- 1.1Symptoms of osteoarthritis
- 1.2Diagnosis of osteoarthritis
- 1.3Treatment of osteoarthritis
- 1.4Prevention of osteoarthritis
2Osteoarthritis: what is it, symptoms, treatment
- 2.1The first signs of the disease
3What is osteoarthritis and how to treat it?
- 3.1What is osteoarthritis?
- 3.2How the disease develops
- 3.3How osteoarthritis of the knee joint is manifested
- 3.4Symptoms of hip osteoarthritis
- 3.5Symptoms of shoulder joint osteoarthritis
- 3.6Osteoarthritis of the foot joints
- 3.7Treatment of osteoarthritis
4What is osteoarthritis of the joints: the causes, symptoms and treatment recommendations
- 4.1What is osteoarthritis?
- 4.2Causes of Arthritis
- 4.3Who is at risk?
- 4.5Stages and types of osteoarthritis
- 4.6Diagnosis and treatment
- 4.7What drugs are prescribed for osteoarthritis?
- 4.8Surgical treatment
- 4.9Prevention of disease
Osteoarthritis (deforming osteoarthritis) - is the most common type
In this case, the cartilage hardens, loses its elasticity, as a result of which it collapses, and the sliding of the joint surfaces deteriorates.
Cartilages can thin out, which leads to their disruptiondepreciation functionsduring strikes.
The disease most often develops on the large joints of the human body - the knee, hip, spine joints and small joints of the hands, especially on the thumbs. During the disease, the joint may become deformed.
Osteoarthritis affects men and women, with hip joints more often affected in men, and carpal and knee joints in women. This disease progresses over the years and can lead to loss of efficiency.
The disease usually manifests itself in two forms.
The most commonprimary osteoarthritis, which develops after 45 years and has progressed steadily over the years.
Primary arthritis affects first of all the hip and knee joints. Its causes are excessive load on the joints.
Secondary osteoarthritismost often affects young people who have repeated injuries or joint damage, as well as infection of the joint, congenital joint defect, metabolic disorders, obesity.
Osteoarthritis develops as a result of the fact that in the cartilaginous tissue metabolism is disrupted, which leads to its gradual destruction. As a result of the initial damage to the joint, the destruction of the cartilage begins.
It loses its elasticity, it formsmicrocracks, which lead to the separation of cartilaginous fragments, up to the complete destruction of cartilage.
This can lead to the fact that the bones can begin to touch each other while walking.
To the reasons for the development of osteoarthritis physicians also include:
- age, because with age cartilage tends to lose elasticity;
- excess weight, which helps accelerate the process of destruction of cartilage;
- cartilage damage by excessive loads, namely trauma, fractures, dislocations, sprain of the ligamentous apparatus of the joint, and permanent microtraumas of the joint - dislocations, subluxations, for example, in professional athletes and in representatives of certain professions;
- intoxicationorganism, sincealcohol, smoking, viral infectionslead to the fact that toxins accumulate in the cartilaginous tissue;
- cardiovascular disorders - atherosclerosis. For example, if the walls of the artery feeding the head and the joint of the hip are affected by atherosclerosis, this leads to a disruption in the nutrition of the head and the development of osteoarthritis;
- endocrine disorders-diabetes, hypothyroidism, climacteric period;
- phlebeurysmshin, which leads to venous stasis and tissue hypoxia, which contributes to the violation of metabolic processes in the joints;
- hereditary weakness of cartilage, as a result of which some forms of osteoarthritis are manifested in families.
Symptoms of osteoarthritis
The main symptom of osteoarthritis is pain in the affected joint, which is worse when walking.
First the pain appears periodically, after loads, and disappears at rest, but if the disease is not treated, the pain becomes permanent, even with minimal activity. Patients characterize this pain as "aching"..
If osteoarthritis is affectedknee joints, the pain occurs when bending the knee, for example, when descending from the stairs..
With osteoarthritisof the hip jointsmost often there is pain in the thigh, but also may be troubling and painful sensations in the groin, buttocks.
Primaryosteoarthritis of the spinecauses pain in the neck and in the lower back. The intensity of pain may vary depending on weather changes and atmospheric pressure.
Over time, this all can lead to a decrease in joint mobility, stiffness of movements, and "blockade of the joint When pieces of cartilage fall between the surfaces of the joint, which is accompanied by sharp pain and restriction of movement. Often observed andcrepitation in the joints- a crunch and a crack can disturb at movement, which is caused by friction of articular surfaces of bones.
