurologic disorders, a consultation of a neurologist is shown, with a suspicion of a violation of lung and heart function - consultation of a pulmonologist and a cardiologist.

Therapeutic tactics depend on the cause of the curvature of the spine, the degree of kyphosis, the age of the patient, his condition and other factors.


At the 1-2 degree of kyphosis, a program of complex conservative therapy is made, including exercise therapy, massage, respiratory gymnastics, physiotherapy, mud therapy and reflexology.


At 3-4 degrees, violation of the function of internal organs, severe pain syndrome, rapid progression of curvature spine, a significant cosmetic defect and the presence of severe neurologic disorders are performed surgical operation.

Surgical treatment consists in correcting the bend using special metal structures fixed to the vertebrae by hooks or screws.

In some cases, several operations on the spine are necessary to achieve the desired effect.

Pathological lordosis - strengthening (less often - weakening) of the bend of the spine anteriorly. It is usually formed at the same levels as the physiological (in the lumbar and cervical spine), less commonly formed in the thoracic region.

Depending on the cause of development, primary and secondary pathological lordosis is isolated.

Primary arises from a pathological process in the spine: in tumors, malformations, spondylolisthesis, torsion spasm and contractures of the ilio-lumbar muscle.

Secondary (compensatory) is formed in the pathology of the lower extremities: congenital dislocation of the hip, ankylosis of the hip joint, contractures of the lower limb. The most common - lordosis due to dysplasia of the hip joint or congenital dislocation of the hip.

Like other types of curvature, this deformation affects the position of the trunk and internal organs. There is flattening of the chest and bulging belly. The head and shoulders are advanced anteriorly.

Because of the redistribution of the load in pathological lordosis, the spine, muscles and ligaments of the back experience increased stress, which is manifested by pain, increased fatigue and impaired mobility.

With pronounced curvature of the spine, intervertebral hernia formation, intervertebral disc instability, deforming arthrosis of the joints of the spine, inflammation of the ilio-lumbar muscle, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, lungs and heart.


The diagnosis is made taking into account the examination and radiography. If necessary, CT, MRI and other studies are performed, consultations of a gastroenterologist, cardiologist, pulmonologist, urologist or nephrologist are appointed.


The tactics of treatment depend on the cause and degree of curvature of the spine, the age of the patient, the state of his health and other factors. If possible, therapeutic measures are taken to eliminate the cause of deformation.

Appointed complex exercise therapy, massage and physiotherapy. Some patients are recommended wearing a bandage.

A source: http://www.krasotaimedicina.ru/diseases/traumatology/spinal-curvature

Types of curvature of the spine, treatment of lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis

The spine is the basis of man, without which there will be no balance and full health. After all, many diseases occur precisely because of problems with this site.

A person has physiological curvature of the spine, but there are also pathological conditions. Curvature data, such as scoliosis, can occur at any age.

Problems with the back require immediate resolution, and therefore it is recommended that you consult your doctor in a timely manner.

What is the curvature of the spine?

Curvature of the spine - pathological curvature of certain areas of the back, which lead to certain pathologies and disorders.

There are several types of curvature:

  1. Simple.Another name for this species is partial, which is characterized by a single lateral arc of curvature.
  2. Complicated.In this form, several curvatures of the arcs are noted at once, in different directions.
  3. The total.Characterized by a complete curvature of the spine.

Also, the curvature is fixed and non-fixed, which disappears in a horizontal position.

This pathology of the back is accompanied by a vertical rotation of the vertical axis, which leads to deformation of the thoracic region, which leads to the displacement and contraction of the organs.

Here we already covered such an article "What is the widow's hump and how to get rid of it?".

There is an innate curvature of the spine, which is observed due to deformation of the vertebrae, and acquired, to which carry:

  • rheumatic curvature;
  • rickety curvature;
  • paralytic curvature;
  • habitual curvature.

But this is not all kinds of curvature, only the most basic and widespread ones were presented here.

Curvature of the spine, especially in children, is considered the most common pathology of the musculoskeletal system, which can progress and reach a higher level towards the end of growth.

