How to recognize sinusitis in a 2 year old child: symptoms and treatment
Sinusitis is an inflammatory process that affects the maxillary sinus. Distinguish between one-sided and two-sided. The location of the maxillary sinuses is located near the orbit, oral and nasal cavity. This finding explains the manifestations of sinusitis. The presented ailment very rarely affects children at the age of 2 years, but despite this in medical practice, there are situations when such small patients are brought to the reception.
Sinusitis is divided into acute and chronic form. For each of them is inherent in its course of pathology.
This form of ailment in children of 2 years is a consequence of acute rhinitis, influenza, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases, which were woven in complex form.
The following symptoms are typical for acute maxillary sinusitis:
- a feeling of tension and pain in the area of the inflamed sinus;
- bad nasal breathing;
- discharge from the nose, often purulent;
- fear of light and abundant secretion of tears.
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Painful sensations are often blurred and incomprehensible.Focuses pain in the forehead, temple.At children at survey the doctor can diagnose a swelling of a cheek and puffiness of a century. When probing the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, the child feels pain.
The baby can get fever and chills. During the examination of the middle nasal passage, a purulent discharge can be detected. With a rhinoscope at the back of the pharynx of the nasopharynx, there are discharges of a purulent nature. On the x-ray, inflamed sinuses are noticeable. For an accurate diagnosis, the doctor can prescribe a trial sinus puncture.
From this article, you can learn how to treat maxillary sinusitis without a puncture.
This inflammation is the result of acute inflammation. Its development occurs with repeated acute and protracted sinusitis. The main reasons for the transition of the acute form to the chronic form are adenoid, crevice of the septum of the nose.
The disease is as follows:
- unpleasant odor from the mouth;
- pain syndrome in the area of the inflamed sinus;
- painful sensations when probing the anterior wall of the sinus;
- pain in the head, inactivity of the child;
- swelling of the cheeks and swelling of the eyelids;
- cracks in the skin at the entrance to the nose.
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For chronic sinusitis is characterized by hypertrophy of the mucosa and the formation of polyps. At the moment of remission, the baby feels satisfactory, the discharge from the nose is insignificant.
Exacerbation of sinusitis occurs very often. In this case, he is visited by such symptoms:
- elevated temperature;
- copious discharge from the nose;
- violation of the general condition;
If you do not start adequate therapy in time, then against a background of reduced immunity, phlegmon of orbit, meningitis or sepsis will occur.
Once you have discovered the first symptoms of this dangerous ailment, you need to go to the polyclinic urgently. Only timely therapy guarantees a successful outcome. In home treatment after receiving permission from a doctor, you can conduct warming up, washing. Very often they have a positive impact and can eliminate serious consequences.If you cure genyantritis in a child of 2 years did not work at an early stage, then it is worth taking more serious measures.A doctor-otolaryngologist appoints a course to the child. Only this doctor will be able to assign effective therapy to a small patient with the help of medication. Treatment of ailment in children can be carried out both at home and in the hospital. Everything depends on the severity of its current.
How correctly to take drops in the nose with antibiotics from sinusitis, you can find out by reading this article.
Rinsing of the nose
Very often, the treatment of sinusitis in a 2-year-old child involves the use of procedures such as washing, phototherapy and exposure to the laser. The most effective and popular method is the washing of the nose.There are 2 ways to perform this manipulation: "cuckoo" and the conduct of the catheter.
How to take Sinupret with genyantritis is indicated in this article.
The first method is characterized by the introduction of 2 catheters into the nasal passages, one enters the drug composition, and the other purges the purulent contents. The "cuckoo" method has such a name, since the baby is forced to repeat the cookie so that the liquid is not swallowed during the procedure.
The second method is characterized by the removal of purulent contents by the principle of alternating positive and negative pressure in the nasal sinuses. After a few such procedures, a significant improvement in the child's condition is noted.
How to properly apply Amoxicillin for sinusitis, indicated in the article.
The video tells how to wash the nose to young children:
Dangerous if you can read the genyantritis reading this article.
Laser treatment and physiotherapy
The presented type of therapy is considered very popular because of its painlessness. More doctors can prescribe physiotherapy. It has a beneficial effect on the elimination of the inflammatory process. As for acupuncture, this manipulation is not practically prescribed for children 2 years old.