There may also be symptoms of osteoarthritis such as stiffness of the joints and increased pain in their bend, lasting usually up to 15 minutes, especially after a period of immobility, for example, in the mornings after a dream, a long sitting, or after a period of increased activity. Relief comes after a physical warm-up.
Also, the joint can change the appearance - increase in volume, there may be an increase in the temperature of the joint, its redness. Joints can accumulate fluid due to the constant irritation of the synovium (inner layer of the joint bag).
One of the most complicated complications of osteoarthritis is the appearance of bone outgrowths in the joints of the hands, which is more common in women after the age of 40. These outgrowths can be painful, and may not be accompanied by painful sensations, and then people continue to lead an active lifestyle.
Often secondary osteoarthritis can be asymptomatic, even when the x-ray shows changes in the joint.
Diagnosis of osteoarthritis
The diagnosis can be made on the basis of the data of the survey and examination of the patient, as well as the results of laboratory studies. In addition, the patient is usually prescribed radiography and ultrasound examination of the joint.
The doctor will be interested in the damage that caused the symptoms of osteoarthritis in the joint, about the way of life. The examination will be directed to a careful study of the appearance of the troubled joints.
Radiologic examination of the joints is also prescribed, tk. with its help you can see the changes that accompany osteoarthritis, for example, marginal growths of the bone, narrowing of the joint gap.
X-rayshows how seriously damaged joints..
To assess the thickness of the articular cartilage, the state of the joint bag and tissues near the joint and detect inflammation in them, ultrasound examination of the joints..
As an additional diagnosis of osteoarthritis, to confirm the diagnosis,arthrocentesis- puncture of the joint, orMagnetic resonance imaging.
There are no special laboratory tests for the detection of osteoarthritis. Because of the absence of inflammatory changes, a blood test is usually performed in order to exclude other forms of arthritis, for example,rheumatoid arthritis, gout.
Treatment of osteoarthritis
At the coretreatment of osteoarthritisthere are measures to protect joints from the effects of factors that contribute to the progression of the disease. Unfortunately, at the present time there are no medications that could restore articular cartilage.
The goals of treatment are:
- reduction of pain in the joint;
- improving the functioning of the joint, increasing its mobility;
- reduction of risks of disease progression;
- work with the patient in order that he learned to cope with the disease, avoid long standing on his feet, prolonged walking, lifting and carrying heavy loads, playing sports, contributing to increased stress on the joints.
The purpose of drug therapy is to eliminate the symptoms of the disease, namely: reducing pain in the joints and improving the state of the cartilaginous tissue. To reduce the pain doctors appointpainkillersand non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
For moderate pain useXsefokam (lornoxicam), Ibuprofen, Orthophene (voltaren), meloxicam (movalis), surgae, nimesulide, paracetamol, Tylenol. Local preparations with analgesic and anti-inflammatory action are also prescribed. Similar creams, gels or spray solutions -Finalgon, Capsicum, fast-gel, indovazin, feloranapply to the joint 2-3 times a day.
If pain is severe then appointdiclofenac (diclonate).
When using them, you need to be cautious, as these drugs have side effects, for example, prolonged use of paracetamol can lead to increased blood pressure.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs negatively affect the gastrointestinal tract, and can lead to inflammation of the gastric mucosa, to the development of gastric ulcers, impaired function kidney.
To improve blood supply to the joint elements, vascular drugs are also prescribed, for example,agapurin, trental, xanthinal nicotinate..
At the initial stage of osteoarthritis also used drugs that improve the state of cartilage -chondroprotectors, eg,chondroitin sulfateandglucosamine sulfate, diacerein, hyaluronic acid. With their constant admission, patients may experience an improvement in joint mobility, the material is introduced into the body for the restoration of cartilage. These drugs are slow, so take them for a long time..
For improvementslip in the jointand to relieve inflammation, the doctor can prescribe and intra-articular injectionglucocorticoid, Kenalogist, diprospan, solution of sodium hyaluronate. At the same time, pain medication is administered - for example,lidocaine. This method of treatment works very quickly, which leads to the fact that patients begin to actively use it, but this method does not treat the disease, but only removes the symptoms of osteoarthritis. Also, frequent application of this method can lead to damage to the cartilage and bones. Therefore, it is often impossible to use this method.