Complex curvatures of the back, as well as of the thoracic part can be affected by the functionality of internal organs and systems:

  1. The pleural cavity may decreasein volume.
  2. Violation of diaphragmatic breathing, which results in:
  • violation of the function of external respiration;
  • arterial blood becomes less saturated with oxygen;
  • tissue respiration is given to changes; hypertension of a small circle of blood flow;

Types of curvature of the spine

In modern medicine, there are three types of curvature of the spine - scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis.

Lordosis: description and cause

Lordosis - the bend of the spine, which protrudes its bulge forward. Each person normally has such a bend that is localized around 3-4 vertebrae of the lumbar region. These lordosis is recognized as physiological.

But the patient can also be diagnosed with a lumbar lordosis, this will indicate that there are any abnormalities that are very pronounced.

A person with this diagnosis is noted:

  1. An omission of the shoulders.
  2. The head is slightly inclined forward.
  3. The lumbar section is bent.
  4. The stomach sticks out.
  5. The pelvis tilts back.
  6. Knees "look" in the sides.
  7. The gait is similar to that of a duck.

Lordosis can provoke diseases of the cardiovascular system, lungs.

There is lordosis as a result of such provoking factors:

  1. Constant sitting or standing position uncomfortable, improper lifting of heavy weights, considerable physical exertion.
  2. Problems with the hip joint.
  3. Problems with excess kilograms, which create a greater burden on the spine and provoke its changes.
  4. Emergency and traumatic situations.

Kyphosis: description and reason

Kyphosis is the bend of the spine, which protrudes backward. There are two types - arcuate and angular.

The most common is kyphosis of the chest, at first it is called stoop, which is diagnosed as a result of an x-ray or a professional examination.

If the pathology stage is neglected, then a hump arises that provokes the displacement of the ribs and sternum, problems with internal organs are noted.

The prevalence of the following species is the kyphosis of the neck and lower back. All kinds of this pathology need to be adjusted. The course of treatment is prescribed exclusively by a doctor after examination, examination.

Therapy depends on the cause, which provoked kyphosis, the patient's condition and the stage of curvature.

Kyphosis can occur in the patient as a result of trauma to the cervical, thoracic or lumbar parts, as well as with degenerative changes and infectious diseases.

Scoliosis: description and cause

Scoliosis - curvature of the back, which is diagnosed in the lateral projection. The angle of the deviation of the spine is determined in degrees. Beforehand, the patient is given an X-ray in standing and lying position.

There are four degrees of this pathology, each of which will depend on the angle of curvature:

  1. The first degree of curvature.The deviation is not more than ten degrees. Expressed stoop and a slight asymmetry.
  2. The second degree of curvature.The deviation to one side is not more than 25 degrees. It is expressed by a well-marked asymmetry, which is localized in the pelvic and humeral region. If this degree of pathology is not treated, then there is an intensive progression.
  3. The third degree of curvature.The deviation is from 26 to 50 degrees. There is a violation of posture, a distortion of the shoulder and pelvic department, deformation of the thoracic region. Also, the patient at this stage has a hump of ribs.
  4. Fourth degree of curvature.It is considered the most advanced stage of scoliosis. The deviation is from 50 degrees. Without problems, you can diagnose the asymmetry of the body, the spine has a curvature of several arcs. Also there is a hump from the ribs, compression of the thoracic region, internal organs and parts are damaged.

This pathology of the spine arises from childhood.

The started stage of scoliosis can provoke serious complications:

  1. Scoliosis of the cervical spine can worsen the blood flow of the brain, squeeze the artery of the spine.As a consequence, the patient has severe headache and frequent dizziness.
  2. Scoliosis of the thoracic region is able to squeeze the thorax and abdominal cavity.As a consequence, the patient is disturbed by the heart, lungs, kidneys, intestines, stomach and liver.
  3. Scoliosis of the lumbar region can disrupt the position of the pelvic bones and lead to severe pain in the lumbar region.As a consequence, the patient develops kidney disease, women may have problems with conceiving a child.

Provoking causes of scoliosis:

  1. Incorrect posture when sitting.
  2. Cerebral palsy.
  3. Rickets and poliomyelitis.
  4. Disease of connective tissue.
  5. Deformation of vertebrae at birth.
  6. Trauma and neoplasm in the vertebral column.
  7. Injury of the pelvic or lower extremities.
  8. Lack of calcium, which provokes a number of diseases.
  9. Dystrophy of musculature of cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine.