How to treat bilateral sinusitis, indicated in the article.
Such treatment is advisable to carry out in the case when it is necessary to introduce accumulated fluid in the nasal sinuses. As a rule, the duration of acute sinusitis in children is 1-2 weeks. Chronic can disturb for about a month. There are situations when you can not do without a puncture.
On the video - details about sinusitis in children:
Experts do not advise to carry out independent therapeutic actions for sinusitis in young children. Such negligence can lead to serious consequences. There are only more specific methods that are allowed for exercise at home: massage procedures and respiratory gymnastics.
How to use Sumamed in genyantritis is indicated in this article.
When the child was struck by the first signs of a disease, you can tap a phalanx of the thumbs on the nose bridge slightly.The duration of such events is 2-3 minutes 2 times per hour.You can massage at specific points in the clockwise direction. It is allowed to massage the internal corners of the eyebrows, along the middle line between the eyebrows,
Breathing exercises involves alternating breathing through one and the second nostril. For 5 minutes, it is necessary to ask the baby to perform such activities and after the first session he will feel considerable relief.
In this article, the genyantritis is infectious or not.
Treating sinusitis in a child is an important activity. If they are not carried out in time, then such consequences as otitis media, pneumonia, oedemas can occur. To avoid this, you need to learn to distinguish the symptoms of this insidious disease and immediately eliminate them after agreeing all the actions with your doctor.
Symptoms of sinusitis in a child, treatment of children
Genyantritis is a disease of the nasal cavity, which has an inflammatory character. The disease affects not only adults but also children. To eliminate all of its unpleasant symptoms, you can use medicines or folk remedies. To achieve maximum effect, the doctor can prescribe a comprehensive therapy.
The disease can develop in children of different age groups in different ways. Of course, these differences are minor, but it is important to know them for the timely detection of sinusitis.
What antibiotics for genyantritis and sinusitis should be used, you can learn from the article.
Identification of signs of the disease in children under one year old
At this age, children can not tell themselves what hurts them, what feelings they visit. But there are a number of signs that each mother will be able to give a correct assessment of the situation. They include:
- bad sleep, the child is inactive, he always wants to sleep;
- obstruction of the nasal passages, as a result of which the baby has a nasal voice and difficult breathing;
- from the nose comes a large number of mucous secretions, which have a purulent character;
- body temperature can rise to a level of 38 degrees.
How often sinupret can be used for sinusitis is indicated in this article.
However, the nasal sinuses at this age are not yet formed! Therefore, higher signs can be evidence of other diseases. But in any way a genyantritis.
Detection of signs of the disease in children 5, 6-7 years
To manifest an ailment at this age begins to be more active. Here his symptoms depend on a kind of pathology.
How to treat bilateral sinusitis is indicated here in the article.
If the disease is acute, the child often complains of the following symptoms:
- discharge from the nasal passages and poor nasal breathing;
- sensation of tension in one or two sinuses of the nose;
- pain in the cheekbones, head.If there is unilateral sinusitis, then only one part of the face can be affected.When a bilateral is diagnosed, the entire face is involved in the pathological process;
- toothache, which only increases when chewing;
- headache. In the affected sinus, pus is concentrated, which leads to internal pressure in the sinus, and this provokes a pain syndrome.
How long it is possible to use sumamed at a genyantritis, it is specified in the description to the given article.
On the video - the symptoms and treatment of sinusitis in a child:
Manifestations of chronic disease
The development of the disease in chronic form occurs as a result of negligence of the parents and does not respond to the alarming symptoms of acute sinusitis. As a result, the disease goes into a chronic stage.
Manifestations of this form of sinusitis in a child are characterized by symptoms of the disease in the acute stage, only now they are less pronounced. Unpleasant signs can visit the baby for a long time. The stage of remission alternates with exacerbation. During this period, the necessary processes are started in the mucous system. As a result, the body's defenses will weaken.
Manifestation of various forms of the disease
Sinusitis in children 5-7 years old is divided into cat, purulent and viral. For the first species is characterized by an acute course, the bone and periosteum are involved in the process. Purulent discharge from the nose may be absent. Purulent form of the disease is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, purulent discharge with a smell from the nose.
