How to treat obstructive bronchitis in children?
Bronchitis, this ailment in acute form, obstructive bronchitis in children is the most frequent illness in a child in the first years of life. Diseases of the respiratory tract - a common and requiring a serious treatment phenomenon, it is important to remember and preventive measures. In adults, these diseases are less common, but preschool children and babies are very susceptible to various forms of bronchitis. This is due to the mechanism of child development, so the course of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment methods have their own characteristics inherent in this age category.Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial mucosa that can affect the membranes of the organs of the upper respiratory tract. Inflammatory processes begin in the nose and throat after the virus enters them, and later spread to the respiratory tract. The peculiarity of bronchitis is that the disease develops in the presence of certain factors and does not extend to other organs of the respiratory system.
Causes of bronchitis and its typesThe causes of obstructive bronchitis in children can be different. Most often it is:
- viruses and bacteria;
- significant hypothermia of the body;
- communication with a sick child.
The first place among the provokers of bronchitis is occupied by viruses that weaken the immune system of the body and contribute to the penetration of harmful microbes into the respiratory tract. The next factor is the gas content and dustiness of the air that the child breathes. Since bronchitis is transmitted by airborne droplets, the risk of contracting them when dealing with a sick person is also very high.
Most cases of bronchitis occur during the autumn-winter season, when the air temperature drops, viruses become more active, and the body's immune system weakens. Boys and girls get sick the same way. Children have their own developmental features that contribute to the development of bronchitis to a certain extent.Obstructive bronchitis in infants and toddlers of the first 3 years of life is due to the anatomical features of the bronchi and their components. At this age, the internal organs of children continue to form actively, which becomes a favorable factor for their defeat by harmful microorganisms. Bronchial structures at this age are quite long, but the lumens are small. The mucociliary apparatus, responsible for the production of sputum, is not yet sufficiently developed and does not work in full force. He is responsible for protecting the bronchi from getting into them viruses and bacteria. Underdevelopment of the smooth muscles of the bronchi promotes the appearance of spasms even with a slight irritation.
The muscles of the chest in infants are weak, which prevents complete and proper ventilation of the lungs.Factors that favor the increase in cases of diseases include unformed immunity and the presence of allergies.
In the international classification, three types of bronchitis are indicated in children:
- acute bronchitis;
- bronchitis obstructive;
- acute bronchiolitis.
Bronchitis - exclusively viral diseases, they can only be infected by airborne droplets. Bronchitis in infants is a very rare phenomenon, and it develops in cases when the baby was born prematurely or has congenital malformations of the respiratory system, and even in contact with sick older children. If a breastbone passes into acute bronchiolitis, severe complications in the form of acute respiratory failure are possible.
Obstructive bronchitis in childrenBronchitis in a child develops gradually. First there is a common cold and dry cough that intensifies in the evening and night hours. The kid can complain of chest pain, weakness, becomes capricious, restless, nervous. Often, the body temperature rises above 38 ° C, there are problems with breathing: wheezing in the lungs, shortness of breath.
The acute form of bronchitis lasts no more than a week, it can be cured within 5-6 days. If the sputum becomes transparent, this indicates an acute stage of bronchitis, but pus is a sign of the chronic form of the disease. If treatment is not started on time or goes wrong, bronchitis threatens with severe course and serious consequences.
One of them is the transition of normal bronchitis to an obstructive form. Obstructive bronchitis in children is one of the types of bronchial damage caused by inflammation, which is manifested by a violation of their patency.
The causes of the disease are different:
- congenital disorders of the respiratory system;
- trauma of the chest;
Symptoms of obstructive bronchitisThe main symptoms of obstructive bronchitis are severe attacks of cough, cyanosis of the fingers of the crumbs and his lips. Due to bright manifestations, it is easy to establish the form of the disease. This helps to start the right treatment. Acute obstructive bronchitis in children develops very quickly and affects healthy parts of the respiratory system. In such cases, the state of the baby deteriorates sharply with every second. Characteristic signs of obstructive bronchitis include coughing attacks at night, especially if the baby was active during the day and communicated with peers.