Diagnosis of the types of curvature of the spine

If the patient has noticed minor abnormalities or pains in the back that were provoked by any factors, it is necessary to seek additional advice from an orthopedist or surgeon.

Diagnosis of the curvature of the spine on the basis of visual inspection and X-ray. In this situation, the patient is asked to stand up, straighten up and relax.

At once it is possible to note such significant infringements:

  1. The shoulders are not on the same level.
  2. The angle of one of the blades is considerably bulging.
  3. The distance from the pressed arm to the hoist is different.
  4. If you lean forward, the vertebra of the curve and this is very noticeable.

If even the patient has only one of the listed signs, then treatment is mandatory.

Treatment of types of curvature of the spine

Each type of curvature of the spine differs in its treatment technique:

  1. Treatment of scoliosis.Requires timely diagnosis. It is necessary in this situation to consult a neurologist. In most cases, at the initial stage, mandatory physical training, exercises. It is also recommended to change the bed and pillow, wear a special corset and shoes. On appointment of the expert massage can be spent also.
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Therapy for scoliosis will depend on the age group, type of curvature and degree of deformation.

The first and second degree of curvature is given to conservative treatment.

It is recommended to pay attention to nutrition, intake of vitamin and mineral complex, regular walks and a mobile lifestyle.

The bed should be rigid, and the seating position should correspond to the height, so that the feet touch the floor. If necessary, the patient is prescribed a corset.

The patient also attends exercise therapy and performs physical exercises that help not only to correct the posture, but also to strengthen the musculature. There can be prescribed such types of exercise therapy as: gymnastics, swimming, massage, easy sport.

  1. Treatment of lordosisto be carried out in a complex way, which includes medicamental and physiotherapeutic methods. Physiotherapy exercises and exercises are appointed exclusively by a specialist after a preliminary examination and examination. Independent therapy can lead to irreversible and serious complications and consequences.
  2. Treatment of kyphosisis carried out in accordance with a similar scheme without fail using the physical exercises and exercises.

Any kind of treatment can be adjusted, but exclusively by a specialist.

The patient may be assigned surgery, but only if there is a significant and rapid progression of the curvature.

The patient is placed mechanical endocorrectors, which are able to correct the curvature of the back. If the curvature is at a neglected stage, then you can only suspend the process, but not cure.

Curvature at the age of 21 years can not be cured, you can only strengthen the muscles and perform supporting exercises.

Prevention of types of curvature of the spine

Prevention of any kind of curvature of the spine is to strengthen the muscles and maintain proper posture.

If the patient is sitting too long, it is recommended:

  1. Be in a sitting position for no more than half an hour.
  2. As often as possible get up and do exercises. The minimum time for rest is half a minute.
  3. If you sit, you must constantly change the position of the legs.
  4. It is necessary to monitor the correct seating.
  5. Periodically, it is necessary to perform special compensatory exercises.

Compensatory exercises are as follows:

  • In the hanging position, lifting the knees to the chest. The exercise is done the maximum number of times.
  • Standing on your knees and arms outstretched, try to maximally bend your back up and down.

Also, the patient must necessarily do morning exercises, run, walk fast and visit the pool.

In addition to general strengthening complexes, you need to perform special ones that help strengthen the muscles of the press, the thorax and improve posture. The positive result will depend on the regularity of the classes and the duration of the course.

Correct and healthy posture contributes to the proper functioning of human organs and systems, and also acts as a prevention of curvature of the spine.

In parallel, the patient can pay attention to a set of exercises that can improve the stretching.

Exercising stretching exercises should be slow and correct, so as not to harm the body and muscles.


Also, simultaneous sessions and proper breathing, which can reduce the negative impact of impaired posture on the work and functioning of internal organs.


If the patient has any questions about the exercises or their implementation, you should consult a specialist and not engage in self-treatment.

A source: http://SpinaSpina.com/illnesses/lordoz-kifoz.html

Curvature of the spine (kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis)

Curvature of the spine is of three types:lateral scoliosis, anterior - lordosis, posteriorly - kyphosis.