Is it contagious if you read this article.
According to the type of inflammation, sinusitis is divided intocatarrhalandpurulent. In viral sinusitis, the voice changes in the child, the discharge from the nose can contain bloody clots, pain pressing pressure "behind the eyes."
Manifestation of a disease without a cold
At this age, the present ailment can occur without a cold. In this case, parents should know the symptoms, so as not to miss the precious time and start the necessary treatment.
For those who want to know what dangerous sinusitis is worth reading this article.
- a slight rise in temperature, which can last for several days;
- permanent nasal obstruction. Runny nose does not leave the baby for a week;
- pains in the head, which are aggravated by movement;
- painful sensations in the jaw during chewing;
- The x-ray image of the sinus will be presented in the form of dense opaque spots.
Infecting the sinusitis can children who have very low immunity due to the presence of a concomitant disease:
- adenoids of 2-3 degrees;
- allergic diseases, in which the children have swelling for a long time;
- various polyps, which are diagnosed as chronic sinusitis;
- congenital curvature of the septum of the nose.
To distinguish a common rhinitis from a genyantritis is very simple. During rhinitis, the baby has a stuffy nasal passages. With genyantritis they are laid in turn.
How long can I use for maxillary sinusitis amoxicillin is indicated in this article.
If you managed to recognize the symptoms of sinusitis in time, then do not delay with treatment. Do self-medication here is unacceptable, you can use only those remedies that the attending physician will recommend.
Therapy of a viral disease
To eliminate all unpleasant manifestations of the viral disease, it is necessary to perform complex treatment. It presupposes:
- Use of medicines, whose action is aimed at eliminating symptoms;
- local activities whose purpose is to strengthen immunity;
- The doctor appoints surgical treatment extremely seldom and that only in case of acute necessity.
What kind of drops in the nose with antibiotics from sinusitis should be used, indicated in the description in this article.
On the video - genyantritis in children, symptoms and treatment for Dr. Komarovsky:
When treating childhood genyantritis, doctors often prescribe certain drugs. In this case, the specialist takes into account the general well-being, the age of the patient, the stage and form of the disease. For this reason, self-medication is excluded. The effective drugs include:
- use of drops and sprays;
- taking antibacterial medications and antibiotics;
The most effective vasoconstrictive drops include the following:
These funds allow you to quickly release nasal breathing. But the use of drops is not recommended for a long time. For a child, vasoconstrictor drops should be obtained in the form of a spray or aerosol. Thanks to this effect will occur faster. All the medicinal components will be distributed evenly and in the exact dosage.
What temperature can be at an inflammation of a genyantritis, it is specified in given clause or article.
The doctor can prescribe the baby treatment with antihistamine, anesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Thanks to them, it is possible to eliminate the first signs of pathology. The most effective are usually Protargol and Kollargol.
The video tells how to treat viral antritis:
In modern medicine, there are antibiotics that have a local effect. They include Isofra, Bioparox. Excellent effect has a means of plant origin - Sinuforte. Its composition presupposes the presence of therapeutic substances of the cyclamen tubers.
How to use thuya oil for sinusitis, you can find out from this article.
When there is an advanced stage of the disease, antibiotics can not be avoided here. To children, a doctor can prescribe such medicines:
It is necessary to use UV irradiation, UHF currents when treating pediatric sinusitis. But the effectiveness of the implemented activities will be noticeable when combined with drug treatment.
Antihistamine treatment is advisable to appoint, provided that provoked the formation of an allergic reaction or poisoning the body. Thanks to such medications, it is possible to eliminate the swelling of the mucosa. The most popular are:
It is possible to resort to alternative medicine for the treatment of pediatric sinusitis, but only after agreeing all the activities with the doctor. Effective are inhalations, home-made drops and medicinal infusions.
The video tells how to treat sinusitis in a child with folk remedies:
This treatment option is considered the most effective. To prepare the formula, you can use the following recipes:
- Decoction of pine buds. The main ingredient is sent to a pan, pour water and boil. Inhale couples for 15 minutes, and then put the baby under the blanket. After such a procedure, relief comes instantly.