With a high degree of joint damage, which is accompanied by a sharp restriction of mobility, with a pronounced pain syndrome that does not lend itself to drug treatment,arthroplasty of joints- replacement of the joint with a mechanical prosthesis. Most often this operation is performed on the hip and knee joints. After this operation the patient can increase his physical activity. It can also bearthroplasty- plastic surgery on the joint for restoration or correction of joint functions, by replacing the joint surfaces with artificial materials.
In secondary osteoarthritis,sanatorium treatmentosteoarthritis.
In the sanatorium it is possible to carry out complex rehabilitation, which includeshealing mud, physiotherapy procedures, physiotherapy exercises, baths, massage.
Physiotherapeutic procedures include ultraviolet irradiation,electrophoresis, alternating magnetic fields.
Various thermal procedures, ozocerite applications, peat and mud mud are also useful. Favorable impact is exerted bymedical baths, namely sea, sulphide and iodide-bromine.
To strengthen the muscles around the joints applyelectrostimulation. Positively affect the course of the disease constant exposure to fresh air and the absence of stressful situations. However, such treatment is indicated outside the periods of exacerbation of the disease.
It is very important at the same time to change your lifestyle, regulate your body weight and be sure to give yourself physical exertion..
Special physical exercises will help to form around the joint a strong muscular corset and sufficient blood circulation in the entire limb..
At home, before playing sports, you can apply a heating pad or a specialheating lamp. It is very important not to overeat the joints.
Prevention of osteoarthritis
Prevention of the disease is aimed at reducing the load on the joints, i.e. to avoid factors that increase the likelihood of the disease.
It is important to monitor your weight, properly organize meals and have regular physical activity.
In sports, care must be taken and possible ways of protecting, for example,knee pads.
Physical stresses help to reduce pain, increase their mobility and strengthen muscles.
The most favorable for patients with osteoarthritis are three types of physical activity - exercise to increase the mobility of joints, exercises to increase muscle mobility and dynamic exercises.
It is recommended to swim at least 2 times a week.
It is advisable not to choose sports that are dangerous for joints - for example, football, tennis, athletics, especially if there were cases of osteoarthritis in the family. It should avoid long walking, kneeling, walking on stairs, undesirable running.
Damage to the joints in youth increases the risk of osteoarthritis in the elderly, so prevention of osteoarthritis is to prevent various injuries that can cause the disease. In case of joint injuries, emergency treatment is necessary under the supervision of a physician, and it is recommended that patients suffering from osteoarthritis undergo a comprehensive medical examination at least 2 times a year.
Osteoarthritis does not affect the internal organs, but progresses without proper timely treatment, this disease can significantly worsen the quality of life, bring a person suffering, and also lead to a loss to them ability to work.
A source: http://medside.ru/osteoartrit-osteoartroz
Osteoarthritis: what is it, symptoms, treatment
Osteoarthritis - what is it? We often hear from the elderly about joint pain. But people far from medicine do not even know how serious this is. Such manifestations may be a symptom of osteoarthritis.
By this term is meant a whole group of diseases that arise for different reasons, having similar symptoms and mechanisms of development. All of them lead to the destruction of bone surfaces and articular cartilage.
Cartilage in the joint plays the role of a shock absorber, which reduces friction between the bony surfaces and is responsible for the functioning of the joint. Normally, the cartilage has a uniform structure.
With the development of osteoarthritis, it begins to gradually break down, the surface of the cartilage becomes uneven, sometimes it becomes thinner so that the bone is bare. The disease is widespread throughout the world, it affects a fifth of the population of our planet.
The first symptoms of the disease can appear at the age of 45-50 years. With age, the risk of developing arthritis increases, the patient needs longer treatment.
However, it is impossible to consider osteoarthritis of the hip joint disease of the elderly, it often affects more young people. The disease develops for various reasons: genetic predisposition, overweight, inactivity.
The first signs of the disease
When the articular cartilage is destroyed a person begins to feel pain when changing position, while moving. Appear edema and crunch in the joints.
The friction of the bone surfaces is felt distinctly from each other. Approximately 30% of patients with this diagnosis complain of increased pain after walking.
An accurate diagnosis can only be made by a doctor who can distinguish osteoarthritis from other joint diseases..
When X-ray examination in many patients over 40 years of age, signs of destruction of the cartilage are visible. They are especially pronounced in the joints, which are subjected to the greatest loads, for example, the knee..
Very often the disease until a certain point is asymptomatic. It begins with the deformation of one of the joints of the fingers or toes, gradually shifting to larger joints.
You should pay attention to the symptoms that increase after exercise.They are the evidence of the onset of the pathological process.