If it is a question of a babe, then his behavior will be restless: the baby cries unconsciously, can not fall asleep, rushes in a dream. If you listen to the breath, you can hear wheezing and bubbling, whistling in your chest. Another sure sign of obstructive bronchitis is shortness of breath, which is accompanied by the involvement of ancillary muscles in the procedure of breathing. This can be seen if you pay attention to the child's ribs and abdomen: the intervals between the ribs are drawn inward, the stomach is strained, and the chest looks constantly filled with air. It seems that the baby breathed in the air, and can not exhale.Dry cough, which eventually turns into a wet cough with sputum discharge, is the main sign of bronchitis. Its progression is indicated by the onset of respiratory failure, manifested by frequent and intermittent breathing, palpitations.
The development of obstructive bronchitis in young children directly depends on the provoker of the disease and the reactivity of the baby's bronchial system. There is obstruction in the form of a spasm of smooth muscles of the bronchi, edema of the mucous membrane and the release of thick mucus in large quantities.
And for each such process is affected by its microorganisms. Some viruses affect the nerve nodes surrounding the bronchi, which leads to a loss of their tone and the appearance of a spasm. Others cause too much mucus secretion. And the attack of the third leads to mucosal edema, in which its lumen narrows. Usually a combination of these characteristics is observed, i.e., several types of bacteria enter the body at once, which leads to an increase in obstruction.
Most susceptible to the disease of obstructive bronchitis are children who suffer from allergies or who are overweight. These factors increase the propensity to spasm and reactive edema of the bronchi irrespective of the action of the microbes.
How to treat obstructive bronchitis?The treatment process in the presence of obstructive bronchitis is quite heavy and long, it consists of various procedures. As soon as a diagnosis is made or a suspicion of the presence of this type of bronchitis appears, it is urgent to take measures to fight the disease, especially if the baby is several months old.
The first thing that needs to be done is to reduce the manifestations of bronchial obstruction and restore the patency of the organs.
First you need to try to calm the crumbs. Excitation and anxiety increase breathing problems and worsen the patency of the bronchi. For this, calming drugs are used on a natural basis in a dosage appropriate to the age of the baby.
Inhalations with special preparations should be carried out, since this is the most effective and effective method of arresting obstruction.
For babies you can use such devices as a nebulizer or an ultrasonic inhaler. Mixtures that are intended for inhalation should contain glucocorticoids and salbutamol. The method of inhalation is useful in that all medications are delivered by inhalation directly to the bronchi and the result is visible after a few minutes of the first procedure.
Obligatory are inhalations of moistened oxygen, which are carried out in parallel with other medical measures. If inhalations do not give the proper effect, the introduction of bronchodilators with the help of droppers is carried out. Obligatory this procedure is and in case of onset of intoxication of the organism, accompanied by dehydration.
General recommendations for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis
Obligatory measure - an appeal to a specialist. Self-medication in the case of young children is completely unacceptable. If the doctor discovers the danger of a bronchitis transition into a heavier form or if the baby has a fever, his must necessarily be hospitalized, because in young children, the respiratory system does not function fully. As additional measures you can use abundant warm drink, antipyretic medicines, strict bed rest is required.
If there is no improvement within a week, an additional examination of the child will be required. Reception of antibiotics is extremely undesirable for the baby, but in severe cases, they can not be avoided. Appointment of their child alone or on the advice of friends can not be done by the attending physician who will determine the dosage of the drugs.
It is worth remembering that children under the age of one are prohibited from giving drugs containing codeine. It is possible to use folk methods of treating bronchitis, but they must be coordinated with a specialist and act as an auxiliary therapy.
To prevent the occurrence of bronchitis, you need to monitor the clothes of the child in the winter: do not strongly insulate the crumbs to avoid excessive sweating and overheating. But the hypothermia of the body, too, should not be tolerated, since it is an important factor contributing to the development of bronchitis. Walking should take place in places protected from excessive dust and gas contamination, that is, away from the carriageway, factories and manufacturing enterprises. The premises where the child lives and plays should be regularly ventilated and cleaned in them. It also shows the use of immunomodulating drugs that help to increase the body's defenses.
It is important to know: obstructive bronchitis in children symptoms and treatment
In autumn and spring, you should closely monitor your health and prevent illnesses such as obstructive bronchitis in children, the symptoms and treatment of which should be known and remembered in time. Is obstructive bronchitis different from simple bronchitis? Who is predisposed to this disease? What measures should be taken to treat? About everything in order.