- Propolis. In boiling water send ½ dessert spoon of propolis tincture. Inhale the vapor for 10 minutes and the sinusitis will completely disappear. This kind of inhalation is considered the most effective. It is actively used for acute inflammation of the nasopharynx and bronchi.
At home, you can prepare the following effective drops for the nose:
- Combine in the same amount tincture of eucalyptus and tea. Drip the nose 3 times a day for 2 potassium.
- Cyclamen juice- an effective tool that in a short period of time relieves the child of all unpleasant symptoms. To drip the juice you need 2 drops in both nostrils. After 5 minutes the child begins to sneeze, sweat profusely, and from the nose will come out thick yellow-green discharge.
- Mix the juice of aloe, mountaineer, onion and calanchoe. Producing the procedure you need 2 times a day. After that, warm the baby's sinuses with a blue lamp.
Means for internal reception
With genyantritis, the child can be given the following folk remedies:
- Take 100 sugar powder, water and finely chopped pine needles. All combine in a container, which will need to be installed in the oven. Prepared formula to consume 20 ml 3 times a day.
- Collection of herbs, which includes eucalyptus, chamomile, sage, St. John's wort, lavender, string. Pour the herbs 2 liters of water, insist, strain and give the child 100 ml 6 times a day.
Help for Dr. Komarovsky
Dr. Komarovsky does not recommend giving the child antibiotics immediately, when the runny nose lasts only 3 weeks and there is no pain and no temperature. Viral sinusitis does not require antibiotics and punctures. When prescribing antibiotics before the formation of a viral infection, the probability of complications can be increased several times.
Dr. Komarovsky also does not recommend inhalation and warming up. In acute maxillary sinusitis, all symptoms leave the baby after 3 weeks. If during this time, the disease can not be cured, then it is not bacterial, but allergic sinusitis. The doctor suggests first to use the usual saline solution for washing the nose and vasoconstrictor droplets. If the child has increased temperature and pain, then you can proceed to more decisive actions.
On the video - the symptoms and treatment of sinusitis in children Komarovsky:
By itself, sinusitis is a very serious illness, and especially when it affects the children's body. To joke with this illness it is not necessary, as after there can be irreversible consequences. Once you notice the baby's symptoms, immediately go to the clinic to a specialist for an accurate diagnosis and the appointment of further treatment.
How to identify sinusitis in children 4 years of age: the main symptoms
Sinusitis is most often diagnosed in children aged 4 years and above. The reason is that the maxillary sinuses of the baby are not yet completely formed, therefore they are not cavities, but narrow slits. The maxillary sinuses will form at an older age, therefore, the classic symptoms of the disease begin to make themselves felt a little later.
On what grounds
The underlying factor in the formation of the disease is considered to be a viral and bacterial infection. As a result, childhood sinusitis can manifest itself in the form of prolonged ARI and SARS. As a rule, the symptoms of viral infections consist in the formation of the common cold, perspiration in the throat, and fever.
Under normal conditions, viral infections have a pronounced character, and all signs leave the baby for a week. Similarly, with respiratory ailments, which are formed due to bacterial infection.
How to use thuya oil for sinusitis, you can find out from this article.
Body temperature rise
At the patient at the age of 4 years from the first day of illness can rise in temperature. She will hold on until the time to begin therapy. To reduce it it is possible only in the event that medical actions are based on elimination of a genyantritis. If you just give antipyretic drugs, then lower the temperature will be only for a certain time.
Sinusitis is a disease characterized by puffiness. As a result, the child becomes difficult to breathe, as there is a purulent stasis inside. During palpation, the child is troubled by pain in the nose.
The nasal voice
Each mother can determine this symptom. When the child began to pronounce the words "in the nose this is a clear sign of maxillary sinusitis. This is due to the sinuses stuffy "deposits". As a result, there is no clear pronunciation of sounds.
When a 4-year-old kid experiences a headache with sinusitis, it focuses on the forehead and is of a permanent nature. This sign indicates that the disease is already on its way. The cause of headaches lies in a complicated outflow from the sinuses, resulting in pressure on the frontal part of the baby's head.
How to do massage with sinusitis, you can find out by reading the article.
Another symptom of sinusitis can include lethargy, fatigue, pallor of the skin.
