Signs of sinusitis in adults. Symptoms and methods of treatment of sinusitis in adults
Genyantritis - an unpleasant disease, associated with inflammatory processes in the maxillary sinuses. It can affect not only the mucous membrane of the nose, but also the bony walls of the maxillary zone.
Appearance of sinusitis
The disease can intensify against the backdrop of inadequate treatment of a runny nose or respiratory disease, and may also result from inflammation in the roots of the teeth.
Everything begins with the swelling of the mucous membrane, which, in turn, blocking the exit opening, prevents the mucus from escaping from the sinuses into the nasal cavity. Allocations accumulate, microorganisms multiply and provoke a general malaise. Appears pus, which, together with the mucus presses on the nasal cavity and provokes acute pain in the genyantritis.
Depending on how the pathogen of infection has entered the body, the following types of disease are distinguished:
- Hematogenous sinusitis, in which the infection has got through the blood.
- Rhinogenic maxillary sinusitis with an agent that got through the nasal cavity.
- Traumatic sinusitis due to trauma.
- Odontogenic sinusitis associated with inflammation of the teeth.
The type of inflammatory process can divide the disease as follows:
- on sharply leaking, developing as a result of blockage of the outlet;
- on a semi-acute form, in which the inflammation can last several months, but no more;
- on the chronic form, which is determined in the inflammatory process, lasting more than two months.
Causes of the disease
Sinusitis, the cause of which lies in the penetration of any kind of infection in the paranasal sinuses, can be caused by allergies. With allergic sinusitis, the discharge from the nose is aseptic, transparent. The course of it is undulating, has periods of remission and exacerbation.
Bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens that enter the body, provoke infectious sinusitis. Treatment and funds from sinusitis in this case will be standard, the forecast - favorable.
Exudative form of sinusitis can occur due to subcooling in a climate with high humidity or as a result of a weakened immune system. Discharge from the nose abundant, often purulent. Pain in the sinuses is not observed, but headaches often occur.
The cause of vasomotor sinusitis is a reduced tone of blood vessels located in the sinuses of the nose. Vasomotor signs of sinusitis in adults are manifested in swelling of soft tissues, violation of secretion outflow.
Long-term treatment of the disease can lead to atrophy of the mucous membrane of the sinuses and pour out into the atrophic sinusitis. Aggressive course of the disease can lead to tissue necrosis and the appearance of a necrotic type of sinusitis.
The main manifestations of the disease
The signs of maxillary sinusitis in adults are manifested in an acute form:
- chills or fever;
- nasal congestion, abundant secretions;
- deterioration of smell on the side of inflammation;
- general poor condition, severe weakness;
- headaches (strong or weak) pain, giving to the forehead or teeth;
- swelling of the upper or lower eyelid, swelling of the cheeks.
Symptoms of genyantritis in adults in acute form appear sharply together with other signs of a cold. In addition, they can be accompanied by pain during palpation of the infraorbital area of the face. Acute antritis with the right approach can be cured in less than 4 weeks.
Chronic sinusitis occurs as a result of ineffective, incomplete or lack of any treatment for acute disease. The signs of sinusitis in adults in chronic form are often little expressed. The most obvious symptom is a chronic rhinitis that does not lend itself to traditional treatment. Distinguish between chronic sinusitis and night cough, caused by the flow of purulent mucus on the back wall of the nasopharynx. The nature of these secretions will vary depending on the form of the developing disease. Often, sinusitis in the chronic form proceeds without a runny nose. But then the patient will be noted:
- Discomfort in the eye sockets, which increases with blinking;
- headaches, stronger in the evening;
- pain and heaviness in the region of the wings of the nose;
- feeling of fullness in the ears.
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults are often manifested in a variety of ways, not associated with inflammatory processes of paranasal sinuses, which makes diagnosis difficult and can significantly complicate the course of the disease.
Possible treatment options for the disease
The revealed key signs of maxillary sinusitis in adults serve as the basis for the appointment of treatment and the choice of a technique for getting rid of the disease, which can be of a surgical nature or be sparing.
A gentle option involves removing the swelling from the mucous membrane. For these purposes, you can use inhalers or drops. Anti-inflammatory drugs like "Nazola" or "Oksimetazolina" can quickly reduce swelling and restore normal breathing, without having any special side effects.
The appointment of special strong agents in the form of injections may be necessary in case the disease has managed to go far. Such drugs can quickly clear sinuses, reduce the rate of reproduction of bacteria, reducing the volume of their nutrient medium. Appoint a suitable medicine for sinusitis should only the doctor-otolaryngologist after examination and obtaining the results of the tests.
A comprehensive ten-day course allows you to get rid of sinusitis without a sinus puncture. In this case, the funds from sinusitis will be of a vegetative nature, such as drops or tablets "Sinupret".
Plant components with extracts of sorrel, elder, primrose allow to treat the disease, reduce the intensity of inflammation, pain, restore normal breathing.
Similarly, the "Sinuforte" drops with the extract of cyclamen also possess. Drops can be taken at home, getting rid of stuffiness will be rapid, but the disadvantage is accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the form of burning for several minutes.
Necessarily complex therapy includes antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action. The need for their admission is explained by the fact that the development of infection provokes sinusitis. The reviews testify to the effectiveness of cephalosporin preparations, among which "Ceftriaxone", "Cephpir", "Cefotaxime", "Tsefelim" are known. Reception of these medicines can be fraught with a dysbacteriosis, therefore in parallel the doctor can appoint means for normalization of work of an intestine. But again it should be remembered that only a qualified person can recommend a certain medicine for sinusitis the doctor, after all thoughtless reception of antibiotics can harm an organism because of toxicity of components.
Folk remedies for treatment of genyantritis
Medicamental treatment of the disease can be supplemented with folk methods. You can resort to washing the nasal sinuses with saline solution or herbal decoction (sage, mother-and-stepmother, chamomile). Suitable for washing a syringe without a needle or kettle with a thin spout. Inhalations over pots with decoction of herbs can also have a beneficial effect. "Shock" drops are obtained from garlic and honey, which are mixed in a proportion of 1: 1, and the prepared mixture is digested in each nasal passage one drop once a day. The burning sensation in the nose will not be pleasant, but purulent plugs will disappear quickly enough.
Physiotherapeutic methods of treatment
Acute antritis can be treated with medication and physiotherapy, which includes:
- preparations in aerosols of antihistamine and antibacterial character;
- 12 thirty-minute procedures of ozokeratin applications;
- UHF into the sinus area;
- therapeutic laser;
- electrophoresis with hydrocortisone and dioxidine.
Physiotherapy is not applied to patients with high blood pressure, tumor diseases, significant temperature reaction.
If the complex of the above measures does not help, then, unfortunately, the treatment of sinusitis reduces to puncturing and washing of the paranasal sinuses.
Preventive measures against sinusitis
Prevention of the appearance of the ailment in question consists in the timely treatment of diseases, the neglect of which can become its source. Do not underestimate catarrhal diseases and transfer them to what is called on their feet. Better a few days to comply with bed rest and avoid thereby more serious complications.
Healthy teeth are also a guarantee of protection from sinusitis. Keep track of their condition is very simple at home. This will help prevent the appearance and reproduction of bacteria under the gums.
Genyantritis, the causes of which lie in the appearance of inflammatory processes in the sinus, requires an early request to the doctor. In many respects the success of conservative complex treatment depends on the duration of the disease, the condition at the time of treatment and the general condition of the patient. So do not bring your condition to the lamentable.
Signs of sinusitis in adults, causes, types, complications
Genyantritis is a kind of sinusitis, when the inflammation of the mucous membrane occurs in the maxillary sinus - the maxillary sinus. This disease is not rare, it is very common, only up to 37 million people are affected by it annually in the United States. human.
To establish the correct diagnosis and to prescribe adequate treatment, you must have the necessary information on the signs of maxillary sinusitis in adults, the types of maxillary inflammation, the complex treatment of sinusitis.
And also in time to consult a doctor and not engage in self-medication. To understand what signs of genyantritis occur in a particular clinical case, you should familiarize yourself with the types of sinusitis, because this also affects the symptoms of the disease.