Features of the course of obstructive bronchitis
Bronchitis is an inflammatory disease. It occurs most often in children, this is due to the structure of the bronchus at an early age. Features of the bronchial tree during this period are as follows:
- A relatively small diameter of the bronchus is relatively long in the bronchial tree.
- Underdeveloped ciliated epithelium and thick mucous secret.
- Features of the structure of the immune system.
- Undeveloped muscular musculature of the thorax.
- Very high sensitivity to airborne particles.
- Hyperactivity of the cough center.
The disease is characterized by a spasm in the bronchial tree against the background of inflammation of the smooth muscles that overlap the bronchi with a small diameter.Danger of obstructive bronchitis in labored breathing and inadequate ventilation of the lungs. This is how the protective mechanism works, preventing infection into the lungs. With active development, it turns into a separate type of danger.
Obstructive bronchitis is more dangerous than simple. The latter involves treatment at home, with obstructive same hospitalization is necessary. As a rule, an acute period of obstructive bronchitis can take 5 to 6 days with proper treatment. But remember: self-medication and treatment with folk remedies for obstructive bronchitis in children is unacceptable.
When does obstructive bronchitis occur?
The causes of the disease are as follows:
- Complication of SARS, tracheitis, laryngitis.
- Propensity to allergic reactions.
At an older age, the immune system becomes more stable, but with frequent and untreated bronchitis there is a risk of acquiring bronchial asthma. Obstructive bronchitis can acquire a chronic form with a change in the stages of remission and exacerbations. During periods of exacerbations, active therapy is conducted, in the periods of remission - supportive. Some children need a climate change to treat obstructive chronic bronchitis.
The factors contributing to the development of obstructive bronchitis also include passive smoking, dry air, increased gas contamination and air toxicity. Do more wet cleaning at home, do not use disinfectants with chlorine and strong odors, as well as synthetic agents. In the period of the child's illness, observance of these rules is mandatory and desirable after recovery.
Symptoms of an obstructive bronchitisThe following symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in children stand out:
- Increase in body temperature to 37 - 38⁰С.
- Dry cough with bouts at night.
- Sizzling breath of a child.
- Fast fatiguability.
- Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, paleness of the nails on the legs and hands. This symptom is especially dangerous and requires an early hospitalization.
- Anxiety, fussiness of the child.
As a rule, bronchitis occurs after SARS, colds and tracheitis. Independently, the disease occurs extremely rarely.
Obstructive bronchitis can develop in a certain group of newborns. If the child's age is less than 1 year, the doctor must offer hospitalization. Even if the diagnosis is not confirmed, it is worth agreeing to inpatient treatment. In children under 1 year, the disease can develop into a severe stage in 1 to 2 days. If the child is older than 6 years, the issue of hospitalization can be discussed with the attending physician. He will also prescribe treatment. The signs of obstructive bronchitis are bright and rarely remain without attention.
How is ostructive bronchitis treated?Treatment of the disease includes taking antibacterial drugs as prescribed by the doctor. The choice depends on the disease-catalyst, the drugs already taken and on the severity of the child's condition. The patient is prescribed protected penicillins, sometimes - sulfonamides or cephalosporins, extremely rarely - macrolides. If obstruction threatens subsequent pulmonary edema, drugs are given intramuscularly.
The doctor also prescribes cough preparations, but not all of them are suitable for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children. A group of antitussives of the central type of action inhibits cough, but does not contribute to the excretion of sputum from the bronchi. More suitable are expectorants, aimed at diluting the mucous secretion and removing it. They are classified as mucolytics, they can be of natural origin and artificially synthesized. Both types of drugs are very effective.
For the treatment of obstructive bronchitis the acute period in children is treated with bronchodilators in the form of inhalations.
Short courses of 3 days are sufficient, but for chronic form bronchodilators are used longer, up to 6 months.With nasal congestion appoint funds from rhinitis. Very effectively injecting into the nose of sea water. If the child does not know how to flaunt, it is necessary to suck off the allocation of a small pear. Washing of the nose with sea water is not suitable for all children, the procedure should be coordinated with the doctor in order to avoid the development of otitis or sinusitis.