The spine of an adult has small bends anterior and posterior. They are formed gradually, as the body grows, especially after the child learns to stand and walk. They are not considered curvatures and are called physiological.

If the spine is curved anteriorly and posteriorly, the normal lordosis or kyphosis for a given area sharply increases, or kyphosis occurs on the site of physiological lordosis, and vice versa.

Scoliosis at any degree and in any part of the spine refers to curvatures, since there is no physiological scoliosis.


The kyphosis can be arched, when this or that part of the spine is uniformly curved posteriorly, and angular, that is, with a sharp curvature on a small area in the region of several vertebrae.An arcuate kyphosis occurs mainly in the thoracic spine (the so-called round spine).

The cause of the development of this form of kyphosis can be a congenital weakness of the back muscles transferred in childhood heavy rickets, a prolonged bent position of the trunk (behind the machine or desk, at the mine shaft, etc.).

The presence of a "round back" not only disrupts a person's posture, but leads to a reduction in the respiratory chest excursion, since full breath requires maximum extension of the spine; Insufficient breathing may adversely affect circulation. Often, the "round back" is accompanied by the arms extended forward and lowered down, a bulging and slightly saggy belly.

Prevention of this form of kyphosis includes all the previously listed measures for the prevention of scoliosis.

The treatment consists in performing corrective gymnastics, physiotherapeutic procedures, and sanatorium-and-spa treatment is recommended.Timely call to the doctor prevents further progression of the curvature of the spine.

Angular kyphosis occurs mainly in the thoracic spine and in this case is called a hump.

The cause is most often the defeat of the vertebrae by the tuberculous process and their flattening under the weight of the overlying parts of the body, which is accompanied by a shortening of the trunk, a sharp protrusion of the breast.

This deformation is reflected in the functions of internal organs, on labor activity and on the personal life of the patient. Timely correct treatment of tuberculosis usually prevents the formation of a hump.


The causes of acquired lordosis are numerous.

Most often these are congenital dislocations of the hip joints, when the center of gravity of the trunk is transferred forward and, in order to maintain balance, the body deviates back, bending in the lower back. Lumbar lordosis can also increase with excessive deposition of fat on the stomach.

Lordosis is manifested by deformation of the spine and pain caused by redistribution of the load on the vertebral bodies and overstretching of the musculoskeletal system.

Active movements of the affected area of ​​the spine are limited.

Lordosis often accompanies the omission of internal organs (stomach, intestines, kidneys), which explains the various violations in their work.

Treatment of lordosis includes the elimination of the cause that caused it, as well as corrective gymnastics and massage prescribed by a doctor.Often in the complex of medical measures, a bandage is provided, which facilitates the work of internal organs.

Prophylaxis of lordosis progressionincludes first of all the obligatory fulfillment of all the recommendations of the doctor.

In the prevention of all curvatures of the spine, independent of damage or disease of bones, joints, the formation of correct posture in children - the struggle with the habit of hunching, stooping, working out the right position when reading, writing, exercises gymnastics, especially the daily execution of a set of exercises that strengthen the muscles of the trunk and maintain the correct position the spine.


Scoliosiscan be congenital (abnormal development of the vertebrae), but much more often it occurs in children aged 5 to 15 years.

Incorrect posture of children during training sessions leads to an uneven distribution of the load on the spine and back muscles, which makes them fatigue and weaker. Weakness of the back muscles, poor posture, protruding scapula are precursors of scoliosis.

Later, there are changes in the ligaments of the spine and the shape of the vertebrae themselves, and a stable lateral curvature of the spine is formed.

Scoliosis can also be a consequence of severe rickets born in childhood, and in adults - long asymmetric loads on the muscles of the back (the so-called professional scoliosis of violinists, seamstresses, porters and etc.).

In these cases, with the already completed growth of the skeleton, the curvature develops more slowly and rarely reaches the extent that in children. To a scoliosis sometimes results in fracture of the vertebra or its destruction by a pathological process, especially with tuberculosis.

Curvature with the most frequent forms of acquired scoliosis begins with the fact that when the back muscles are tired, the spine slightly deviates sideways. After rest, the curvature disappears. This is the first stage.