The causes of sinusitis in adults:
This disease affects people with weakened immunity, in which in the nasopharynx permanent, favorable conditions for the development of infection. Most often these are patients with a curved nasal septum, with chronic tonsillitis, rhinitis, and diseases of the teeth in the upper jaw. Older people are less likely to get sinusitis, more often young people suffer in the autumn-winter period. The main causes of sinusitis are:
- Infectious, viral diseases - influenza, SARS, tonsillitis, rhinitis. Inadequate or untimely treatment of these diseases.
- Disturbances in the immune system.
- Congenital or acquired anomalies of the nasal cavity.
- Difficulty of nasal breathing - due to increased nasal concha, vasomotor rhinitis, allergic diseases.
- Chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx - chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis.
- Regular supercooling.
- Allergic predisposition.
Types of sinusitis and its signs:
Sinusitis in adults can be classified according to the following factors:
By the method of getting the pathogens of infection, the sinusitis is classified:
- From the nasal cavity - rhinogenic, often occurs in adults
- Through blood-hematogenous
- After traumas - a traumatic genyantritis
- With inflammation of the teeth - odontogenic
Due to the occurrence and severity of leaks:
- Infectious - it is caused by fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens.
- Allergic - differs in that the discharge from the nose is transparent, serous or aseptic. Has a wavy course, with periods of remission and exacerbations.
- The exudative variant - most often is purulent.
- Vasomotor - occurs when the function of vasomotor vascular disorders, as well as allergic it proceeds chronically.
- Atrophic - with prolonged course of the disease there is atrophy of the mucosa of the maxillary sinuses.
- Necrotic - in the aggressive course, in rare cases, tissue necrosis occurs in the sinus.
By the nature of the course of the inflammatory process:
1. Acute antritis- the development of sinusitis occurs due to blockage of the exit opening of the maxillary sinus, this provokes the onset of inflammation and leads to accumulation of pus in the maxillary sinus. Usually this is facilitated by acute respiratory infections, influenza, colds, and the risk of sinusitis is the presence of chronic rhinitis. In acute sinusitis, the symptoms appear sharply together with other signs of a cold - with pain in the forehead, cheeks under the eyes, stuffy nose, which do not pass for a week. As a rule, acute sinusitis does not last more than a month.
Acute maxillary sinusitis - symptoms:
- Increased body temperature, chills.
- Nasal congestion with abundant secretions, if the mucosal discharge is catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis, if purulent, mucopurulent discharge is purulent sinusitis.
- Decreased sense of smell on the affected side.
- Deterioration of general condition, weakness.
- Headache from insignificant to strong, often giving to the forehead, nose, teeth.
- With pressure, pain increases in the place of the affected sinus.
- The nature of pain is constant, intense. There are feelings of raspirany during sneezing and coughing. When the head is tilted down, the pain increases significantly, as it were, "shoots through".
- Lachrymation and photophobia can occur if conjunctivitis is attached.
- Edema of the lower or upper eyelid and swelling of the cheek are observed when the periosteum is involved in the inflammatory process.
2. Acute maxillary sinusitis- with it, inflammation with the characteristic signs of maxillary sinitis in adults lasts from one month to two.
3. Chronic sinusitis- is considered in the event that the signs of genyantritis and general malaise lasts more than 2 months. As a rule, it develops due to the absence, ineffective or inadequate treatment of acute sinusitis. Symptoms of chronic sinusitis are not infrequent, which makes it difficult to properly diagnose. One of the hallmarks of the disease is dry night cough that does not lend itself to traditional treatment, because it is caused by the flow of purulent nasopharynx detachable from the posterior nasopharynx from the affected maxillary sinus. The nature of the discharge from the nose depends on the shape of the sinusitis.
So, complaints with chronic sinusitis have a maximum at the time of exacerbation.
- Nasal congestion, difficulty in nasal breathing, decreased sense of smell
- Lean transparent or yellow-green discharge from the nose (often on one side)
- Headache, pain in the area between the lower edge of the orbit and the wing of the nose Pain can give in the eye socket or temple
- Feeling of a raspiraniya in the face
- Unpleasant odor from the nose
Objective signs (what the doctor sees):
- Redness of the eye on the affected side, swelling of the mucous eye.
- Soreness with naldavlivanii in the infraorbital fossa, the inner corner of the eye.
- When examining the nasal cavity with a rhinoscope, dense yellow-green superimpositions on the mucous membrane, creamy discharge, swelling of the nasal concha, and proliferation of the khohans are seen.
- When examining the pharynx, a characteristic purulent path drains down its posterior wall
4. Recurrent sinusitis- exacerbation occurs several times a year.
Complications of genyantritis:
Purulent discharge during sinusitis can come from the maxillary sinuses into the surrounding tissues, affecting the blinding nerves, the orbit, teeth, even the meninges:
- osteoperostitis of orbit
- reactive eyelid edema and ophthalmic gland
- otitis or eustachaitis, retrobulbar abscess
- thrombosis of the eye sockets, osteomyelitis of the upper jaw
- pachymeningitis, meningitis, rhinogenic brain abscess, cerebral edema
- meningoencephalitis, trigeminal neuritis
With timely, effective treatment of sinusitis, the risk of complications after maxillary sinusitis is not great.
Signs of sinusitis in adults
After a disease ORVI or ARI often there is a long, hard-to-cure rhinitis that is not given much importance, hoping that eventually it will disappear on its own. Ignoring such signs of sinusitis in adults is dangerous, since purulent inflammation can cause a lot of complications, up to and including penetration of the pathogenic bacterial environment in the brain tissue, thrombosis of the eye veins and abscess in the middle ear cavity.
The first signs and characteristic symptoms of sinusitis in adults
Early clinical manifestations of the pathology in question are similar to ordinary rhinitis:
- nasal congestion;
- worsening of nasal breathing;
- the allocation of a small amount of mucus after barking;
- presence of yellowish purulent impurities in the phlegm;
- general malaise;
- increased body temperature;
- dull pain in the forehead, temples;
- fatigue, low working capacity.
In the future, these signs are strengthened.
What are the symptoms of acute and subacute sinus anemia in adults?
These types of disease are characterized by a sharp beginning and can occur simultaneously with other signs of flu or colds - pain in the zone of cheekbones, cheeks and nose, strong nasal congestion.
Specific symptoms of acute sinusitis in adults:
- chills, hyperthermia to values of 38.5-39 degrees;
- decrease in olfactory abilities, especially if inflammation develops on both sides;
- abundant secretions of mucous or purulent contents during flaunting;
- severe headache, which can give in the teeth, nose, forehead, ears and is strengthened when the head is tilted, pressing on the bridge of the nose;
- general weakness;
- photophobia and lacrimation;
- feeling of bursting in the nasal sinuses during coughing and sneezing;
- swelling of the eyelids, swelling of the cheeks.
Typically, the above condition lasts 7-15 days. If the given clinical manifestations take place longer than 1 month, the disease has passed into a subacute stage.
What are the signs of chronic sinusitis manifest in adults?
Sluggish type of the disease develops due to incorrect, ineffective treatment of acute form, or complete absence of therapy. Thus the symptomatology is so weakly expressed that it is extremely difficult to put the correct diagnosis, especially without x-ray examination of the maxillary sinuses of the nose. It is this kind of pathology that most often provokes life-threatening and health-related complications.
Signs and main symptoms of chronic sinusitis in adults:
- severe deterioration of smell, a person does not feel many smells at all;
- permanent bilateral nasal obstruction;
- unpleasant, fetid smell from the nasal passages and oral cavity;
- frequent attacks of headache and dizziness;
- scant amount of discharge from the nose, it is transparent and yellowish-green;
- feeling of pressure and bursting in the area of the center of the face;
- pain between the edges of the eye orbits and the wings of the nose, irradiatingin whiskey, jaws, ears and teeth, eye sockets.
One of the nonspecific clinical manifestations of chronic sinusitis is a cough that worsens during a night's sleep. It is provoked by the fact that the contents of the maxillary sinuses slowly flow down the back of the pharynx into the throat and esophagus, irritating the mucous membranes. In this case, the nature of the cough is difficult to differentiate, since it can be both painful and dry, and productive, moist. This symptom does not lend itself to classical therapy and does not disappear until the genyantritis is healed.
It is worth noting that the chronic form of the disease has a tendency to relapse from 1 to 3 times a year.
Signs of sinusitis in adults
We often with frivolity concern a long rhinitis - a pier, no trouble, banal cold, itself will pass or take place. This neglect leads to the fact that many patients miss the signs of genyantritis in adults - a serious and dangerous with their complications of the disease. Let's understand what is genyantritis and its symptoms, how to recognize and cure this disease, without allowing complications. Armed with knowledge about prevention methods and be healthy!