After the transferred obstructive bronchitis follows the recovery period. At this time, spend massage and physiotherapy. In an acute period of illness, physiotherapy is ineffective. For children who underwent obstructive bronchitis twice a year, and more useful for sanatorium treatment. It is also important to observe and proper nutrition.
Why is proper nutrition necessary after bronchitis?
Proper nutrition means:
- the use of a sufficient number of calories, vitamins, minerals;
- the predominance of complex carbohydrates over simple ones;
- a small intake of fat with sufficient protein intake.
From the baby food should be excluded products containing dyes and preservatives. They are allergens and can provoke airway obstruction. Excessive nutrition can lead to obesity. Children with obesity are more prone to obstructive bronchitis than children with normal body weight. Food of fast food, difficult for digestion, should be excluded from baby food. In the acute period of obstructive bronchitis, the baby should be fed with liquid and semi-liquid food. It can be soups, mashed potatoes and porridges. It is necessary to give abundant drink.
Obstructive bronchitis in a child - symptoms and treatmentA child-preschooler quite often can be found such a disease as bronchitis - bronchoobstructive syndrome, otherwise it can be called "obstructive bronchitis." During such a disease there is a blockage of the bronchi, for example, if the child has a cold-there are one or two nostrils, while the child is forced to breathe through the mouth.
It happens that the part of the bronchi is blocked, in this case there is no way for air to enter the body.
Obstruction is provoked by several factors, among them the following can be distinguished: mucus edema appears and a natural narrow lumen of the bronchi, with the edema causing an even narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi. Also, obstruction can be caused by an abundant release of viscous and hard-to-reach sputum.
Bronchospasm -another culprit in the child's obstructive bronchitis, because of it there is an additional narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi. It is these reasons that cause the complex passage of air through narrow apertures. All this is accompanied by "wheezing" wheezing, which can be heard by the child at a distance. If obstructive bronchitis has become a frequent disease in a child, it is necessary to visit a doctor- pulmonologist and consult with him, in order to exclude the disease with bronchial asthma.
Obstructive bronchitis in a child - symptoms
Any parent should always know that the most obvious and distinctive sign of obstructive bronchitis are wheezing with a wheezing. The initial stage of obstructive bronchitis is expressed by usual SARS. There is a fairly common picture: most recently, a healthy and fun-filled child has a runny nose, a cough, a high temperature, the child becomes hard to breathe with the accompaniment of gurgling wet wheezing, lethargy and weakness, lack of appetite. In this case, the parents call the doctor, audition (auscultation) and percussion (percussion) of the baby's chest. With the help of these manipulations, the doctor assesses the condition of the lung tissue in the child. Perhaps the doctor suspects pneumonia, or another lung disease, but often the doctor says: "Your child is sick with bronchitis, as wet wheezing is found in the lungs."
Many parents have anxiety because the cough can "come down", but all this is a false experience, as this will not happen! That amount of snot that the child has pulled into himself, and then swallowed, will not increase the risk of developing bronchitis. It is important, what virus was caused by rhinopharyngitis, the disease itself depends on it. In cases where the virus lives in bronchial cells with ease, it means that the disease is bronchitis in the future, if the child has good immunity and the body copes with the virus, the baby will most likely have one runny nose.
Children with bronchial asthma are susceptible to deeper treatment and monitoring. The child is older, the sign of bronchitis may be angina or cervical lymphadenitis, after which the other symptoms of the disease join.
Detection of obstructive bronchitis in a child
To date, there are various examinations for the diagnosis of bronchitis. To detect a bacterial infection can be through a general blood test, while the blood is taken from the baby's finger. In order to distinguish bronchitis from pneumonia (pneumonia), a chest X-ray is done. Sputum analysis will help to identify the causative agent of this disease.
Methods of treatment of obstructive bronchitis
As soon as signs of obstructive bronchitis are detected in a child of the first three years of his life, it is necessary to hospitalize he is taken to the hospital, where he is treated in the children's department, while the child is prescribed a bed rest. In order to avoid edema and spasms of the bronchi themselves, they appoint a gentle and hypoallergenic diet, complete in composition, while potential allergens are excluded. This diet should be kept for about three months. The main thing that needs to be done in the treatment of obstructive bronchitis is to eliminate the cause that caused the disease, improve respiratory functions, enrich the blood with oxygen and produce symptomatic therapy. All this, is a medical therapy.