In some cases stiffness is observed in the joint after sleep or rest, gradually disappearing during the period of active movement.
Over time, the deformation of the joint becomes more pronounced, it loses its mobility and can be fixed in one position. There is a proliferation of bone and cartilaginous tissues, visible to the naked eye. The cartilage is compacted, a distinct crunch is heard during movement.
Nodules are formed in the phalangeal joints. In different joints the process can proceed in different ways. For example, the knee joint acquires pathological mobility, while the hip joint becomes less mobile.
Both cases are characterized by the appearance of severe pain.
Another characteristic symptom of osteoarthritis is back pain, which occurs when the intervertebral disc is damaged. Over time, bone tissue proliferates, squeezing the nerve endings. This leads to loss of sensitivity of the extremities.
In severe cases, osteoarthritis is accompanied by headaches, visual impairment, nausea and vomiting. With further development of the disease, the patient's condition may worsen, up to the violation of the functions of the musculoskeletal system.
After diagnosis, the disease is treated with conservative methods. The use of these or other drugs depends on the stage of the disease and the state of the patient's body. The treatment is aimed at relieving the pain and returning the mobility of the joint.
In addition to drug treatment, the patient is shown light physical activity: walking, cycling, swimming, physiotherapy.
Reduce the load on the joints helps to exclude walking on uneven terrain, lifting weights and staying in an uncomfortable position..
The doctor selects a set of exercises that help strengthen the muscles. It shows wearing orthopedic footwear, using auxiliary support means..
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to relieve pain and inflammation. In addition, it is necessary to take chondroprotectors, which protect cartilaginous tissues from destruction.
With acute pain, glucocorticosteroids are injected into the joint cavity. The pain disappears after the procedure, but after a while it can occur with renewed vigor. Therefore, such methods of treatment are extremely rare.
Drug treatment only stops the development of the disease, to get rid of its consequences can only be through surgery.
There are several ways of surgical treatment of osteoarthritis. Most often, endoprosthesis replacement is used.
No less common arthroscopic debridement, in which through the punctures made in advance a special tool extracts the affected parts of the cartilage. This operation is effective in the early stages of the disease.
Many patients note a decrease in the intensity of pain and return of mobility of the joint. However, after a few years the disease can return, and the patient will need a more complicated operation.
Periarticular osteotomy is a more complex and effective surgical intervention. The bones of the diseased joint are sawed and fixed at a different angle..
This promotes the redistribution of mechanical stress in the affected area. The patient's condition improves significantly, the effect persists up to 5 years..
Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease, which is almost impossible to cure. However, modern methods of treatment can slow down and even stop the development of the disease in the early stages, which significantly improves the quality of life of the patient.
A source: http://legsgo.ru/arthrosis/osteoartrit-chto-eto-takoe.html
What is osteoarthritis and how to treat it?
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is increasingly diagnosed in people who have not reached the age of 45 years.
Although more recently, pathological changes in articulations have developed mainly in elderly patients. The first symptoms of the disease often go unnoticed.
On the barely perceptible short-term joint pains that occur during movement, many people do not pay attention.
Without adequate therapy, pathology continues to develop, causing irreversible changes in the joint and periarticular tissues. To date, osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of disability.
What is osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis is a disease that leads to a complete loss of articular cartilage.
It is accompanied by damage to the subchondrial bone, synovial membrane, intraarticular ligaments, articular capsule and periarticular muscles.
Subchondrial bone is a bone site covered with hyaline cartilage. The synovial membrane lining the inner surface of the joint capsule.
The pathological process of joint destruction begins in the cartilaginous tissue. Throughout a person's life in the articular cartilage, there are constantly processes of synthesis and degradation.
Cartilage tissue is regularly updated, adapting to changing loads on the musculoskeletal system. In a healthy person, anabolic (development of new cells) and catabolic (destruction of the old tissue) processes in the cartilage are balanced.
Therefore, it is able to withstand even heavy loads without harming oneself.
Deforming osteoarthritis occurs when catabolic processes begin to predominate over anabolic..
Cartilage tissues do not have time to recover from damage and lose their qualities..
The destruction of cartilage causes pathological processes in other elements of the joint and in the periarticular tissues. The last stage of the disease is complete immobility of the joint.
Pathology often develops in the knee joint. This is one of the largest and most complex joints. He has several synovial bags and 2 meniscus.
The knee can move around 2 axes. The angle of its extension reaches 180 °. A complex device makes the articulation very vulnerable.