Sinusitis in a child can be bilateral and one-sided. The difference between them is that the lesion can be applied to one or at once to two sinuses. According to clinical manifestations, the disease is divided into acute and chronic. The acute form is classified into the caratal and purulent, and the chronic form is represented by the following species:
How the cuckoo is made with genyantritis is indicated in the article.
All the presented types of chronic sinusitis, despite the difference in symptoms, cause damage to the nasal mucosa. If you do not start treatment in time, then atrophic sinusitis helps to completely stop the functioning of the mucous membrane. As a result, the baby's body is deprived of a filter that protects the lungs from pollution and cold air in the winter. If you do not seek help from a doctor when you are young, you can remain in the mature without a respiratory protection.
The video describes the symptoms of sinusitis in children 4 years old:
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis in a child of 4 years are similar to the symptoms of the disease in acute form, it is only expressed they are not so much. There are cases when manifestations of chronic sinusitis begin to disturb the baby after several weeks of treatment.The first signals of genyantritis in a child is a smell from the mouth or nose.Already these symptoms should alert the parents.
What signs of genyantritis in adults can be identified independently, is indicated in this article.
There is a chronic form due to poor-quality treatment of acute sinusitis or because of an inaccurately established focus of infection.
To confirm the diagnosis in the child the doctor sends it to the ultrasound diagnosis. Still can use the method of diaphanoscopy. Its essence lies in the fact that in the mouth of the baby the bulb of Goering is placed. The child grabs her tightly with her lips. To conduct a study is necessary in a dark room. On the level of transparency of the nasal passages the doctor will be able to determine inflammation.
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For such treatment, a specialist prescribes to the child medicines of a wide spectrum of action. Given the severity of the ailment, antibiotics can be presented in the form of tablets or injections. Most often, these drugs are prescribed:
Presented medicines are in great demand because of their rapid penetration into tissues.If the inflammation has a microplasma or chlamydial form, then an antibiotic reserve is used.As a rule, the doctor can prescribe to the child Vilprofen, Azithromycin. The dosage is selected taking into account the age of the baby.
When the genyantritis is severe, antibiotics are injected into the body. Here, intramuscular or intravenous administration can be used.
From this article you can find out what antibiotics are better for drinking with genyantritis.
Vasodilating drops of local action
In order to eliminate the edema of the nasal mucosa and the regeneration of the secretion, nasal drops can be prescribed. It is best for a child of 4 years to use these medicines in the form of a spray. To small patients the following drops can be prescribed:
Antibacterial agents of local action
Widespread demand for the treatment of pediatric genyantritis is used by such medicines as Bioparox, Isofa. They are actively fighting the causative agent directly in the nasal cavity. Take them follows a course that consists of 5 days.
Such treatment is based on the use of hormonal drops and sprays for the nose. The most effective are Polidexa, Fliksonase. These medicines in a short period of time eliminate the inflammatory process and puffiness.
To treat sinusitis in children 4 years old apply Erespal. It is made in the form of a spray for small children. For older patients, it can be taken in the form of tablets. The drug perfectly eliminates the inflammatory process, fights against all the symptoms of the disease.
To conduct surgical treatment is necessary only in a very neglected case.The operation involves a centering procedure.Manipulation is very simple. It involves the execution of a puncture of the sinus wall with the subsequent suction of purulent accumulations from it. After that, wash the sinuses with antiseptic solutions.
In addition to the treatment, the doctor can prescribe a child UHF and laser therapy, washing the nasal passages and nasopharynx. All these therapeutic measures can be used as the main treatment or supplement to the main therapy.
What is the price of the catheter Yamik, which is used for genyantritis, you can find from the article
Antihistamines can be taken only in case of allergic origin of the disease. The following medicines have been developed for children:
If you decide to turn to non-traditional treatment, you must first get the approval of the treating doctor. After this, you can actively use propolis, bee glue, medicinal herbs and sea salt. The presented components have the maximum effect in the treatment of sinusitis in children 4 years old.
The article describes the prevention of maxillary sinusitis.
On the video - more information about sinusitis in children 4 years old, symptoms, treatment at home:
The composition of this component is rich in various substances useful to the human body. All of them have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. Propolis mono actively used for various ailments of inflammatory nature. If there is a chronic sinusitis, then a 20% propolis solution should be used.