In severe cases, artificial ventilation of the child's lungs is prescribed. Expectorant and mucolytic drugs that dilute viscous sputum, copious drinking, and chest massage are used.
In order to reduce swelling and facilitate the passage of sputum, inhalation is used with a nebulizer inhaler with the use of special solutions, while creating a cold vapor of the smallest particles that are delivered to the lungs. This procedure is easy to apply. A dry, painful cough and hard-to-separate sputum are treated with mucolytics, such drugs, stimulate the spitting out of the child and have an anti-inflammatory effect. For children use a solution or syrup, such drugs are administered through the mouth. Abolition of mucolytic drugs should be when a child has a productive cough with a sputum discharge.
In no case, parents should not engage in self-treatment of a child, and follow only the doctor's recommendations, self-medication can lead to serious consequences and cause even more serious health damage than the disease itself.
Obstructive bronchitis in children treatment and symptoms
The cause of bronchitis in children can be bacteria, viruses, allergies. If an allergy is found, it is necessary to find a factor that causes an allergic reaction and as a consequence of it an obstructive bronchitis in a child whose treatment and symptoms we will now consider.
The infection of the case is much more difficult. 90% of the cases are caused by viruses. Antibiotics for such a case are useless. They do not treat obstructive bronchitis in children. How does the disease proceed in this case, and what should be the treatment for obstructive bronchitis?
Obstructive bronchitis in children - symptoms of the disease
At the first suspicions on symptoms of obstructive bronchitis it is necessary to turn to a pediatrician for a special examination and the appointment of adequate treatment to avoid the transition of the initial stage of the disease into a chronic one.
Obstructive bronchitis in children is very common. This narrowing of the bronchi, because of which violated the patency of a large amount of mucus, which as a result causes a violation of the normal function of the respiratory tract.
There are two types of bronchitis: obstructive and non-obstructive, the disease is acute and chronic. When inflammation occurs along with inflammation - obstruction, in which bronchial mucus accumulates, because of which the permeability of the vessels (ventilation capacity) decreases. When the inflammatory process passes in the small bronchi is obstructive bronchitis.
Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in children are often hidden in the early stages of the disease. Manifestations may be shortness of breath, coughing with phlegm, increased sweating, fatigue, fatigue. With the transition of the disease into a chronic form, there may be difficulty in breathing, pulmonary hypertension and, as a consequence, insufficiency of oxygen in the blood.
In some small patients, the disease occurs with bronchial asthma syndrome - a violation of the bronchial patency, which is manifested by a paroxysmal cough, expiratory dyspnea, attacks of suffocation. The incidence of bronchitis in some cases can lead to disability and loss of ability to work.
There is also a recurrent bronchitis obstructive in children. This diagnosis is made based on if the child had several cases of the disease throughout the year. Over time, such bronchitis can go on into a chronic form, and the treatment is much more difficult.
Such bronchitis is considered the most common and, at the same time, one of the most serious diseases of the respiratory system. The danger of acute obstructive bronchitis consists, first of all, in the fact that with frequent relapses it can lead to bronchial asthma. That is why at the first manifestations of symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis (with bronchoobstruction, that is if you feel sudden, sharp spasm of the bronchi), then you need to immediately seek medical help and start treatment in a timely manner.
Differential symptoms of obstructive bronchitis
Obstructive acute bronchitis is characterized by such a clinical manifestation as a dry, intrusive cough, which often becomes worse at night. Also noted was shortness of breath and difficulty in inhaling. There are also other symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis (nausea, headache, weakness), they are weak or not expressed at all.
But there are symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis, which should immediately alert: the impossibility of a deep breath, a rapid increase in body temperature, not stopping shortness of breath, the ability to relatively freely breathe only while standing or sitting, in the lying position you can hear bubbling with breathing, bluish shade of the face. When these symptoms are noted, you should immediately seek emergency medical help.
Obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment of the disease
If the pediatrician has diagnosed your child with obstructive bronchitis, then immediately take measures for treatment. Most often, obstructive bronchitis is accompanied by a dry or wet cough. From the nature of cough, treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is prescribed. General recommendations for the control of bronchitis in children are given below.