At the same time, it has the biggest load compared to other joints.
The hip joint is also subject to osteoarthritis. A powerful joint every day experiences significant loads. Movement in it is carried out around 3 axes.
Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee often leads to disability.
Therefore, patients with such a disease should be monitored from the earliest stages of its development.
How the disease develops
A major role in the development of pathology is played by chondrocytes (the main cells of the cartilaginous tissue).
Under the influence of cytokines produced by chondrocytes (specific proteins that provide signaling between cells), the intensity of biosynthetic processes in the cartilage decreases or increases. Chondrocytes intensively produce the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
COX-2 stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins - mediators of inflammation. They trigger and maintain an inflammatory response. The inflammatory process is one of the main factors in the development of pathology..
Healthy hyaline cartilage has a dense, elastic structure. It has a smooth, glossy surface, perfectly repeating the bends of the joint..
Such properties of articular cartilage help him to slide almost without friction during movement.
Slight sliding is also achieved by lubricating the joint surfaces with synovial fluid.
When the osteoarthritis of the knee develops, the cartilage collapses, loses elasticity and smoothness.
It becomes dry and brittle, covered with cracks, sometimes reaching the subchondrial bone.
Crumbs of cartilage (detritus) fall into the synovial fluid and damage rubbing when moving the surface of the joint, like sandpaper.
As the cartilage breaks, osteophytes appear on the surfaces of the contiguous bones. The process of appearance of osteophytes is compensatory.
Bone tissue expands to compensate for the loss of cartilaginous tissue. Osteophytes disrupt the shape of articular surfaces and restrict the movement of the articulation..
The reason why the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes in the cartilage is disturbed remains unclear..
The provoking factors are excessive loads, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, trauma and systemic diseases, including congenital ones.
An infection can trigger the pathological process.
How osteoarthritis of the knee joint is manifested
Most often the disease develops gradually. The patient occasionally has moderate pain in the knee joint. They disappear in a few seconds, without causing any special inconvenience to the person.
Painful sensations appear after an awkward or uncharacteristic turn of the foot. With the implementation of the usual movements, the patient does not experience any discomfort.
Pain can appear in the affected joint after prolonged or excessive physical exertion.
Many hours walking or lifting weights cause an unpleasant sensation in the knee and a feeling of growing fatigue in the legs.
At this stage of the disease, destructive processes in the cartilage are already beginning, but the remaining elements of the joint are working properly.
To detect osteoarthritis at the initial stage of the development of the disease is possible only during a preventive examination.
Later the symptoms of the disease appear brighter. As a result of thinning of the articular cartilage and menisci, friction occurs between the surfaces of the bones that form the articulation. Soreness is greatly enhanced.
Articular cartilage does not have nerve endings. Therefore, its destruction does not cause pain syndrome. Unlike cartilage, the bone contains many nerve endings. When the pathological process spreads to the bone tissue, the pain becomes intense and lasts longer.
In the second stage of the disease, osteophytes begin to grow on the bones. Changes are observed in muscles and ligaments. They can be seen on an x-ray.
The habitual movements cause intense pain and are accompanied by creaking or crunching. The amplitude of movements decreases. At this stage of development of pathology, signs of inflammation become noticeable..
Near the joint there is swelling, it looks enlarged. Because of the tumor, flexing-extension of the leg is difficult..
Painful sensations intensify after:
- climbing the stairs;
- standing on his knees.
The pain causes a feeling of weakness in the legs. Knees become disobedient, lose stability and "seize".
Arthritic pains intensify with changing weather conditions and after a long rest. After a night's sleep, there is not only a strong pain in the knees, but also a feeling of joint stiffness. The legs "do not walk" for 10-15 minutes, and then the mobility is restored.
Symptoms of hip osteoarthritis
The first sign of the development of the disease may be an uncomfortable sensation in the groin that occurs in the morning. The patient is not allowed to exercise the usual movements of light stiffness in the thigh. In this place the pain intensifies after active movements or walking with a heavy load in the hands.
Soreness can appear after moderate, but prolonged loads. For example, after a long quiet walk. During rest, unpleasant symptoms completely disappear. At the initial stage of the disease, external signs of osteoarthritis are not observed. The amplitude of the movement of the joint is not reduced.
Later, pains increase and are felt not only in the groin, but also on the inner and outer parts of the thigh. Sometimes the pain is localized near the knee. They arise after the usual daily movements and have a noisy character. During rest the patient's condition improves.