Causes of sinusitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary (maxillary) sinus is called a sinusitis. This disease occurs as a result:
- disruption of normal nasal drainage due to congenital or acquired features of the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity;
- infection with pathogenic viruses, bacteria;
- an allergic rhinitis;
- untreated dental diseases;
- complications resulting from improper, incomplete treatment of rhinitis, ARVI, influenza;
- regular hypothermia of the body;
- decrease immunity.
What is the mechanism of the disease? Infection is introduced into the maxillary sinuses through the nasal mucosa, through the blood or in diseases of the roots of the upper teeth. The dimensions of these sinuses are much larger than the size of the strokes with which they are cleaned through the nose. The disease causes duct swelling and mucus is clogged up in the cavity. Such stagnation is an excellent medium for the development and spread of infection further into the tissues of the body under the mucous membrane, which without proper treatment threatens for the patient with serious complications.
The first symptoms in adults
If the nose refuses correctly, breathe freely, it is better to be safe and check whether you have symptoms of maxillary sinusitis in adults. At the beginning of the disease, you feel a general malaise, lethargy. The first signs of sinusitis - when there are unpleasant sensations of fullness, heaviness in the nose, in the nose or above the eyes. These areas become painful when pressed, the pain shoots when the head is tilted down.
Gradually the whole head begins to hurt, clear localization is lost. The nose is laid, in connection with which breathing is difficult, the patient is nasal, speaks in the nose. Allocations in the common cold are mucous membranes or purulent, but the disease sometimes passes without this symptom, if the outflow from the sinuses is difficult. In the acute phase of maxillary sinusitis, patients have a high body temperature - rising to 38 degrees and above.
Varieties of sinusitis and their signs
Classification of this disease is diverse for reasons of origin, area of injury, severity of leakage. So, one-sided inflammatory process is distinguished (localized on one side of the face), but more often there is bilateral sinusitis. With it, both the left and right paranasal sinuses are infected, and the symptoms are equally pronounced on both sides of the face.
Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses for reasons of origin is classified into:
- infectious - caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi;
- allergic - a chronic disease, is characterized by periodic exacerbation as a reaction to the pathogen;
- atrophic - causes a slowdown in the functioning of the mucous membrane of the sinuses;
- vasomotor - develops when the work of vasomotors is disrupted, proceeds chronically;
- exudative - purulent form of the disease;
- necrotic - during the course of time, tissue necrosis in the sinuses occurs.
What are the signs of maxillary sinus after the inflammation? The stages of the disease are similar, so it is often difficult to diagnose a particular form. Today, doctors distinguish acute and chronic sinusitis, but in the medical literature, other types of this disease are identified. It is important to know the differences in the signs of genyantritis in adults with different forms of the disease.
Signs of genyantritis in adults at acute stage are pronounced. The pain in the region of the maxillary sinuses becomes constant, the eyes water, there is photophobia. Body temperature rises above 38-39 degrees. Consistency and color of discharge from the nose consistently changes: first they are transparent mucous - this is catarrhal sinusitis, then they become greenish, which indicates an inflammatory stage, and when the disease continues, when the sinusitis becomes purulent, yellow purulent shade becomes. The stage of acute sinusitis lasts 2-4 weeks.
If you ignore, do not treat the first symptoms of the disease, the inflammatory process develops and passes into a subacute form - a transitional between the acute and chronic process. This stage lasts from 3-4 weeks to 12, with the symptoms of sinusitis smoothed and similar to colds, exacerbations are rare, which greatly complicates the correct diagnosis.
Talk about chronic sinusitis is when the disease lasts more than 12 weeks. During this period, the symptoms of the disease are more flattened, but they are periodically exacerbated. The headache almost does not appear in the morning, but by the evening it grows and swelling becomes visible under the eyes. There is an unpleasant smell from the nose and a feeling of bursting of the face. The main sign of maxillary sinus in adults at this stage is a dry night cough caused by the flow of purulent masses released from the affected sinus, along the back wall of the nasopharynx.
The diagnosis of "recurrent sinusitis" is put in case of a periodic transition of the chronic form to acute more than 4 times a year. It is distinguished either by sharply and sharply resuming normal symptoms, or by a new symptomatology. To prevent the disease from returning again and again, after the treatment is done, take a control image of the maxillary sinuses. It is checked that there is no accumulation of pus in them. Doctors by experience and by photo know what a "clean" X-ray should look like.
How is diagnostics performed?
Having identified the symptoms that are suitable for signs of sinusitis, for a specific diagnosis, contact a specialized medical institution. Establishing an accurate diagnosis begins with a survey. First, a superficial examination is performed, in which the specialist reveals swelling within the nose and reflex dilatation of the vessels.
To confirm the diagnosis, hardware methods are used: x-ray of the sinuses of the nose or their computed tomography, in exceptional cases - diaphanoscopy (examination using a light beam). When the diagnostic methods do not fully confirm the diagnosis, they make a puncture (puncture) of the maxillary sinus. A sample of mucus is taken for laboratory analysis, performing a seeding on the sensitivity to antibiotics.
How to treat sinusitis in adults
In order to overcome the disease in short lines and avoid relapses, they treat complex treatment of sinusitis. The doctors influence the causes of the disease and the symptoms. Antibiotics for sinusitis in adults - the main component of treatment. They act on the foci of infection, help stop its spread. The doctor determines the type of pathogen and, depending on this, selects the drugs. If mucus does not go away, mucoleptics are prescribed as ancillary medicines for sinusitis in adults. They help to dilute the contents of the sinuses, improve the outflow.
In medical institutions for the cleaning of the cavities of the maxillary sinuses make the procedure "cuckoo", which is carried out as follows. The patient lies on his back, through one nostril a special solution is poured into him, and the accumulated mucus is sucked from the other. In order not to choke, it is necessary continuously to repeat "ku-ku-ku", therefore such an unusual name of medical manipulation. A good folk remedy to remove stagnant purulent discharge in the home is to wash the sinuses of the nose with such solutions:
- 1/2 teaspoon of the kitchen salt add to 1 cup of warm boiled water.
- 1 teaspoon of sea salt and 1/2 teaspoon of soda mix well in a glass of warm water.
For better patency of the solution before washing the nasal cavity, it is recommended to use vasoconstrictive sprays, for example, "Tizin", "Naphtizin". Nasal drops are used to relieve the symptoms of congestion. Common restorative effect on the nasopharynx organs is provided by aromatherapy - inhalations with medicinal herbs: mint, eucalyptus, sage, lavender.
In extreme cases, if the therapeutic effect is not achieved, surgery is performed by puncturing the maxillary sinus. It is made for pumping pus and administering drugs. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Sometimes, before the patient is fully recovered, catheters are inserted into the puncture sites to allow rapid medical manipulation.
Possible complications and consequences of sinusitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses is an insidious disease, dangerous due to its complications. If you let the course of the disease on its own, the purulent discharge spreads to the surrounding tissues, to the nearby nerves, to the teeth, the orbit. In especially severe cases, the membranes of the brain are affected. Chronic sinusitis is often the cause of angina, laryngitis, tonsillitis, osteomyelitis of the upper jaw. In the acute phase, the disease causes neuritis of the trigeminal nerve. With the professional treatment of the inflammatory process, the risk of such consequences is small.
Video: how to treat genyantritis at home
With the timely detection of signs of maxillary sinusitis in adults and the appointment of appropriate drugs by a competent specialist, treatment of this disease can take place in an outpatient setting. Learn from our video useful advice of an otolaryngologist about the rules for identifying and diagnosing ailment, how to treat it, and prevent the health of nasopharyngeal organs:
Chronic sinusitis in children and adultsChronic sinusitis, the symptoms and treatment of which are discussed in this article, refers to a group of diseases paranasal sinuses (sinusitis) and, in particular, is an inflammation of the maxillary sinus.
In its prevalence, this form of pathology occupies one of the first places among ENT diseases.
Causes of purulent, hyperplastic and other chronic sinusitis
The most widely known is catarrhal, chronic purulent maxillary sinusitis, and also a mixed form of the disease. In addition, the classification of the disease can be identified chronic hyperplastic maxillary sinusitis, polyposis and atrophic variants of the disease.