To cure obstructive bronchitis, it is necessary: to provide an integrated approach:
1. eliminate the infection,
2. to eliminate the influence of various factors,
3. to put in order respiratory organs,
4. carry out preventive measures. Experts in the osteopathic center can help in this.
The goal of treatment of obstructive bronchitis is to quickly clear bronchi from mucus and restore good patency. Parents should learn that obstructive bronchitis responds well to treatment. To do this, you need to comply with bed rest, plenty of drinking and a special microclimate.
Recommendations for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children:
Here are some recommendations for the treatment of this disease:
1. the main and important rule of treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is to restore the patency of the bronchi. For this, elementary things are needed: cool, clean and moist air in the sick child's room; regular airing; very plentiful drink (tea, water, broth with dog-rose, compotes of dried fruits); use of drugs that reduce spasm or narrowing of the bronchi (Euphilin), diluting astringent mucus (Lazolvan);
2. full, vitamin and protein-containing food with obstructive bronchitis;
3. with bacterial bronchitis can not do without antibiotics. To resume mycloroblore after a course of antibiotics will help such drugs: Lineks, Enterol, Bifidobacterin;
4. treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children should be rapid. Very good effect for liquefaction of mucus give alkaline inhalation with the addition of minerals and essential oils;
5. it is necessary to regularly wash the nasopharynx with saline solution, Borjomi, aquamaris and means, which include silver. To facilitate the breathing of the nose, use vasoconstrictive drugs: Tizin, Oksimetazolin, Vibrosol, others;
6. at a high temperature it is recommended to observe bed rest with bronchitis. Antipyretic agents that help bring down the temperature are paracetamol. Antipyrine, Aspirin, Analgin, Fenacetin for children is contraindicated, they can cause side negative effects;
7. to remove the remains of astringent mucus in bronchitis recommended therapeutic exercises and massage (light tapping on the back, which contributes to expectoration of phlegm);
8. antibacterial and antiviral treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is prescribed with complicated breathing.
Home treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children
Naturally, modern medicine will quickly solve your health problems, especially given the fact that today doctors offer a variety of methods for treating obstructive bronchitis. If you are opposed to drug treatment, you can consult your doctor to choose a treatment with folk remedies.
At the moment, treatment of acute obstructive bronchitis with folk remedies and methods has become possible, especially since recipes have been tested for years. In any case, the choice is yours, but do not forget to take into account the opinion of the doctor, because the specialist has, first, experience, and knows how much the disease is launched and by what means to treat, and secondly, taking into account the results of the tests, an experienced doctor will clearly determine how quickly you can get rid of your illness.
Good treatment has shown itself, with the use of herbs and decoctions of them. Foot baths, cans also show themselves well, but only at the initial stage of the disease. The initial phase of the disease involves bed rest, but with a safe transition to the second phase of obstructive bronchitis (sputum, relief of breathing and other acute symptoms) shows outdoor walks, not heavy physical activity, therapeutic gymnastics. With proper, timely treatment of obstructive bronchitis, the disease does not go into the chronic phase and does not cause complications.
Dear our parents, be aware that the disease is treated very well and quickly with the condition that if you treat obstructive bronchitis in children according to all the recommendations of the treating doctor! The main thing, during illness or disease be side by side with the child and provide good leaving or care.
Causes of obstructive bronchitis in children
The main causes of obstructive bronchitis in children - viral, cold, infectious diseases. There may also be a general depletion of the body.
Obstructive bronchitis occurs in children for the following reasons:
1. frequent ARVI diseases;
2. viral infections and nasopharyngeal diseases;
4. bad ecological conditions;
5. hazardous working conditions;
7. allergic predisposition and so on.
It should be noted that smoking is the main risk factor (80%) of obstructive bronchitis in adolescents. Also at risk are people with hereditary genetic predisposition. With the coincidence of several factors over time, the chronic course of obstructive bronchitis may develop. Then the inflammatory process affects both lung tissue and alveoli.
Timely treatment, which is aimed at restoring immunity and normal functioning of the nervous system, allows on time eliminate the cause of the disease, refuse to use medicines and avoid undesirable consequences.