Prolonged loads cause impaired motor function of the joint. After a long walk, the patient begins to limp. He can not fully make a rotational movement inside and out. Limitation of motor ability leads to negative changes in the muscles of the thigh and buttocks.
Symptoms of shoulder joint osteoarthritis
The shoulder joint is the most mobile. It moves around 3 axes with an amplitude of up to 180 ° (when bending and retracting). There are circular motions (circumduction).
Therefore, osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint occurs quite often. With its development, pain sensations are localized in the back of the shoulder or in the anterior (in the area of the clavicle).
If both shoulder joints are affected (scapula-thoracic and acromioclavicular), the pain is felt in both areas.
As the cartilage tissue is destroyed, soreness increases and a characteristic crunch appears during movements. The amplitude of movements decreases rapidly. It is difficult for a patient to raise his hand, comb his hair and reach the upper shelves of the cabinet.
At a late stage of the disease, pain constantly persecutes the patient, then intensifying, then a little subsiding. She prevents him from sleeping at night..
Even small movements with a minimum amplitude are for the patient a test. The patient has unpleasant sensations when touching the joint..
Because of the accumulation of a large amount of synovial fluid, it swells and changes shape.
Osteoarthritis of the foot joints
If the pathological process develops in the joints of the foot, it quickly deforms. In the human body, only the heart muscle works more than the foot. The foot absorbs most of the impacts and loads, which can damage the musculoskeletal system during movement.
The first symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in the form of fatigue after a long walk. After a night's sleep, there is stiffness in the legs.
Movements become awkward and slow. However, after 10-15 minutes, the motor function of the foot returns.
Over time, the periods of stiffness continue longer and are accompanied by increasing pain.
As the inflammatory process develops:
The foot is inflamed and swollen.
- The skin over the aching joint turns red and becomes hot.
- Movements cause painful sensations.
- The amplitude of the movements is limited.
- Pathological changes in the joint cause deformation of the foot.
- The first or fifth metatarsophalangeal joint changes the angle and forms a characteristic bone at the base of the finger.
- Deformation of one joint entails changes in other joints.
- The remaining fingers also change their position, overlapping each other.
- The deformity of the foot increases the suffering of the patient.
Treatment of osteoarthritis
Most often, when treatment begins, osteoarthritis already causes painful pain in the patient. Therefore, the therapy of the disease is aimed at the elimination of pain and inflammation.
The doctor prescribes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) of short duration:
Diclofenac may also be used:
Drugs are given either inside or in the form of injections, depending on the severity of the disease and the severity of the pain syndrome. Patients with concomitant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are assigned a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Meloxicam:
In therapy, NSAIDs are used for topical application in the form of ointments and gels:
- Dicloran plus.
To suppress an intense pain syndrome in the presence of obvious signs of an inflammatory reaction can be recommended single intra-articular injection of glucocorticosteroid drugs (Prednisolone).
The joint, in which the inflammatory reaction develops, must necessarily be immobilized. After the elimination of inflammation, gradually restore the motor activity.
After arresting the inflammatory reaction, hyaluronic acid preparations (Synvisc, Ostenil) are injected into the knee joints.
To stop the progression of the disease, chondroprotective drugs that support cartilaginous tissue (Chondro, Structum) are used.
Some patients with osteoarthritis of the knee may benefit from closed jet irrigation with physiological saline or arthroscopic lavage.
The procedure of closed jet irrigation is performed with a needle for intravenous infusion. It is injected into the affected joint after prior local anesthesia. Through it, pour in a solution of sodium chloride (,%).
During the infusion, the patient feels a raspiranie in the knee. The joint is markedly enlarged in volume. Then through another needle the outflow of fluid from the joint is performed..
The procedure helps to get rid of the adhesions and products of the inflammatory reaction in the articulation..
With persistent progression of the disease, arthroplasty (joint replacement) can be recommended.
A source: https://OrtoCure.ru/kosti-i-sustavy/artrit/osteoartrit-chto-eto-takoe.html
What is osteoarthritis of the joints: the causes, symptoms and treatment recommendations
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every seventh inhabitant of the planet suffers from joint pain.
At 50% of the population at the age from 40 till 70 years and already at 90% of people are more senior 70 yearsdifferent types of arthritis are observed.
The most common type of arthritis is osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis.
Why is this disease so common, what are its symptoms and how to deal with it? The answers to these and other questions you will find in this article.
What is osteoarthritis?