The immediate cause of the development in the sinuses of the pathological process, which later turns into a chronic form, most often become streptococci, less often viruses, anaerobic microbes and fungi.
However, the causes of chronic maxillary sinusitis can be seen from the other side: not from the position of the causative agent of the infectious process, but from the point of chronicization of the formed inflammation.
First of all, the transition to a chronic form is promoted by illiterate therapy of acute sinusitis.The non-observance of the therapeutic scheme is important:a violation of the dosage and timing of taking medications and other inconsistencies to the prescribed measures.
The chronicity of the described disease is also caused by the constant presence of foci of chronic infection in the nasopharynx: rhinitis, tonsillitis, etc.
Chronic sinusitis can form and against the background of the curvature of the septum of the nose, and with such formations as polyps and cysts that naturally disrupt the normal movement of air in the sinuses, while stimulating the stagnation of mucus and disrupting its departure.
The development of the disease is influenced by the environment:the more gassed and dusty the higher the risk of getting sick.
Their role in the development of the described ailment is also played by bad habits, allergy and immunity.
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis in children and adults
SymptomsChronic sinusitis in adults and children are often erased or mild. This fact causes difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of the described ailment.
The main manifestation of the disease is a chronic runny nose, not amenable to traditional therapy. Runny nose is accompanied by nasal congestion (more often one-sided) and other characteristic symptoms.
Often patients have complaints of pain localized in the head and depth of the orbit, passing in the prone position and intensifying with blinking. Dull pain can occur in the infraorbital area.
SymptomsChronic sinusitis include the morning swelling of the eyelids and chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes. This characterizes the spread of the process from the maxillary sinus to the orbital walls.
A significant manifestation of the described disease is also considered to be a symptom such as a chronic dry cough. Moreover, this cough does not respond to therapy with the use of antitussive and expectorant drugs. The appearance of a cough for a given disease can be explained by an irritating effect on the pharyngeal region, which pus flows from its affected sinus.
Characteristic for the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis symptoms also include dulling of the olfactory function of the nose.
And the course and prognosis for this disease depend on the quality of the treatment used, as well as on the presence of structural changes in the sinus.
Exacerbations and complications of chronic sinusitisExacerbation of the chronic form of sinusitis, as a rule, happens after an infectious disease, for example, scarlet fever, measles, influenza, etc.
If the body is weakened by a factor that provokes an exacerbation, even the slightest hypothermia can occur.
In patients with a diagnosis of chronic sinusitis, exacerbation may be accompanied by the appearance of a rather intense pain in the area of the affected sinus. When you click on this area, the pain intensifies. Such a painful sensation is often accompanied by bursting when tilted or abruptly moving the head, which can be, for example, by sneezing or coughing.
Often, the ill begin to tear from the bright light of the eye, due to which there is some photophobia.
The main danger of the described illness comes from the structure and location of the maxillary sinus. Thin walls of this anatomical formation participate in the formation, as well as contact with the membranes of the brain. Given this fact, patients with this disease always have the risk of spreading infection into the cranial cavity with the development of meningitis.However, with the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis complications of this nature are extremely rare. Bole is likely to transfer infection from the affected maxillary sinus to the orbit, the fiber that fills the orbit, and also to the eye membranes.
This swelling of the process is evidenced by puffiness of the eyelids and a certain bulge of the eye on the background of severe pain.
In addition, chronic sinusitis in adults and children plays the role of a source of infection. Because of this, the described disease becomes the cause of frequent recurrences of angina, pharyngitis, and also can lead to the occurrence of diseases of the teeth or maxillary osteomyelitis.
With genyantritis, neuritis of the trigeminal nerve can form, which will be indicated by strong attacks of pain in the face area. Chronic rhinitis, which has appeared as a result of inflammation of the maxillary sinus, can cause atrophy of the mucous membrane and loss of smell. The disease can be complicated by the formation of an abscess.
Patients with chronic sinusitis, as a rule, are treated long and unsuccessfully for chronic bronchitis and other possible causes of chronic cough.
Treatment of chronic sinusitis at home with drugs
Chronic sinusitis in children and adults requires compulsory treatment, while it is very important that the appointment of therapy carried out by an experienced specialist.
Treatment of this disease should be complex. As a rule, physicians prescribe local or common glucocorticoids, antibiotics and saline solutions for rinsing.
Of all these groups of drugs, antibiotics are considered to be the most important, although the role of bacteria in the development of this ailment remains controversial.
Treatment in a hospital is shown primarily to patients with developed orbital and intracranial complications. In addition, patients with immunodeficiency and children need hospital treatment.
In deciding the question of how to treat chronic sinusitis, one should be guided by drugs that affect the various links of the pathological process. One of these means are decongestants. They cause narrowing of the vessels of the mucous membrane and thereby contribute to the elimination of edema, the reduction of local inflammation and the normalization of outflow from the sinuses.The most popular drugs from this group are agents that include oxymetazoline (for example, Nazivin or Nazol), phenylephrine (in particular, Vibrocil), naphazoline (all known as Naphthysin), xylometazoline (these are familiar to many Otrivin and Galazolin).
Care should be taken when using drugs of this group in patients diagnosed with chronic sinusitis. You can not tolerate treatment with these drugs for more than 5-7 days, otherwise there is a risk of addiction and drug rhinitis.
After the doctor has determined the symptoms of chronic maxillary sinusitis and treatment in adults, and the children are selected appropriate. And it is quite possible that to obtain the best result the patient will need to prescribe corticosteroids.
Such means for direct introduction into the nose (sprays, drops) are especially effective in the combination of sinusitis with polyps, a medicamentous variant of rhinitis and an allergic rhinitis.
Along with antibiotics, these drugs are key components of the therapy of this ailment.
The most well-known of this group of drugs are fluticasone-based drugs (eg, Fliksonase), beclomethasone (Aldecin) and mometasone (Nazonex).
In the question of how to cure chronic sinusitis, not the last role of the physician is assigned to the lavage of the nose. Used for this, saline solutions, moisturizing the mucous membrane, reducing edema and mucus viscosity.
Solutions may include a solution of sodium chloride or sea water. Most often in pharmacies there are Aqua Maris, Dolphin and Marimer.
The pharmaceutical industry also produces combined preparations, which, in addition to sea water, also contain vasoconstrictor substances. An example of such drugs is Snoop, which is a combination of sea water with xylometazoline.
How to treat chronic sinusitis with antibiotics?Antibiotics for chronic sinusitis can be used only when there are signs of bacterial infection in the clinical picture of the disease. If this ailment has developed for some other reason, then the use of antibacterial medicines will not yield any results.
As a rule, such drugs as Doxycycline and Amoxicillin are used as antibacterial therapy for patients with sinusitis. Trimethoprim or Sulfamethoxazole is also used. If such treatment of chronic sinusitis does not have an effect, then the drugs should be replaced by others.
In the treatment of antimicrobial medicines, it is extremely important to follow the prescribed course of treatment. In most cases this is 10-14 days, but a longer period of therapy may well be required. It all depends on how soon the patient's condition will improve.
If you stop taking medication after a few days, then the manifestations of the illness come back and quickly enough.
How to cure chronic sinusitis at home using folk methods?Helps with the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis and treatment at home using folk methods.
It should be remembered that a good help in the fight against the disease rest. And to dilute the secretions and improve the patency of the nasal passages, you need to drink plenty of fluids. It is better to avoid drinks with caffeine and alcohol, tk. they lead to dehydration, and alcohol also worsens the swelling of the mucous sinuses.
Sleep with this disease is recommended in a position with a slightly raised head. Due to this, it is possible to reduce congestion in the sinuses of the nose.
In patients with a diagnosis of sinusitis, chronic home treatment should include moistening of the sinuses. To do this, you can inhale the steam from the hot water tank while holding the towel over your head and trying not to direct the steam into your face. In addition, you can inhale warm moist air by taking a hot shower. Such procedures facilitate pain and help in the mucus.
Pain can also be reduced with a warm compress:for example, put a warm towel on the cheek area of the nose.
Solving the question of how to cure chronic sinusitis at home, do not forget about washing.
Usually, for this disease, special devices are used to rinse the nasal passages:in particular, a syringe with a flexible tube or syringing. Used for washing, usually salt water. You can also rinse your nose with propolis.
Surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis
If even after adequate, properly prescribed therapy the disease continues to develop, then the treatment of chronic sinusitis in adults and children should be performed surgically.