To get the medicine you need to take peach oil and propolis solution. Mix everything in the ratio:. soak a cotton swab in the medicine and insert into the nasal passages for 10 minutes. Perform such manipulations should be 2 times a day.
How to use Rinoflumucil in sinusitis, is indicated here.
With pediatric sinusitis, sage, calendula, and chamomile have a positive effect. Prepare the broth can be from a mixture of presented herbs or use some one.Use the prepared product for washing. Perform treatment in the morning and evening.
You can do such activities as prevention 3 times a week. Washing of the nasal passages in the child is an effective method of eliminating dust particles entering into the nose. Often they are the causative agents of the pathological process.
This component is a natural and absolutely safe antiseptic. Sea salt has been widely used in chronic sinusitis in a child. With regular application, you can cure the neglected form and prevent puncture.
What symptoms of sinusitis and sinusitis can be, you can find out by reading the article.
Most often sea salt is used for washing.It is necessary to add 2 tablespoons of the presented ingredient to a glass of boiled water.To eliminate pain and swelling, you can make a compress of heated sea salt, which must be wrapped in a handkerchief and put on the bridge of the nose. But it is possible to carry out such measures only if there is no purulent form of the disease.
Sinusitis is a dangerous disease, which can not be eliminated without proper examination and treatment. If you postpone therapy or perform it incorrectly, there is a huge risk of complications and the transition of the disease from acute to chronic.
All about sinusitis in children
The maxillary (maxillary) sinuses are located in the thickness of the upper jaw symmetrically on both sides. They communicate with the nasal cavity. With inflammation of their mucous membrane, sinusitis occurs. Sinusitis in children is the most frequent of sinusitis (inflammatory processes of the paranasal sinuses).
Causes of development
It is very important to find out what causes it - a violation of the communication of the maxillary sinus with the nasal cavity in inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract or dental disease.
There are the following main types of sinusitis:
- Rinogenous. Occurs with an infection of the upper respiratory tract (ARVI, influenza, scarlet fever and others). It can be a complication of tonsillitis, hypertrophy of tonsils (adenoids). Against the background of the edema of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, the lumen of the exit aperture from the sinus narrows, outflow of mucus is difficult; conditions for the spread of existing infectious agents to its wall.
- Hematogenic. The causative agent enters the sinus wall from the blood. This can be observed, for example, in diphtheria. In modern conditions, when this disease is rare, the prevalence of hematogenous sinusitis is low. This kind of maxillary sinusitis in theory can also arise in septic states, accompanied by a massive inflow of microbes into the blood.
- Odontogenic. It is associated with the spread of inflammation from the teeth and gums through the lower wall of the sinus. In children is rare, it can occur with periodontitis, periostitis, osteomyelitis of the upper jaw.
- Traumatic. This form is associated with the development of an inflammatory reaction in the form of edema, increased blood supply due to injury to the nose and upper jaw. At the same time, an infection can easily fall on the inflamed, friable sinus wall.
- Allergic. This type of sinusitis occurs in children with increased sensitivity to allergens contained in the inspired air, for example, pollen, animal hair, house dust, mold fungi.
- Vasomotor. It is associated with a violation of the tone of the walls of blood vessels in the sinus wall. When they expand, swelling occurs, the lumen of the outlet opening overlaps. It often occurs in adolescents, because at this age there is an uneven development of different parts of the vegetative the nervous system, including the vasomotor centers, with the formation of the so-called neurocirculatory dystonia.
Factors predisposing to the development of the disease
Sinusitis in children is more common in autumn and winter, which is associated with the seasonal incidence of ARVI and other infectious diseases.
For the onset of this disease, there must be anatomical prerequisites. It develops in violation of the structure of the sinus, narrowing the way out of it, deformation of the nasal septum, an increase in the tonsils.
In children under 3 years, the maxillary sinuses are only formed, the exit apertures are wide. Therefore, there are no conditions for the formation and stagnation of pathological contents in them. Children under 3 years practically do not get sick with sinusitis.
The mechanism of development
Under the influence of the infectious factor in the sinus wall there is inflammation. This is the recipient's defense response to infection. Increases the flow of blood to the affected area and the release of biologically active substances. There is swelling and redness of the mucous membrane of the sinus wall. The ophthalmic mucous membrane blocks the exit from the sinus into the nasal cavity, preventing its normal purification.