The joint is a movable junction of two bones, which allows us to perform various movements. Our skeleton is connectedmore than 180 different joints: this is the shoulder, hip, knee joint, finger and wrist joints and many others.
Due to the fact that the joint is covered with a dense and elastic protective shell - cartilage, the bones do not rub against each other and we can move freely without experiencing pain.
Cartilage tissue protects bones from destruction. But, with the development of osteoarthritis, there is degeneration and destruction of the cartilage in the joints, because of what they gradually lose their properties and lead to a decrease in the mobility of the joints and even to the friction of the bones. Why is this happening?
Causes of Arthritis
There are three main reasons for the development of osteoarthritis in the joints:
- The most important cause is a trauma or a constant load on a certain group of joints. If you constantly load the same joints, for example, the knee, then due to constant friction there is a high probability of developing arthritis in the knees.
- Dysplasia is an inherent feature of the structure of the joints.Dysplasia occurs in the intrauterine period if the joints develop incorrectly.
- Inflammation, which can be a consequence of autoimmune diseases or infection(for example, gonorrhea or syphilis).
Who is at risk?
It is worth paying attention to people who:
- There are relatives who suffer from diseases of the joints and bones.By inheritance may be predisposed to the development of arthritis.
- There is excess weight.The large mass of the body presses on the knee and hip joints, which significantly increases the risk of the disease.
- There is a shortage of microelements in the body.
- Disturbed metabolism and endocrine balance in the body.
- People aged 40 years and over.Since the joints wear out with time, the older the person, the greater the risk of osteoarthritis.
- Diseases of the nervous system(a violation of the functions of the vegetative department of the nervous system can provoke the development of joint diseases).
- Violation of the permeability of the walls of blood vesselsone of the causes of malnutrition of cartilage and bone tissue, leading to the development of degenerative processes.
Also, the cause of osteoarthritis can be malnutrition, the effect of the environment (constant cold), or exposure to toxins.
Osteoarthritis can occur with little or no symptomsor the occurrence of pain can alternate with a period of tranquility. But the symptoms can also be permanent.
- The very first symptom is pain in the joint, which can be of different intensity depending on the degree of damage. Pain mainly occurs with physical activity or active movement, and in the latter stages of the disease, such a symptom appears even with minimal stress on the joints.
- Stiffness in the joints.It appears after a long rest, when you start to move (mainly in the morning), and lasts about 15 minutes.
- Swelling of the joint and an increase in its volumebecause of the accumulation of lubricating fluid.
- Formation of growths (knots) on bones, usually appear on the joints of the fingers.
Stages and types of osteoarthritis
This disease has three stages:
- At the initial stage of arthrosis, the synovial membrane that protects the joint begins to lose its propertiesand can not withstand the load, as before. Overload causes inflammation and a person begins to feel pain when moving.
- The second stage is characterized by the onset of destruction of articular cartilage and menisci(cartilaginous pads), as a result of which osteophytes are formed on the bone. Pain syndrome becomes a constant companion of the patient.
- At the third stage, a pronounced deformation of the joint support site begins and the limb axis changes. Joint ligaments become shorter, because of which natural movements become limited. All this is accompanied by constant pain and inflammation. In the end, the joint is destroyed and becomes immobile, or neoarthrosis occurs. A person with a third stage of osteoarthritis is disabled.
There are many types of osteoarthritis:
- Primary (when the cause of the disease is not established) and secondary,when the disease develops for some apparent reason, for example, as a consequence of trauma, a previous illness or inflammation of the joint.
- The clinical form distinguishes:monoarthrosis (lesion of one joint), oligosteoarthrosis (lesion of two joints), polyosteoarthrosis (lesion from three or more joints) and spondylarthrosis (osteoarthritis in combination with osteochondrosis).
- Depending on the anatomical location is divided into:omarthrosis (defeat of the shoulder joint), gonarthrosis (knee joint damage), cosartemia (arthrosis of the hip joint) and many other species by the name of the joints that are affected.
- In addition, distinguish between osteoarthritis with synovitis (inflammation) or without synovitis.
- By the degree of limitation (or loss) of work capacity: temporary restriction, loss of ability to work, impossibility of self-service.
Diagnosis and treatment
To draw up a clinical picture of the diseasethe doctor conducts a survey and examines the patient.
During the survey it is necessary to establish whether the patient experiences pain when walking, after being in a sitting position for longer than two hours, at night; whether there is a joint stiffness in the morning.
Then you must surrendergeneral analyzes, to exclude other diseases.