Nowadays there is endoscopic surgery. Doctors using an endoscope first examine the paranasal sinuses, and then remove polyps and tissues that cause nasal congestion with a special tool.
Recognize the signs and symptoms of sinusitis in the home
Free breathing is one of the main signs of our health. Full penetration of air provides ventilation of the lungs and bronchi, saturates the blood with the right amount of oxygen. But often, especially in the off-season, our breathing begins to suffer. The reason for this can be multiple diseases:
- complications after the transferred infections;
- disturbances in the structure of the nose congenital or acquired.
How is treatment of sinusitis with Azithromycin, you can find out by reading the article.
More often than not, a person has to face the most formidable enemy of the nose: the genyantritis.
What is sinusitis and its features
Sinusitis - an inflammatory-infectious process that occurs in the maxillary sinus
Before giving a definition of the disease, it is necessary to say a little about the anatomical features of the structure of the nose itself. It has several kinds of sinuses:
- wedge shaped;
- Frontal sinuses.
From this article you can learn how to treat maxillary sinusitis without a puncture.
The accessory sinuses represent a porous mucosal surface that connects to our nose and larynx. They are closest to them, so most often the development of sinusitis begins with the infection of these sinuses. As the bacteria multiply through the air into the nose, they penetrate further: into the maxillary (maxillary) sinus. Remoteness from the withdrawing sastia allows the virus to settle there for a long time, to clog the mucus outlets and turn it into pus.That is, genyantritis is an inflammatory-infectious process occurring in the maxillary sinus.Sinusitis can affect only one sinus and is diagnosed as right-sided or left-sided, can flow from acute to chronic form.
From this article, you can understand what antibiotics to drink with genyantritis and sinusitis.
Predisposition and causes of sinusitisMost often, the genyantritis is affected by people who have problems with a runny nose in chronic form. It can be as frequent colds, and periodic relapses of allergies. If you can not get rid of clear discharge from the nose for a long time, you have an incomprehensible stuffiness, then you automatically find yourself in a high-risk group. In some people, a tendency to runny nose is congenital, but it can be acquired.Therefore, it is important to discuss in detail with the doctor the situation and determine exactly the cause of frequent sinusitis.
Do not underestimate the sinusitis, believing it is aggravated by a more restful sinusitis. The mortality from sinusitis is almost as high as from diseases associated with the heart. In fact, the diagnosis itself already indicates that urgent help is needed. Many people ask: What is the risk of sinusitis? First of all, it is dangerous for its location.
With a negative development of the clinical picture and lack of treatment, pus easily penetrates into the cerebral cortex. In such a situation, it is difficult to save a person, but even if it succeeds, serious consequences remain. We must not forget: sinusitis is deadly at any stage.
How to use the medicine Sinupret from sinusitis, you can learn from the article.
Since the nose is one of the three ENT organs, it almost always provokes complications. So, a person with a sinusitis can simultaneously become ill with laryngitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media.More often a genyantritis happens in a sheaf with an otitis.It's not for nothing that when treating a patient with otitis, doctors first look at the condition of the sinuses. Even a slight suspicion is enough to prescribe an emergency surgeon intervention.Predisposition can suffer people with an irregular nose shape, a curved septum. But in addition to these primary reasons, there are other risk factors:
- wrong way of life;
- harmful work;
- smoking, drugs;
- propensity to frequent viruses;
- decreased immunity;
- autoimmune processes;
- rotten teeth (upper).
Therefore, it is important to determine the source of problems with the nose in time. Even if you have not yet met with the genyantitis itself, you need to exclude yourself from the risk group.
How to treat bilateral sinusitis in a child, you can learn from the article.
Primary signs of genyantritis
The disease comes most often unnoticed, as if unwillingly.At first, a person feels a slight malaise of a general form: weakness, an incomprehensible buzz in the head, there is a "cat's" sneezing.Sometimes there is layering of signs, for example, the flu came along with the genyantritis or provoked its aggravation. This takes a little time: the flu "passes" the bastions of immunity for several days. But also the flu is different, for example, some forms immediately cause exacerbation of respiratory diseases, beat on weak organs.
Headache with genyantritis can not be confused with any other.
Pretty soon the person feels a headache, and quite characteristic. Carrying it once, it is difficult to confuse it with any other headache later on. It brings a feeling of blunting perception, surrounding objects lose their clarity, noise in the head increases. Depending on the degree of disease and form, toothache shooting in the ear can be added. Eyeballs can hurt, eyelids grow heavy, sometimes they turn red.
How correctly to take antibiotics at a genyantritis Sumamed, it is possible to learn or find out having read through clause or article.
A bright indicator of sinusitis become discharge from the nose. When the disease mucus becomes less mobile, viscous, pushing it out of the nose is more difficult. As it progresses, it changes, turning into purulent discharge. At this phase, the patient's temperature rises, often quite high. The discharge may be a saturated yellow or green, in which case the color indicates an extreme degree.
With thick green snot, tight nasal congestion, severe headaches and temperature, you should immediately call "ambulance"!
Since all the ENT organs are connected, a person can feel a sore throat, dryness in the nose, discomfort in the ear. These primary signs can not be ignored.
After reading the article it will be clear if the maxillary sinusitis is contagious or not.
Diagnosis of the disease
It is impossible to diagnose the stage of maxillary sinusitis alone.The patient can determine the very presence of the disease, but only the ENT doctor can determine the severity level. Usually a person with suspected maxillary sinusitis is immediately sent to the x-ray of the maxillary sinus. This becomes a starting point and serves as a direct indication for emergency treatment. The picture allows to determine the degree of sinus involvement, to determine the complexity of the course of the disease.
Secondary examination is aimed at visual inspection of the patient and identification of possible causes of sinusitis. During the examination, the doctor examines the entire mucosa, determines its puffiness.
The article details how dangerous sinusitis is and how to treat it.
Methods and methods of treatment
It is necessary to understand: it is impossible to cure the formed maxillary sinusitis. And what's more, it's deadly dangerous to try to do this because the important time is lost. To date, the only way to completely cure sinusitis is to combine active therapy and puncture of the nasal sinuses.
Puncture rather simple procedure, completely painless due to local anesthesia. The patient is inserted a thin needle with anesthesia in the part of the nose where the sinusitis is localized. After full freezing, the surgeon makes a puncture in the wall of the sinus itself. Everything happens quickly, the patient feels only considerable physical pressure on the nose itself. Using a large syringe, the sinus is cleaned of pus, washed. Sometimes an antibiotic is introduced and this ends the operation.
What dosage of Amoxicillin at a genyantritis, it is possible to learn or find out having read through the given article.
If the procedure is carried out by a good and experienced specialist, then everything will go smoothly even in the case of the kids. Usually, after that, a special catheter is inserted into the nose for further lavage of the sinus. The patient remains in the norm in the clinic under supervision for no more than five days.
We are treated at home
Saline lavage - the first recommendation of a doctor for sinusitis.
How to treat genyantritis at home? At home, you need to do everything to prevent relapses of sinusitis and reduce the risk of its development. For this, a salt shower is the ideal solution to stop the disease at the very beginning. You can prepare yourself a saline solution and wash your nose. You can buy a special solution in any pharmacy and wash your nose with a regular syringe (without a needle).Washing with salt is the first thing that is recommended for sinusitis and sinusitis.Of the drops, a local antiseptic is usually prescribed, for example, Miramistin nasal spray, Polydex, Isofra or other modern antibiotics for sinusitis. In their composition, antibacterial components, so they are particularly effective in the treatment of sinusitis. Drops with dioxin are also good help, but are only used for appointments.
Dioxin well penetrates into and kills bacteria, while hydrocortisone in its composition quickly removes the swelling of the mucous membranes and allows you to quickly restore the habitual breathing.
But in any case, therapy in the treatment of sinusitis is possible only in two cases:
- at prevention of an active phase of a genyantritis;
- after puncturing and cleansing the maxillary sinus from the contents.
What kind of drops in the nose with genyantritis children best to apply, you can learn from this article.
Watch the video master-class about the signs, flow and competent treatment of genyantritis:
Modern medicine has learned to quickly and effectively cope with sinusitis of any complexity. The actions of doctors are already debugged to automatism and therefore do not be afraid of puncturing. With sinusitis, only one thing is dangerous: the lack of proper and timely treatment.
