- What diseases cause constipation?
- What should the doctor find out before dieting?
- Standard table №3 and its purpose
- What can not be eaten with constipation
- What is recommended for constipation
- What products are useful, what can be prepared from them?
- Sample menu for the week
- What to do with constipation in children? What diet is recommended for older people?
- Related videos
Constipation or coprostasis is a delay in the emptying of the intestine for more than two days. In another interpretation, the daily allocation of feces is attributed to it, but in a very small volume( less than 100 g).
Rarely a similar frequency of stools is dispensed with for an adult person without unpleasant or painful sensations, a general disturbance of well-being. There is a problem how to eat with constipation if the intestine is clogged. Questions about proper nutrition are increasingly of interest to residents of developed countries, wealthy people who have the opportunity to choose food.
According to statistics, they prefer fatty foods, sweet drinks, a lot of coffee, do not pay attention to the availability of fiber and fruits in the diet, are fond of fashionable diets, move little. Diet with constipation is formed after identifying the causes, excluding the impact of diseases with the pathology of the digestive system.
What diseases cause constipation?
Nutritional lump advances through the intestines due to contractions of the muscular layer. A special importance in the formation and removal of toxins from the body is given to the large intestine. With the help of wave-like contractions( peristalsis), it provides motility and fecal progression to the rectum.
The violation of this function is possible at the spastic or atonic type:
- With spasm, the peristalsis is strengthened, muscle tone is increased, areas with narrowed lumen appear up to the development of intestinal obstruction. Clinically, it manifests itself by sharp pain in the abdomen, vomiting, uneven bloating of the abdomen. In such cases, food is prohibited, urgent surgical measures are needed.
- Atonic coprostasis - is caused more often in the elderly due to the lack of "response" to the intestinal muscles to the stimulating signals coming through the nerve trunks. The bowel loses its ability to contract.
Constipation type can be suspected according to
Symptoms Constipation occurs as one of the serious symptoms in bowel lesions due to inflammation( colitis), pain in hemorrhoids, rectal cracks, proctitis, stomach, liver and gallbladder diseases, congenital anomalies( dolichosigma, megasigma).
If the diagnosis reveals a disease, then the diet for constipation in adults is considered as one of the components of therapy. Requirements for compliance with the use of products that weaken the intestines of patients should be taken into account no less seriously than taking laxatives and other means.
What should the doctor find out before dieting?
In the absence of any pathology in the patient, it is important to find out the type of nutrition, preferences, regularity and frequency of meals. The fact is that the intestinal peristalsis undergoes functional disruptions in the event of an irregular diet, snacks with sandwiches and hamburgers without first dishes, long periods of hunger followed by overeating.
Coprostage is caused by inadequate selection of foods and dishes. A significant amount of fats and proteins( fatty meat, confectionery), light carbohydrates( sweets) slows the digestion of food from the stomach. A small amount of raw vegetables, fruits, fiber( dietary bread from coarse flour, bran, cereals), lack of drinking water do not include substances that stimulate peristalsis in the digestive process.
Reflex mechanism of urge disrupts frequent deterrence when there is no toilet nearby, "sedentary" lifestyle, starvation for weight loss and cleansing. Constipation with a diet of this kind is associated with a change in the contents of the intestine, the feces acquire a hard stony consistency, its isolation is difficult.
Sometimes a doctor finds out the effect of stress, pregnancy in women, low adaptability to a new environment, these causes exacerbate stool and may lead to serious illness in the future
Standard table number 3 and its purpose
Diet №3( according to Pevzner) is recommended for patients with diseases or physiological conditions, accompanied by constipation. It is shown to people with a lack of physical activity, with forced long-term bed rest, if the violations are caused by climate change, travel, pregnancy.
It is important to consider that against a background of exacerbation of chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines, diet No. 3 can not be used with constipation. It includes a lot of irritating factors, it will harm the inflamed organs. Diet tasks:
- to intensify peristaltic intestinal contractions;
- to balance the effects of bile acids;
- "extinguish" the processes of fermentation and decay.
The patient should have regular emptying, bloating. The general rule of table number 3 - a day to eat less than three pounds of food, to drink water 1.5 liters and more( if there are no restrictions due to the condition of the kidneys or the cardiovascular system).Nutrition with constipation in adults does not require mechanical grinding of food.
You can eat five times a day, the frequency should be distributed approximately every 4 hours. This is important for the work of the intestines. The positive moment of the table is considered the general availability of products, the opportunity for patients with an average incomes to fulfill the requirements with an effective result for a long time, individually choose the most suitable ones.