In the second stage, the curvature is made constant, the shape of the chest changes, the shoulder and shoulder blade on the convex side of the thoracic scoliosis are higher than on the concave side. The mobility of the spine is sharply reduced. Any physical strain is tedious.

Complaints on muscular and intercostal pains (neuralgia) are frequent.

Especially severe scoliosis leads, in addition, to a change in the position of the internal organs, which hinders their functions. All this significantly reduces a person's working capacity.

Prophylaxis of scoliosis is more effective than treatment.At the first signs of congenital scoliosis, a child should be provided with a regimen that facilitates the work of the inferior side of the spine.


Be sure to perform physician-appointed physical exercises, massage, outdoor games, etc. Recommended solar and air baths, rich in vitamins nutrition.


Early recognition of congenital scoliosis and strict adherence to all the recommendations of the doctor lead to good results.

Prevention of pediatric, including school, scoliosis is simple.

It is providedeven, hard enough, even a hard bed, not too big a pillow, the correct sitting at the table and at the desk, good and correct workplace lighting, outdoor activities, outdoor games, adequate food, adequate sleep, morning exercises.

Prophylaxis of professional scoliosis consists in observance of the correct mode of work and rest, physical breaks during work, while physical education and sports serve not only the general improvement of the body, but also the strengthening of the muscles. The development of functional scoliosis is prevented by wearing special orthopedic footwear, devices that compensate for shortening of the leg.

Treatment of scoliosismainly built on general mobilizing and special gymnastic exercises that correct the shape of the spine.

They are conducted under the supervision of a doctor and a methodologist. Sometimes they designate wearing a corset. In far-reaching cases of scoliosis, surgical treatment may be necessary.

Tags: spine, scoliosis, curvature, lordosis, kyphosis

A source: https://nmedik.org/iskrivlenie-pozvonochnika.html

Types of curvature of the spine: features of the disease

The article tells about varieties of curvature of the spine. The symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment of pathology are described.

Deformation of the spine is a widespread disease, characteristic mainly for children and adolescents.

Different types of curvature of the spine have different manifestations. The disease develops for a variety of reasons.

Treatment is conducted conservatively and operatively.

Curvature is an abnormal deflection of bends from the axis of the spine

The essence of pathology

The spine supports the human body in an upright position. In newborns, the vertebral column is straight. Its four physiological curves are formed as the child develops physically. These bends, as it were, amortize and soften the load acting on the spine.

The magnitude of the bends more than normal indicates a curvature of the spine. This pathology occurs mainly in childhood and adolescence - during a period of active growth. It is able to disrupt the motor function and involve limbs, pelvis, shoulders, internal organs in the process.

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Allocate different types of curvature of the spine. There are several classifications, according to which the deformations of the spinal column are distinguished.

Table. Types of curvature depending on localization.

Type of pathology Description
Scoliosis Persistent curvature of the spine sideways, relative to its axis. The deformation is characterized by lateral curvature in the left, right or both sides (left-sided, right-sided, S-shaped). It is localized mainly in the area of ​​the scapula.
Kyphosis Breast kyphosis can lead to the formation of a hump Curvature in an anteroposterior plane. Most often occurs in the thoracic area. The back looks arched, the upper part is tilted forward, and in the thoracic region the vertebrae are pulled back.
Lordosis Forward curvature. Isolate physiological (present in all people and is the norm) and pathological (manifested by increasing or decreasing physiological curves) lordosis. Distortion of the spine in the lumbar and in the thoracic.
Combined curvaturesCythoscoliosis of the thoracic region Kifoskolioz - a combination of scoliosis (lateral bend) and kyphosis (excessive bending in the anteroposterior direction). Allocate left- and right-sided kyphoscoliosis.

Curvature is also classified by severity.

There are four degrees of curvature of the spine:

  1. The first degree. Basically is the result of poor posture. Visually, the curvature is not visible and does not bring much discomfort. Quickly healed by wearing a corset and special exercises.
  2. The second. The deformation intensifies. External symptoms become more pronounced - asymmetry of the shoulder-blades, shoulder blades, pelvis. As a treatment use corsets, physiotherapy, massage, exercises.
  3. The third stage. The disease is progressing. To the external symptoms are added manifestations of violations of the internal organs. Operative intervention was shown.
  4. The fourth stage. It is characterized by irreversible deformation of the spinal column. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems suffer severely. Surgical intervention can only slow the progression of the disease.