All you need to know about sinusitisSinusitis is a serious inflammation of the mucous membrane in the maxillary sinus, which can provoke a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi or various allergic factors. Inflammation begins to develop after a violation for free outflow of mucous discharge from one or both sides of the sinus.
When conditions of stagnation arise, then a favorable environment for the development of various inflammatory processes is created, as a result, the body is very difficult to fight infections.
The main symptoms of genyantritis
All the symptoms of sinusitis are very diverse and depend only on the form or stage of the disease. If a patient has acute sinusitis, he feels pressure or tension in the area where the sinus has been affected, and for very severe cases, the main symptoms are associated with severe pain, which is localized in the area of the maxillary sinus, in the zygomatic area, in the area of the forehead and nose, sometimes in the temporal region and captures the entire half of the face, if the patient has a one-sided inflammatory process. When the patient has bilateral inflammation, the pain covers the entire front surface. Quite often, these symptoms are associated with toothache, which corresponds to usually half of the upper jaw, and also increases with chewing. The pain itself depends on various infectious neuritis and from the branches of the trigeminal nerve, as well as on strong compression of the nerves with a strong collateral edema. As a result, the patient's sinusitis is disturbed by his nasal breathing, and also characteristic nasal discharge appears.
In the process of inflammation, unpleasant sensations in the paranasal and nasal regions begin to gradually increase, which usually occurs in the evening. Gradually, the pain passes from the usual place and spreads throughout the head. When the inflammatory process is unilateral, the pain is present in one side. The classic symptom of sinusitis is a headache, the occurrence of which is directly related to the accumulation of pus in one or in every maxillary sinus. And a headache during a genyantritis usually presses in the field of a forehead and from a back part of eyes. In some cases, patients complain of severe pain, which is exacerbated by pressure on the orbital area or after lifting the eyelids. Another characteristic feature of sinusitis is that in the prone position and at night, the headache subsides, as at this time there is an exit of pus from the inflamed sinus.
The main sign of maxillary sinusitis is difficulty breathing, nasal congestion, and the voice acquires a deafening shade. Usually, the patient has at once two halves of the nose, and the difficulty for nasal breathing is either permanent or with little relief. In addition, the left and right halves of the nose are blocked. In this case, the patient usually has purulent or transparent mucous discharge from the nose. However, this symptom can not be observed if the nose is very stuffy and the outflow from the sinus is complicated. Particular attention should be paid to the discharge from the nose. For example, if they become greenish-yellow, this indicates that they have the bacterial nature of the inflammation. And in this case, bacteria at any time can fall into the area of the maxillary sinus, and then the sinusitis begins.
And to prevent this, you need to ensure the cleaning of the nose from the mucous discharge with microbes. If the nasal mucosa is healthy, then it copes with the microbes itself, but with inflammation of the nose it weakens, and then the mucus accumulates and is a nutrient medium, where there are billions of microbes. In most cases, vasoconstrictive drops, which are usually used by everyone, only worsen the situation, because significantly worsen the blood circulation in small vessels of the nose, and also weaken the motility of the nasal mucosa. And in order for the nose to clean independently, doctors recommend using Sinuphorte, which includes only natural saponins, which cause the nasal mucosa to quickly remove all purulent discharge, and also prevent the development of sinusitis.
Even with genyantritis, the temperature can rise to 38 degrees and above. Usually a similar symptom is observed in acute maxillary sinusitis. If the patient has a chronic flax of sinusitis, then the body temperature rises very rarely. The common symptom of maxillary sinusitis is a malaise of the body, which is expressed by weakness, fatigue, lack of appetite, and sleep disturbance. In addition, in some patients there is photophobia, a decrease in smell and there is tearing on the side of the lesion. Already in the first days of the disease and especially with a purulent form of sinusitis, there is an increase in body temperature, general state disorder and chills. There is also swelling of the cheek on the side where the lesion has occurred, and in some cases, the edema of the lower eyelid.
When a patient has acute respiratory disease, the symptoms of sinusitis are also superimposed on the symptoms of respiratory infection, which becomes the triggering mechanism of sinusitis. The very first signs are an increase in body temperature, chills, general malaise, runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion. Plus to these symptoms also pain in the face, which usually gives to the root of the nose, teeth and forehead, is added. With a slight pressure on the infraorbital area of the face, the pain intensifies, and in some cases the patient has severe reddening and swelling of the eyelids. The course of the acute form of sinusitis usually takes 2-3 weeks, but in most cases ends with complete recovery.
Signs of genyantritis
If this is a chronic sinusitis, then its symptoms can be mild and worn out, which only worsens the diagnosis and the treatment of sinusitis itself. The main symptom is a chronic cold, which is not eliminated by traditional treatment. Quite often, patients complain of a strong headache and pain right in the depths of the eye sockets. And the pain can increase during blinking of the eyes and usually passes in a lying position. A characteristic sign of chronic sinusitis is the swelling of the eyelids in the morning and conjunctivitis, which becomes a common symptom in inflammation of the maxillary sinus.
Still the maxillary sinusitis is allocated periodically with arising pains in an infraorbital area, and also a chronic conjunctivitis, chronic zalozhennostju a nose, a headache. A very important symptom of sinusitis is a dry and already chronic cough, which generally does not respond to treatment with usual expectorant or various antitussive agents. The appearance of such a cough for sinusitis is explained by the highly irritating effect of pus, which flows from the affected sinus to the walls of the pharynx. Regardless of which patient's genyantritis is acute or chronic, it is characterized by dulling of the sense of smell. And the prognosis and course of the disease can depend on the structural changes and the treatment of the maxillary sinuses.
Sinusitis in children
It is difficult to find a child who does not face such a phenomenon as respiratory diseases. Therefore, a common cold does not cause parents special anxiety. However, if the disease is marked by a protracted nature, it can lead to some complications. For example, sinusitis in children develops as a result of complications of ARVI or ARI, which caused a viral or bacterial infection. And in some cases, the cause of sinusitis can be various infections of the dentoalveolar system, fungal infections, trauma or foreign body, which accidentally stuck in the maxillary sinuses.
Usually children under the age of four do not get sinusitis, since this age only forms a maxillary sinus, and gradually increases in volume as the child's facial skeleton develops. In newborn children, the maxillary sinus has the appearance of a small crevice that does not contain air. And if the child's genyantritis lasts more than three months, and his treatment has not been carried out, the development of mucosal damage can lead to irreversible consequences. As a result, the protective properties of the mucosa will be difficult, and the doctor in this case will diagnose chronic sinusitis.
A very dangerous complication of sinusitis in children is the penetration of infection into the departments that are adjacent to the maxillary sinus. If the infection has penetrated the eye socket or into the cranial cavity, it can lead to various irreversible damage to tissues and organs and even to the death of the patient. Treatment of sinusitis in children is prescribed, taking into account the causes of the disease and the severity of its course. In most cases, the child needs treatment at home or in the hospital. In the treatment of antibacterial drugs for 7-10 days. Locally, the doctor prescribes the administration of vasoconstrictor drugs. Given the symptoms, the patient is prescribed antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. Another effective in the treatment will be various phytopreparations.
Given the indications, the doctor prescribes medical procedures, it can be a puncture of the maxillary sinus, the introduction of a sinus catheter, and the washing of the nasal passages with special solutions. Such procedures make the treatment the most effective and not so long. When the patient is at the stage of recovery, he will need to additionally undergo phytotherapy and physiotherapy for one or two weeks. In general, phytotherapy as a symptomatic and auxiliary method for treating sinusitis in children gives a good effect. As a result, the period of treatment of the disease is significantly reduced, and the mucous membrane is restored more quickly. It is worth remembering that warming up with maxillary sinusitis is not recommended and is performed only under the supervision of a doctor, performed only at the stage of recovery. Since a warm effect can complicate the disease with a purulent infection, eventually it will cause the spread of infections to other organs and tissues.
Sinusitis in adults
In adults, maxillary sinusitis occurs most often and is sometimes separated, but in most cases the paranasal sinuses are affected. In addition, the mucous membrane, periosteum and bone can be drawn into the inflammatory process. Appears sinusitis in adults for several reasons, this is the penetration of infection directly into the maxillary sinus as a result of trauma, the introduction of a viral infection in the maxillary sinus directly from the nose, as well as the introduction of infection from a tooth, suffering from caries.