Obstructive acute bronchitis and its classification by type of infection
The onset of the disease can occur under the influence of both infectious and non-infectious factors. To infectious types of obstructive acute bronchitis in children can be attributed:
But the most common of non-infectious types of bronchitis can be considered an allergy. Today, it is increasingly difficult to find a person in one way or another susceptible to allergies of various types, and the factors that cause it, every day becomes more and more.
Bronchitis is an inflammatory disease of the respiratory system, which results in coughing, sputum separation, shortness of breath and respiratory failure. Obstructive bronchitis develops as a result of the narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, resulting from spasm, edema of the bronchial mucosa and obstruction of the airway of the respiratory tract by sputum. This type of bronchitis often develops as a complication of influenza or viral infection in children of the first years of life, but also adults suffer from this disease.
The frequency of the disease in young children is associated with the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the bronchi - a narrow lumen respiratory tract, imperfection of children's immunity and frequency of occurrence of viral infections.
Obstructive bronchitis is a serious and dangerous disease that can lead to complications and become a cause of respiratory distress, especially in young children. Parents may underestimate the severity of the child's condition and do not pay enough attention to treatment, often this leads to a chronic process or the development of complications.
Causes and mechanism of disease development
Obstructive bronchitis develops against the background of viral infections, most often this disease affects children under 3 years old ARVI or influenza caused by the PC infection, adenoviruses, influenza A viruses or mycoplasmal and chlamydial infections.
When a viral agent enters the upper respiratory tract, inflammation of the bronchial mucosa develops, inflammatory mediators are released, which provokes mucus edema and sputum production. The narrowing of the bronchi in children is mainly caused by the edema of all the walls of the bronchi and the clogging of their phlegm, and bronchospasm often causes obstruction in adults.
Acute and chronic course of the disease
Acute obstructive bronchitis - occurs in childhood, occurs against the background of a previous viral infection and with proper treatment, takes place within a few weeks. That is why it is very important to cure all diseases to the end, so that it does not become chronic.
Chronic obstructive bronchitis - develops gradually, this disease affects mainly adults, the cause of its development are bad habits (smoker's bronchitis), occupational hazards (when working with harmful substances or with the constant inhalation of dust), adverse environmental factors and hereditary predisposition. The diagnosis of "chronic obstructive bronchitis" is set in the event that the symptoms of the disease - cough with sputum, are diagnosed in the patient for 3 months a year for 2 years, in the absence of other bronchopulmonary diseases.
The main symptoms of the disease
Acute obstructive bronchitis and exacerbation of chronic bronchitis occur approximately equally - against a background of mild ailment or a viral infection, the patient has the following symptoms:
- A severe painful cough is the main symptom of the disease, at first a rare dry cough develops into long, painful attacks, which greatly exhaust the patient, do not bring relief and cause pain in the chest. This cough intensifies at night and prevents the patient from sleeping peacefully.
- Shortness of breath - difficulty with bronchitis occurs during exhalation, a person begins to gasp, can not breathe out quietly because of narrowing the lumen of the bronchi and clogging them with mucus, this causes a gradual fatigue of the patient and leads to the development of emphysema. Emphysematous lungs are excessively stretched and air-filled lungs, if obstructive bronchitis is chronic, the thorax the person gradually changes - it becomes barrel-shaped, the lower ribs expand, respiratory failure and emphysematous disease occur.
- Coryza - except for difficulty breathing in the bronchi, with bronchitis, nasal breathing can be disturbed, which further exacerbates the situation.
- Body temperature rise - with bronchitis the body temperature can remain normal, but more often is on the numbers 33-37.5 degrees.
- Headache, weakness, poor health - as the disease develops, the patient's condition may deteriorate severely, lack of air, painful coughing attacks, constant fatigue due to shortness of breath, lack of sleep - all this makes the sick weak and strongly affects the overall well-being.
- Redness of the throat - bronchitis also inflames the palatine tonsils and the back wall of the throat, except for a cough and runny nose, the patient can complain of a sore throat and the inability to swallow anything.
Chronic bronchitis, even during an exacerbation, may not give such a vivid clinical picture, most often patients suffer from constant dry or wet cough, periodically they have shortness of breath and lack of air and general deterioration of the condition. But, since, chronic bronchitis can last for years, the person no longer pays attention to such symptoms and takes for granted a constant cough and chest pain.