Classification of curvature of the spine, there are many smaller deviations, when there is one vertebra under the slope, and not the whole department.


The twisted spine is formed for many reasons. Etiological reasons are divided into two groups - congenital and acquired.

Congenital are:

  • intrauterine anomalies in the development of the skeleton;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • congenital pathologies of the central nervous system;

Acquired factors:

  • injuries;
  • inflammation of the muscles;
  • long-term pain syndrome with unilateral localization, when a person takes a forced position;
  • some pathologies - poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, tuberculosis;
  • incorrect posture.

To the curvature of the spinal column can lead specificity of life, for example sedentary work, improperly chosen workplace, lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle.

Prolonged, constant uncomfortable position during the sessions lead to disruption of posture and curvature of the spine in children


Symptoms in the curvature of the spine differ depending on the type of pathology. Often, small curvatures are not visible, so it is important to regularly check with specialists.


Clinical manifestations of pathological cervical lordosis are easily detected:

  • violation of posture with a bend in the cervical region;
  • the head is planted low and pushed forward;
  • severe pain when turning the head, restricting movements;
  • aching pain in the shoulder, neck and shoulder blades;
  • frequent migraines;
  • high blood pressure.

Symptoms of curvature of the lumbar spine are:

  • violation of posture;
  • pain in the lower back, especially after physical exertion;
  • the stomach bulges forward;
  • limitation of mobility in the lumbar region;
  • deviation of the pelvis back.

The severity of symptoms depends on the stage of the disease. At later stages, disturbances occur in the work of the digestive organs.


The main manifestation of kyphosis is a violation of posture. At the beginning of the development of the disease, this is not particularly noticeable. As the pathology develops, the patient stoops constantly, in severe cases, a hump develops.

The symptomatology is slightly different, depending on the localization of the curvature.

  1. Cervical department. There are complaints of frequent headaches and dizziness, numbness in the hands, soreness in the shoulders. There are often differences in blood pressure.
  2. Thoracic department. Patients complain of fatigue and spasms of the back muscles. There are violations of the internal organs: frequent bronchitis and pneumonia, incontinence of stool and urine, irregularities in the work of the heart.
  3. The lumbar department. There are the following symptoms: painful manifestations in the lower back, radiating to the buttocks and legs, numbness of the lower extremities, violations in the genital area, incontinence of feces and urine.

Naturally, with any localization there is a violation of posture - the shoulders bent forward and down, the narrowed thorax, the belly protrudes forward, and the upper back - back.


There are different types of curvature of the human spine in the lateral sides - right-sided, left-sided and S-shaped. Distinguish cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracic, lumbar scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis.

Symptoms include:

  • protrusion or zapadenie intercostal spaces;
  • deformation of the spinal column;
  • rotational displacement of the vertebrae around the vertical axis;
  • disruption of internal organs;
  • flat feet and gait disturbance;
  • because of the strain of the muscles, a roller appears at the bottom of the waist.

Patients complain of back pain and headaches, limited mobility, numbness of the limbs, cardiac dysfunction.


The consequences of curvature of the spine can be very serious. The first degree of curvature has practically no effect on the person's health. But without treatment, it easily passes into the next, where the risk of complications is high.

Patients are diagnosed with cardiac dysfunction, vascular changes. They often develop pulmonary pathologies in the form of pneumonia and bronchitis.

In women, the dangers of curvature of the spine are problems with fetal bearing and delivery.

The organs of the pelvis, the gastrointestinal tract suffer, which leads to pancreatitis, cholecystitis.

The appearance of a hump is one of the severe consequences of scoliosis


Usually, the diagnosis of pathology is not difficult. An experienced physician discovers clinical signs at the examination stage. The degree of curvature is determined by means of radiography. To identify the causes of the disease and possible complications, MRI, ultrasound, and laboratory tests are performed.