The development of maxillary sinusitis in adults depends on the general condition of the patient's body. For example, if the body is weakened for certain reasons and as a result, immunity suffers, so the probability of chronic sinusitis increases significantly. To the reasons for the development of sinusitis it is necessary to include various allergic reactions and various external factors, it is cold or wind in the face. Sinusitis in adults can occur in a chronic or acute form. For example, acute sinusitis is accompanied by such symptoms as heaviness and pain in the affected area of the maxillary sinus. And with the head tilted forward, the pain becomes stronger. Quite often pain in sinusitis occurs in the teeth, and from the nose go purulent discharge, which in some cases do not separate. As a result, pain in the nasal sinus does not stop and body temperature rises.
If the patient does not conduct timely treatment, then acute sinusitis will pass into a chronic form. Most often, people who have a nasopharynx have those conditions where the infection is constantly present. For example, in children - it's enlarged adenoids or curvature of the nasal septum. In adults, chronic inflammation of the maxillary sinus can be observed for many years and will develop according to the catarrhal form and with lesions of the mucous layer. Even in adults, serious lesions can occur, such as the formation of polyps in the maxillary sinus, in the nasal cavity with the presence of purulent discharge.
Those patients who have suspicions of chronic sinusitis usually complain of symptoms such as general weakness, fatigue, prolonged runny nose, odor impairment, frequent headaches, purulent or mucous discharge, nose breathing absent or difficult. In some cases, discharge from the nasal cavity with an unpleasant odor, which is noticed by others, and the patient himself can not feel them. For adults, treatment of chronic sinusitis includes a course of increased intake of antibiotics. In addition, the patient is prescribed sulfonamide and vasoconstrictive drugs. Still in treatment some methods of a physiotherapy are used, it is UHF, a lamp соллюкс, inhalations and another.
The most effective treatment of maxillary sinusitis in adults is puncturing the maxillary sinus and its lavage, which are carried out with the help of solutions of furacilin, boric acid, a solution of sodium chloride and other solutions. And after washing with solutions, solutions of special antibacterial drugs are injected into the sinuses of the nose, this is trypsin or chymotrypsin. As a rule, a full complex of similar procedures leads to recovery and with favorable forecasts. And in the future with diseases of rhinitis or influenza and with any suspicion of maxillary sinusitis, it is necessary in the preventive whole to warm up the area of the paranasal sinuses. Still need to protect your face from cold wind and air. When chronic sinusitis can not be cured by conservative methods of treatment, the doctor resorts to surgical methods of treatment, as a result purulent formations or polyps are removed surgically.
Acute sinusitis is an acute inflammation of the maxillary sinus and develops usually in children from 4-6 years old, and also occurs in adults. The most frequent pathogens of acute maxillary sinusitis are staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, protaea and Escherichia coli. Usually, acute sinusitis occurs after infection, quite often the source for infection is already inflamed pharyngeal tonsil or the alveolar process of the upper jaw. Another acute sinusitis is preceded by an acute adenoid and acute rhinitis. According to the source of infection, hematogenous, rhinogenic and odontogenic sinusitis are distinguished. And the nature of the inflammatory processes of sinusitis are catarrhal, hemorrhagic, purulent and necrotic, that is, measles.
If a patient has a catarrhal form of sinusitis, then very often this disease is treated as ARVI. In this case, the disease occurs with moderate fever, in which the body temperature reaches 38 degrees and is characterized by a slight runny nose, as well as catarrhal changes in the upper respiratory tract. As a result, the rhinitis is prolonged, and also accompanied by irritability, increased fatigue, prolonged obsessive cough and poor sleep. General and local manifestations of mild course of the disease are mild or not expressed at all.
If the patient has acute sinusitis with necrotic, hemorrhagic or purulent form is very difficult, then it can be expressed by local and local manifestations. For example, children with acute sinusitis complain of a feeling of heaviness and pain in the area of the affected sinus, as well as their sense of smell and nasal breathing, mucopurulent or mucous discharges appear immediately on both sides or on one side, and sometimes there is blood in the secretions. In addition, with an acute form of the disease, the patient has sluggishness, weakness, malaise, fever, loss of appetite and a paroxysmal headache.
In addition, locally the patient may have swelling of the lower eyelid, swelling in the cheek area, conjunctivitis, as well as lacrimation with complete blockage of the nasolacrimal canal, there is pain in palpation of the facial wall of the maxillary sinus. The patient also has neuralgic pain, which gives to the cheek, aching upper teeth, and also pains in the temple, the forehead and the supraorbital region. With this disease, breathing through the corresponding half of the nose becomes difficult. It is still possible maceration of the skin of the vestibule of the nasolabial area and nose from irritation of the mucous discharge from the nose. When a doctor performs a rhinoscopy, he discovers that the mucous membrane is hyperemic on the side of the lesion and edematous. A localization and the nature of the discharge depends on the lesion itself, for example, in purulent selection processes will purulent, with the catarrhal process - mucous, and with serous discharge will be liquid and watery. With this, the excretions are visible throughout the middle nasal passage or the species in its middle sections.
When the allocation is abundant, they fill the general and lower nasal passage. After anemia of the mucous membrane and with the introduction of vasoconstrictive solutions, as well as with the inclination of the head forward, and then in the opposite side of the secretion are amplified, and the outflow of the contents from the sinus is facilitated through the outlet hole. In most cases, because of the sharp edema of the mucous membrane, both outlets from the sinuses are closed, so the pathological discharge in the nasal cavity may not be observed. When a patient has a difficult outflow of exudate from the affected sinus, then all the symptoms of the disease increase, the temperature rises body, there are signs of intoxication, and also reactive inflammatory changes in the orbital and facial sinus walls are intensified.
In chronic sinusitis, subjective symptoms depend largely on the forms of sinusitis. If it is an exudative form, the patient has a prolonged one-sided or bilateral sinus. And the nature of discharge from the nose depends only on the shape of the sinusitis. For example, with purulent maxillary sinusitis, the discharge has a very unpleasant odor, so with scant excretions sensation by the patients themselves of this unpleasant odor is the main and only symptom of maxillary sinusitis. And in other cases, the secretions can be viscous and mucous, indicating a catarrhal form of the disease. If the patient has a serous form, the discharge from the nose is watery. When the difficulty of nasal breathing occurs, it is characteristic for productive and exudative forms of the disease.
Frequent expectoration, special dryness of the pharynx, abundant discharge of mucopurulent or mucous or mucous sputum in the morning or during the day, as well as vomiting, which are observed with a difficult outflow of the secretion from the sinus of the nose occurs as a result of hypertrophy of the anterior end in the middle shell or in the presence of polyps. Pain in chronic sinusitis does not reach the intensity that is observed with an acute process. In most cases, the headache in chronic sinusitis is absent, and in cases where the patient has persistent nasal congestion, the pain is diffuse and vague. And also the pain can be localized on the side of the lesion, that is, in the region of the maxillary sinus, in the forehead, in the eye socket or in the temple area, and also has the character of neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve.
Chronic sinusitis is associated with complaints of memory loss, with rapid fatigue, which is often observed during mental work. As for the sense of smell, in chronic sinusitis it can be weakened or absent completely. In addition, the patient has swelling of the eyelids and cheeks. There is also a corresponding rhinoscopic picture. For example, the basis of recurrence of the edematous-catarrhal form after surgery can be an allergic basis in and their development. And after the operation, a bubble with ice is put on the cheek over the bandages to reduce the swelling of the cheeks. If these are patients with perforated odontogenic sinusitis, then they apply sparing gaymorotomy and the introduction of reagencour and dioxidine hydrogels. For treatment, the patient is prescribed no hot food and liquid food in the first few days of treatment. If a radical surgery is used to treat chronic sinusitis, it usually leads to a complete recovery of the sinusitis. The basis for a radical operation is the detachment of soft tissues and the complete exposure of the osteal wall, through which it is necessary to penetrate into the sinus. This delamination is carried out after a clear cut of the mucous membrane of the gum under the upper lip. Chronic sinusitis can occur with a predominance of inflammatory or allergic changes. Therefore, treatment should be comprehensive and taking into account an allergic or infectious agent.