Some nutritionists to the disadvantage include contra-indication of milk. Others - consider it quite sufficient compensation due to fermented milk products. The amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates is not limited. Calorie on some days can be reduced to full patients in consultation with the doctor.
It is recommended to accustom yourself to drinking half a glass of water 30 minutes before meals and one hour after
What can not be eaten with constipation
From the menu with constipation, products containing rapidly digestible substances that do not have nutritional value and fiber are excluded or constricted. These include:
- any baked pastry, fresh wheat bread, products with cream, varieties of pasta;
- dishes from canned food, fatty fish and meat, smoked products, sharp sausages;
- whole milk, cream, fatty sour cream and cottage cheese;
- cereals - mango, rice, lentils, kidney beans, peas;
- fried foods( scrambled eggs);
- fatty and spicy sauces, mayonnaise;
- vegetables - onions, radish, garlic, radish in any form;
- chocolate, sweets and culinary products with chocolate;
- berries - blueberries, quince, dogwood and jam from them;
- fruits of persimmon, pomegranate, bananas;
- drinks - restrictions apply to coffee, cocoa, strong tea, carbonated water, alcohol, jelly.
- baking from puff pastry;
- dishes from oily poultry( ducks);
- oily fish( products from herring, salmon, carp, mackerel);
- cottage cheese with fat content over 9%, cheese - 45%;
- spicy seasonings( mustard, pepper, vinegar, horseradish).
What is recommended for constipation
The allowed laxatives for constipation in adults include:
- dried( yesterday's) bread made from rye flour;
- non-welded meat and fish soups;
- steamed meat dishes, steamed, stewed( steam cutlets, meatballs, poultry meat);
- milk sausages;
- kefir, yogurt, best with bifido- and lactobacilli;
- milk can be used for soups, cereals;
- fat-free curd, mild hard cheese;
- porridge( buckwheat, millet, pearl barley, oatmeal), cooked on water with a small milk additive;Egg boiled eggs need to eat no more than two per week;
- vegetables - salads and dishes from colored and white cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, carrots, beets, pumpkin, tomatoes, green peas are allowed only in boiled form;
- of sweets - marmalade, honey and jam( limited);
- dried fruits, any fresh berries and fruits( except excluded);
- tea is not strong herbal, green or black;
- fresh fruit and vegetable juices.
Which products are useful, what can be prepared from them?
The recommended products from constipation with a stimulating effect make it possible to diversify the diet, prepare various useful and tasty dishes. In vegetable soups, nutritionists recommend adding grains of buckwheat or pearl barley.
Borsch can be made vegetarian in the form of beetroot soup with sour cream. Add dill, parsley. Meat, except for cutlets and meatballs, is prepared by casseroles, rolls. Salads from fresh vegetables are better to fill not with mayonnaise, but with vegetable oil( sunflower, olive).
Pumpkin is a good relaxing effect, it is used for porridge, soup-mash, baked in the oven.
For constipation, you need to eat fruit and berries with the maximum laxative effect - plums, apricots, apples. Dried fruits are advised to "peck" for a snack, add to the porridge, kefir. To improve the useful properties of cereals in cereals, you can include 1-2 tablespoons of bran, floured flax seeds, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, nuts.
Approximate menu for the week
It is recommended for an adult to put a cleansing enema with a volume of at least one liter before switching to laxatives. To prevent injury to hard feces of the intestinal mucosa, 2-3 tablespoons of vegetable oil should be added to the water. The water temperature should not differ from room temperature. After the procedure, you should start a diet against constipation. The daily menu in the diet can be varied, adhering to the rules of nutrition.
The first breakfast - boiled buckwheat with the addition of a tablespoon of bran, kefir with prunes.
The second breakfast is a decoction of dried apricots with steamed berries.
Lunch - fish soup with pearl barley, salad from boiled beet with sour cream, yesterday's bran bread. Dinner - chicken with braised cabbage, compote of dried fruits.
At night - yogurt.
First breakfast - salad of grated apple and carrots with honey, green tea with breadcrumbs.
The second breakfast is cottage cheese with a drink from chicory.
Lunch - soup with beetroot soup with greens, steam cutlets with buckwheat porridge, fresh cucumber salad, dressed with vegetable oil.
Dinner - millet porridge with pumpkin, compote of dried fruits.
At night - curdled milk with diet bread.
First breakfast - oat flakes with honey, raisins, carrot juice.
The second breakfast - vegetable salad from tomatoes, mozzarella cheese with vegetable oil.
Lunch - vegetable soup with tomato juice, braised turkey with buckwheat porridge, broth of wild rose.
Dinner - vegetable hodgepodge of carrots, broccoli, potatoes, meatballs.