With regard to scoliosis, an x-ray classification of the curvature of the spine is used:

  • 1 degree - angle of scoliosis 1 * -10 *;
  • 2 degree - 11 * -25 *;
  • 3 degree - 26 * -50 *;
  • 4 degree - more than 50 * (pictured).

To identify complications of internal organs, consultation of specialists of a narrow profile is necessary.


Depending on the type and degree of curvature of the spine, the types of treatment will differ. Therapy includes conservative treatment in the early stages of the pathological process, and later surgical intervention is necessary.


Conservative treatment involves the use of different methods.

  1. Massage. Normalizes the tone and strengthens muscles, improves blood circulation. Different massage techniques are used in certain areas of the back.
  2. Exercise therapy. Exercises are aimed at strengthening the muscles of the back, which allows you to maintain the spine in the right position. Since there are different types of curvature, the instructor makes up an individual complex. Charging for a curved spine can be done independently at home. After passing the courses, exercise therapy is given detailed instructions.
  3. Orthosis. To correct the posture, various types of orthoses are used - corsets, belts. They help to correctly distribute the load on the spine. You can buy orthopedic appliances in a pharmacy or a specialized store. The price for them, as a rule, is quite democratic.

Drug therapy is in the form of taking vitamins, food supplements, immunostimulants, and using various gels and ointments.

The corset should be worn daily up to 15 hours a day


Indications for surgical treatment are the lack of a positive effect of conservative therapy, late stage of pathology, severe pain syndrome, significant impairment of heart and lung function, neurological disorder.

During surgical intervention, the surgeon places the vertebrae in the correct position and fixes them with metal screws or spokes. More details about this will tell a specialist in the video in this article.


Prevention of curvature of the spine prevention is carried out already from an early age. Even during pregnancy, women are prescribed vitamins and drugs that reduce the risk of developing problems with the musculoskeletal system.

Prophylaxis of curvature of the spine consists of simple measures.

  1. Operating mode.Every 2 hours of static training, it is necessary to get up from the table and actively move, perform physical exercises.
  2. Organization of the working space.Furniture should correspond to the growth and age of a person. The table and chair are preferably of such a height that the arms and legs of the person sitting at a right angle. A chair or chair should have a back that supports the spine well.
  3. Organization of a place to sleep.A bed with orthopedic rails and a rigid mattress prevents the deflections of the spinal column. A comfortable pillow will help to avoid problems with the cervical spine.
  4. Active lifestyle.Moving games, walking, swimming, physical education and sports will strengthen the back muscles that support the spine.

Proper nutrition, high-grade rest, well-chosen footwear and backpacks for schoolchildren, timely detection of provoking diseases, congenital pathologies and their correction help to avoid problems with back.

Follow the posture is necessary from an early age

Types of curvature of the spine are numerous, and the symptomatology is extensive.

This serious pathology is remarkably treatable at an early stage of development. Therefore, it is very important to begin therapy as soon as possible.

Only in this case you can avoid dangerous complications and lead a habitual way of life.

Questions to the doctor

Anna, you need to show your son a doctor. And you need to do this as soon as possible. In childhood, the curvature is well curable, corrected with the help of massage and special exercises.

But only at an early stage of the disease. If you ignore the symptoms and do not go to a specialist, the disease can take a serious form and treatment will be more lengthy and time-consuming.

There are many exercises for maintaining proper posture and correcting it.

Here is an approximate set of exercises.

  1. Lean against the wall with shoulders, buttocks, heels and palms. Take a few deep breaths and do not change the position of the back to walk around the room.
  2. Keeping this position, sit down in Turkish, then get up. Repeat 10 times.
  3. Stand up straight. Then, without bending your knees, touch with your fingers or the palms of the floor. Run 10-15 times.
  4. Sit on a chair. Put your hands on your knees as close as possible to your shoulder blades. Hold this position for a few seconds.
  5. Put the book on your head. With a book you can walk and sit. In time, you will learn how to hold it.
  6. Exercise with a gymnastic stick. Drive a stick through the top to the shoulder blades. On inhalation slowly turn to the side, on exhalation return to the starting position.

Classes should be regular, only then they will bring tangible benefits.

A source: https://vash-ortoped.ru/bolezni-pozvonochnika/iskrivlenie/vidy-iskrivleniya-pozvonochnika-1357