Sinusitis in pregnancyThose women who have already had sinusitis during pregnancy already know how unpleasant the disease is. After a slight rhinitis is a frequent companion of pregnancy and aggravated by purulent discharge from the nose, headache and difficulty in nasal breathing. And this is the main, but not the only symptoms of sinusitis. In general, this disease is an inflammation of the maxillary sinuses. And the inflammatory process itself can be without purulent discharge. However, with inadequate therapy, sinusitis in pregnant women is associated with pus. As a rule, in pregnancy, the genyantritis develops against a background of a moderate and persistent rhinitis. And given the protective forces of the body for the period of pregnancy, even the slightest hypothermia can lead to sinusitis. Another disease can have quite a scant symptomatology, so the sinusitis during pregnancy can diagnose already at the stage of purulent inflammation.
In most cases, the diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis is based on an x-ray study. However, this procedure is undesirable for a pregnant woman, so the only way to determine the genyantritis during pregnancy becomes a puncture of the maxillary sinus. However, do not be afraid that this puncture leads to a constant need for this procedure. After all, this opinion has no soil, because a puncture, which will hold a competent specialist, does not bring unpleasant sensations and does not have unpleasant consequences. In general, the maxillary sinuses are anatomically located very close to the vessels and membranes of the brain, from the brain itself and the eye sockets, so puncture provides an opportunity to get rid of the dangers of these organs and does not allow purulent complications. In addition, with prolonged purulent maxillary sinusitis there is a high probability of developing chronic diseases.
To make a diagnosis, they make a puncture, which allows you to make a diagnosis in a timely and correct manner, as well as release sinuses from the pus, which is a healing procedure. Given the limitations of the use of antibiotics in pregnancy, widespread use of antibiotics in the sinuses of the nose with local action or with the use of antiseptics. In addition, the treatment involves washing the nasal cavity and washing the sinuses of the nose with various solutions, these are herbal, saline and antiseptic solutions. Even if necessary, use local antibiotics, these are aerosols, as well as agents that help liquefy all the contents in the sinuses. It is worth remembering that the presence of purulent infection in a pregnant woman is much worse than the puncture itself, so you need to eliminate sinusitis by any methods that will not threaten the child.
Treatment of genyantritis
When a patient has an acute form of sinusitis, the doctor prescribes antibiotic therapy for him. And today there are many powerful drugs that can eliminate the disease in just three days, it's a macro-penis or a zitrolide. In total one should take one capsule of this drug before meals and drink with a small amount of water. Still there are older antibiotics, which are used in the treatment of sinusitis, it is amoxicillin, ampicillin and tsifaleksin. Only the doctor chooses an antibiotic, considering the presence of an allergic reaction of the patient to this or that kind of antibiotics. To facilitate breathing, the doctor prescribes to the patient vasoconstrictors, this is nazole, galazoline, otrivin and others. When a doctor suspects that the genyantritis was caused by an allergic reaction, he prescribes antiallergic drugs for him, such as Tavegil, Clarotadine, Zirtek, Tsetrin Suprastin, Claritin.
When the sinusitis proceeds not in a severe form, the patient is assigned a sinus evacuation with a soft catheter. And the essence of this procedure is that the patient lies on his back, and the doctor at that time enters into his one nostril a soft catheter, but in the other he injects a suction. In order not to choke the patient, he constantly pronounces characteristic sounds, similar to the cuckoo, this is what the name of the method came from. When the pronunciation of this sound occurs, the solution can not enter the patient's breathing throat. Usually a furacilin solution is supplied to the catheter, and the suction pump pushes this solution together with the contents of the sinus. A good effect is achieved by creating a negative pressure in the sinus. And after the procedure, a small amount of furacilin remains in the sinus, which prevents the new formation of pus. The effectiveness of this method is not high, so it is necessary to carry out several procedures, after which the patient may suffer from severe pain in the area of the maxillary sinus.
In addition to antibiotics, the doctor can appoint a patient to puncture the maxillary sinus. This procedure is rather simple and does not require special preparation. In the course of her doctor takes a very thin spatula with cotton on the end, wets it in lidocaine, and then inserts it very deeply into the nostril. This allows you to anesthetize the place where a puncture will be made. Further, with a sterile needle, the doctor carefully punctures the bone septum, which is located between the maxillary sinus and the nasal passage. Since anesthesia works, this procedure is painless. Then the needle is not removed and the doctor adds a syringe to it to wash all the contents of the sinus with saline. And in order that the patient does not choke, he should sit with his mouth open, this will allow the contents to flow through the mouth into the prepared container. In general, the process of filling the sinuses with saline is very unpleasant, since there is a painful feeling of pressure from the inside. And after full filling of the sinus with saline solution, the outflow of all contents from the diseased sinus occurs. To further the cavity of the sinus is not filled with pus again, a solution of dioxidine is specially introduced into it.
Still help in the treatment of maxillary sinusitis physiotherapy, it is UHF or 5-7 sessions of the solux, which significantly improve the patient's condition. When the treatment of sinusitis is carried out on time, the disease is quickly cured in just a week. As for the treatment of chronic sinusitis, his treatment may require a longer period of time or even surgery. The essence of such an operation is to have a permanent opening between the maxillary region and the maxillary sinus. And for this, a small incision is made in the mouth, which is above the upper jaw, and then carefully scrape through it all the purulent contents of the sinus. After the hole is formed, a cut is made in the mouth. As a result of this operation, the pus will already stagnate in the sinus, but flows into the pharynx through the opening. The rehabilitation period after such an operation will take about two weeks.
Folk treatment of genyantritis
There is a mass of folk methods of treatment of sinusitis and here is one of them, which consists of three stages. At the first stage, the purulent maxillary cavity is cleared of pus and this requires two packs of horsetail, and one teaspoon requires one tablespoon. At the second stage, the inflammatory process in the nasal cavities is eliminated and for this purpose one pack of tansy and one pack of plantain should be taken. For one brew, use half a tablespoon of one and the other herb. At the third stage, the hardening takes place, that is, for one week the nasal passages are washed with salted water. At first, the water should be a little warm, and then its degree decreases to room temperature. The entire washing course is 2-3 days.
One tablespoon of herbs, that is 10 grams, are covered in enameled dishes, add one glass of boiling water and bring to a boil, after which the broth is boiled for two minutes. Ready-made broth is removed from the fire, chilled and filtered through two gauze. Necessarily to wash out a nose it is necessary only a warm solution and a floor of a glass, and in each nostril and two times, it in the evening and in the morning. To make it easier to wash the nose, the patient uses a teapot, and his nose is injected into the nostril, the other nostril is pressed with a finger tightly against the nasal septum. The head should be thrown back and slightly to the side, and then you need to slowly draw the solution through the nostril.
In this case, the mouth must be kept ajar so that the already used solution could pour out, rather than pour into the throat. When half the glass of the solution for one nostril is already used, this procedure is repeated for the second nostril. Usually, washing is carried out over a sink or in a bath. And discomfort in the nose, which occur in the first two or three days after the procedure, gradually disappear. The break between the first and second washing stages should be 2-3 weeks, given the condition of the nose. For example, if you are well, the break is three weeks, and with a satisfactory state, the break is two weeks. The third stage should be started immediately after the second stage of washing.
There is another common folk method of treatment of sinusitis, in which one should take one tooth garlic, grind it well and pour a small amount of boiled warm water, let it brew. The ready solution should be digested three to four times a day and 2-3 drops and in each nostril. You can also take cooked hot eggs and apply them to the maxillary sinuses, and then keep the eggs until completely cool. To remove the swelling of the mucous membrane, you can use a solution of soda, that is, take a half teaspoon of soda and dilute it in a glass of water, you should rinse the nose with this solution for 4-5 days. From time immemorial the herb St. John's wort used an excellent remedy, which suppresses the reproduction of microorganisms and accelerates the restoration of damaged tissue. To make it, you need to take two tablespoons of herbs and pour a glass of boiling water, then it infuses for 1-2 hours, then it is filtered. With a ready solution, wet the cotton wool and inject it into the nasal cavity, after which it should be periodically moistened with a warm solution. This procedure should be done 2-3 days and for 7-10 days.
The most powerful tool for treating sinusitis at home is the use of a special ointment. For its preparation you need to take an equal amount of alcohol and honey, milk, juice, onion, dark household soap and vegetable oil. All grind and mix, and then soar in a water bath. When the soap is melted, the mazu will be ready. To treat this ointment, you need to take a cotton swab and dab it in the ointment, and then insert this tampon into each nasal canal, about 15 minutes and three times a day. This folk treatment with the help of ointment does not cause any inconvenience. The course of treatment with ointment is three weeks, and then it can be repeated after ten days. In most cases, one course of treatment is sufficient for complete cure.