At night - kefir and prunes.
First breakfast - cottage cheese casserole with apples, chicory drink. The second breakfast is an orange or an apple.
Lunch - pumpkin soup, stuffed pepper with meat, tomato juice.
Dinner - seafood salad baked in foil fish with potatoes, green tea.
At night - kefir with crispy bread.
First breakfast - oatmeal with fruit, kefir. The second breakfast is apricot juice.
Lunch - fish soup with pearl barley, mashed potatoes, pumpkin juice. Dinner - cabbage rolls, tea with honey.
At night - curdled milk with breadcrumbs.
First breakfast - millet porridge with pumpkin and raisins, kefir.
The second breakfast - a salad of fresh vegetables, compote. Lunch - chicken soup, vinaigrette, carrot juice.
Dinner - boiled fish with pearl barley, orange juice.
At night - infusion of prunes.
First breakfast - cereal porridge with dried apricots and raisins, a drink of chicory.
The second breakfast is an apple or an orange. Dinner - beetroot on meat broth, curd casserole, compote.
Dinner - chicken meatballs, boiled potatoes.
At night - yogurt with diet bread.
What to do with constipation in children?
Observe the frequency of feces withdrawal immediately after birth. In the first month of life, a child's chair can be repeated up to four times. The delay of gases causes painful raspiranie intestines of the baby, anxiety, scream. Constipation may depend on the congenital malformation of the intestine( Hirschsprung's disease).Therefore, when it appears, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Babe with constipation is heavily ineffectual, crying
Pediatricians pay attention to the possibility of functional delay in feces in the child's body. It is connected:
- with a power failure;
- using a lactating mother of unresolved products;
- untimely introduction of complementary foods;
- lack of water.
With a decrease in the allocation of maternal milk, infants develop hunger constipation. The cause is revealed in the control weighing before and after feeding. Fecal masses, accumulating in the large intestine, expand and lengthen its dimensions. Thus, a functional megacolon is formed. It is impossible to exclude the effect of treating a child with antibiotics with the emergence of dysbiosis.
The diet primarily concerns a nursing mother. She needs to eat raw and stewed vegetables and fruits every day, refuse sweet, thick cereals, jelly, sharp products. Babies are introduced vegetable lure, fruit puree. Older children are recommended to include in the diet grated boiled beets, in porridge add bran, dried apricots, prunes.
From products stimulating peristalsis, children with pleasure eat:
- pumpkin porridge with honey;
- a rose hips drink with dried apricots and prunes( it is better to give on an empty stomach);
- vegetable purees from carrots, beets, potatoes;
- salad of grated carrots with an apple;
- boiled fruit with cream or yoghurt;
- compote from plums, rhubarb.
The child should be accustomed to vinaigrette, cabbage salad, green peas. The relaxing effect is provided by dishes from melon, with additives of figs, dried apricots, plums, jam from rowan berries. Moms prepare a mixture of an equal volume of dried apricots, prunes without seeds, figs, twisting them in a meat grinder. It should be stored in the refrigerator. Give the child a teaspoon on an empty stomach in the morning and before bedtime in the evening. Wash down with water or kefir.
The kid needs to massage the stomach clockwise, make more lie on the abdomen, move in a circular motion with your finger from the waist up to the coccyx. It is necessary to stop giving pre-school children and older children plenty of carbohydrate food with cakes, cakes, sweets. Categorically contraindicated chips, various fast food.
Parents should not ignore the direction for the study of the bacterial flora of the baby's intestines. Eliminate dysbiosis with probiotics. Children can resort to light plant laxatives only after ineffectiveness of the diet.
What diet is recommended for the elderly?
In the elderly, constipation has a persistent character, is caused by a violation of blood supply and innervation leading to intestinal atony. It is also important to reduce the activity after a stroke, in case of decompensation of heart diseases.
In the clinical course, the intoxication of the body with putrefactive products( indole and scatol)
is added to combat constipation:
- observe the schedule of nutrition, it activates the enzyme system and promotes digestion;
- daily use of fruits and vegetables, the most useful vegetable fiber is apples, green peas, prunes, figs, raisins, nuts, pears;
- in porridge add a spoonful of bran, dried fruit;
- drink on an empty stomach cold water;
- if there are no concrements in the gallbladder, then you can drink a tablespoon of vegetable oil for relaxation;
- avoid sweets, sugar substitute for xylitol.
Seafood is useful, including salad from sea kale. One problem does not solve the problem of coprostasis, so that there is no constipation, people should move, force themselves to exercise, long walks help. Proper nutrition and exercise should be introduced from childhood. This will help the child avoid serious adult problems.