And instead of conducting a full-fledged treatment and finding out what factors provoke an exacerbation, such patients try mitigate the symptoms of the disease, not caring about what provokes the development of respiratory failure. So do not wait until the disease goes into a more severe form, take all measures to get rid of this disease and improve your body.
Principles of treatment of obstructive bronchitisTreatment of obstructive bronchitis both in children and in adults should necessarily be complex, it is necessary to use several methods of treatment. Good results are obtained by the simultaneous use of antibiotics, mucolytics, expectorants, physiotherapy, massage and traditional medicine.
Treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children will require a lot of cares and efforts from parents. If your child has been exposed to such a diagnosis, then in no case can not start treatment on its own or hope to get by taking antibiotics and antipyretics. Complex treatment includes all the necessary procedures and is carried out until all the signs of the disease disappear. Treatment of obstructive bronchitis should appoint a doctor, do not try to cope with the disease, especially in young children, it can lead to serious complications.
- Bed rest regime - the child should always be in bed and avoid any physical exertion.
- A plentiful warm drink and light nutritious food - it is necessary to provide the child with a lot of warm alkaline drink, this will help him to soften the throat and make up moisture reserves in the body. Food during illness should be light and nutritious, if the patient has no appetite, it is better not to force him to eat, but to offer fresh fruits and vegetables or dairy products.
- Antibiotic therapy - despite the fact that the most common cause of infection are viruses, do not deny from the use of antibiotics, too high a risk of developing bacterial complications against the background of obstruction. When taking any antibiotics, one should not forget that they violate the intestinal microflora, simultaneously with antibiotics you need to take lineks, hilak-forte, bifidobacterin or other drugs to combat dysbiosis.
- Mucolytics and expectorants - to dilute the accumulation of sputum in the bronchi and ensure its removal therefrom, it is recommended to conduct steam inhalations with any alkaline solutions. You can also use aerosols that help to soften the throat and dilute sputum - it is especially convenient to use aerosol inhalation in young children. It is also necessary to take expectorants - licorice root, althea, ipecacuanas, thermopsis solution, breastfeeding, broncholitin, mucaltin and others.
- It is necessary to try to get rid of mucus and rinse the nasopharynx - with the accumulation of mucus it is prescribed to take it from the nasal passages with the help of a rubber pear or electric suction, this is of great importance in the treatment of children of the first years of life who do not yet know how to clean their noses and do not give a gargle. To wash the nasopharynx in older children, saline solution, Borjomi and washing facilities can be used.
- To reduce the common cold, it is possible to use vasoconstrictors suitable for the child's age. For infants it is recommended to use Aquamaris - drops containing only a little salt or nazivin for children over 1 year, all these drugs can not be used more than 2-3 times a day and not more than 3 days in a row.
- Breathing exercises and massage - help restore normal breathing and drainage function of the bronchi. Any person can do the usual vibrating massage, it is enough to knock the ribs of the palm along the back and chest painfully, several times a day, to get the effect of vibration. But much more benefit will be with a professional massage, great value massage has for the treatment of young children who have an outflow of phlegm is very difficult, in this case you need to seek help from professional masseurs who specialize in children's massage.
Traditional methods of treatment
For the treatment of bronchitis, folk medicine offers the following recipes:
- Inhalation - with eucalyptus leaves (2 teaspoons for 0, 5 cups of boiling water), with collection (30 grams of chamomile and elderberry, mixed with 25 g of lime-colored and peppermint.
- To facilitate the departure of phlegm, cranberry juice mixed with honey in equal proportions is used.
- Treatment of bronchitis with the help of fat - melt fresh fat, better interior, on slow heat and drink warm 1-2 tablespoons 5-6 times a day.
- Compress of oil with honey - take 1 tablespoon of oil and honey, warm in a water bath and spread a mixture of chest and back. Compresses do daily until the end of the course of treatment.
Preventing the disease is much easier than treating the consequences:
- Increased immunity - the intake of vitamins, the constant presence in the menu of fresh vegetables and fruits,
- Hardening - helps to avoid viral infections and colds,
- Timely treatment of ARVI and other infections.
- Walking in the fresh air and physical training.
Obstructive bronchitis - Dr. Komarovsky