To confirm the diagnosis, osteoarthritis is prescribedX-ray of the patient joint. The x-ray will show the degree of damage, the presence of osteophytes or narrowing of the joint gap.
Also for additional evaluation of the course of the diseasecan appoint an ultrasound.
Based on the results obtained, depending on the stage of the disease, the doctor prescribes treatment.
If the patient is diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the first stage, the treatment is reduced to performing simple procedures and rules:
- During the exacerbation of the disease, it is necessary to reduce the physical stress on the joints, less to move - more to relax.
- When pain recedes, it is necessary to engage in exercise therapy,otherwise a constant restriction of movement can lead to muscle atrophy. The loads should be dosed to achieve a therapeutic effect, but do not overload the patient's joint. Therefore, the volume of safe workload and the form of exercise therapy is chosen by a specialist based on the particular course of the disease, the stage and localization of arthritis.
- The impact of heat (warmers, warm towels, taking a hot bath) will help ease and reduce pain.
- In addition, to facilitate the course of the disease and slow down the destruction of the joint will help sanatorium treatment,which includes everything you need: rest, exercise, physiotherapy, mud baths, massage, sauna and other procedures. Treatment in a sanatorium will help to get rid of stress and change the everyday situation, which also has a beneficial effect on health.
- To remove symptoms, patients are prescribed anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs.
What drugs are prescribed for osteoarthritis?
Basically, to relieve pain and inflammation prescribenon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ketoprofen, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, etc.).
If the pain is not strong, you can use painkillers and ointments in damaged areas or take such tablets as paracetamol or ibuprofen.
Remember the side effects of these drugs and take them as less as possible.
With severe attacks of painintra-articularly injected corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Diprospan). They give a quick result and relieve the symptoms of pain, but they can not cure osteoarthritis with their help, so they choose such treatment in extreme cases.
Another type of medications used in osteoarthritis -chondroprotectors. Their structure is similar to the structure of the cartilage, due to this they replace the destroyed tissues and the condition of the joints is improved.
Remember that taking any medicines should be done only according to the prescription of the doctor!
In the event that conventional methods of treatment do not help (when the disease is in the third stage) and the pain syndrome does not recede, surgical treatment of osteoarthritis is used. The most basic method of such treatment -joint prosthetics. Possible prosthetics of the hip and knee joints.
During this operation, the damaged joint is replaced with a prosthesis, which allows to restore its motor function, relieve pain and restore the working capacity of a person.
Butthe result may not be 100% and traffic will be limited, or pain may return from time to time.
Just like any surgery, arthroplasty of jointscan cause complications: development of infection, vein thrombosis and displacement of the prosthesis.
Another type of surgical treatment is osteotomy, which involves aligning the bone and restoring the correct limb axis..
Osteotomy gives a positive result in the form of complete absence of pain and restoration of joint function. This operation is fast and practically has no complications..
Butthe result is for 10-15 years.
Arthroscopic removal of deformed cartilage zonesapply in the first two stages of osteoarthritis. This operation improves joint function and reduces pain syndrome.
The advantage of arthroscopy is the absence of stitches (make only two small punctures), rapid recovery after surgery, and a minimal risk of complications.
But the patient with the third stage of arthrosis, such an operation does not help.
Also for the removal of symptoms applylaser therapy, which has an anti-inflammatory effect, reduces pain and provokes joint repair. Applied in the subacute period of the disease.
To obtain the results, laser therapy is carried out for several years every six months. To fix the effect of laser therapycombined with pharmacotherapy and diet.
It is also necessary to exclude the load on the affected joint.
There are a lot of treatment methods, but several methods are used to effectively restore and relieve pain. What treatment is suitable for you is decided by a specialist, considering all the nuances of your disease.
Prevention of disease
Prevention of osteoarthritis is to eliminate the factors contributing to its development.
It is necessary:
- Watch your weight, because overweight increases the likelihood of developing arthrosis.
- Healthy food, eat foods rich in collagen.
- Remember the benefits of exercise, which should be moderate. Avoid playing sports that can be traumatic.
- Move more.The best prevention will be walking in the correct "doses that is, do not overstrain yourself for long periods of time on your feet, but walk a lot with respites.
- Start treatment in timeat the initial stages of disruption of the joints.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle, do not drink alcohol, avoid stress.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease and can not completely cure it., therefore from a youth it is necessary to care of the health to avoid all unpleasant consequences.
A source: http://SpinaSpina.com/illnesses/osteoartrit-chto-eto.html