When the immune capture and destruction of leukocytes infectious agents, they die with the formation of a large number of residues. Miscible with mucus in the bosom, they form pus.
Inflammation causes a general intoxication of the body with the development of fever, malaise.
In children the acute course of maxillary sinusitis is more common, mainly bilateral.
With a long course of inflammation, its intensity gradually decreases. The organism ceases to protect itself from infection, and the inflammatory process passes into a chronic form with the formation of a constant purulent focus in the maxillary sinus.
Symptoms of sinusitis in children are quite specific. Usually, one can suspect such a diagnosis without difficulty.
Signs of acute genyantritis
- Fever. A rise in body temperature is possible up to 38 ° C and even higher. It is accompanied by a decrease in the activity of the child, malaise, sweating. The child is capricious, does not eat well. Characteristic signs of sinusitis in children - an increase in body temperature and the development of intoxication 3 to 5 days after the onset of acute respiratory viral infection.
- Pain in the face that spreads into the teeth, tenderness when pressing in the projection of the maxillary sinus (above the wings of the nose under the eye socket). The pain is bursting, can "give" not only to the jaw, but also to the forehead, the temple, the base of the nose. It increases during the day due to accumulation in the sinuses of the contents, as well as when turning the head, sneezing, tilting. After blowing the pain usually does not change the intensity. In the horizontal position and in the morning the pain is reduced. Pain when pressing in the middle of the upper jaw and in the inner corner of the eye is characteristic for sinusitis in children. There may be soreness when chewing.
- Purulent discharge on the back wall of the pharynx.
- Nasal congestion and runny nose. With a cold, there may be light or purulent discharge. The sense of smell worsens, the voice changes (the child says "in the nose").
- Nasal bleeding.
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis
- Malaise. The child is listless, does not eat well. At the same time, body temperature can be normal or slightly elevated (up to 3, ˚). Such signs are characteristic for many chronic inflammatory processes.
- Cough. It arises at night due to the irritation of the pharynx by the draining purulent contents. Such a cough is reflex (protective) and therefore does not give in to conventional treatment.
- Dull, diffuse pain in the face, spreading in the teeth, headache, sore throat when swallowing.
- Purulent discharge on the back of the throat, bad breath.
- Nasal obstruction, a persistent runny nose.
Complications of sinusitis are associated with the spread of the infectious process to neighboring organs or with the infection of the causative agent in the blood. If the infection penetrates into the cavity of the skull, it is possible to develop inflammation of the membranes of the brain (meningitis, meningoencephalitis), the formation of purulent foci (abscesses) in the brain.
When the infection spreads to the surrounding anatomical formation, there may be edema of the fatty tissue of the eye, occlusion of the orbital veins. Sinusitis can be complicated by otitis, periostitis of the upper jaw.
When microorganisms get into the blood they are carried throughout the body, forming inflammatory foci in different organs. So can develop arthritis, pneumonia. Such complications are rare, with severe purulent sinusitis.
To confirm the diagnosis, the x-ray of the maxillary sinus is assigned. In this case, the presence of blackouts in the image does not yet mean a diagnosis of "sinusitis because they can be observed in other diseases. Puncture in children is not recommended due to the danger of complications, as well as the need for anesthesia in such a procedure.
The so-called diaphanoscopy is carried out, that is, the transmission of thin bone formations of the upper jaw to reveal fluid in the sinus.
Sometimes used ultrasound and tomographic examination of the maxillary sinus.
Principles of treatment of sinusitis in children
The doctor should decide how to treat a sinusitis in a child. Treatment of sinusitis in children is based on general principles:
- treatment of dental diseases;
- elimination of predisposing factors;
- reduction of mucosal edema;
- antibiotic therapy;
- drainage and lavage of the sinus.
1. Analgesics, antipyretic, antihistamines to relieve the symptoms of inflammation.
2. Antimicrobial agents for suppressing the growth and reproduction of microbes. Typically, penicillin-type drugs are used, including protected penicillins (amoxicillin / clavulanate), macrolides, cephalosporins, and doxycycline. Often used antibiotics of local action in the form of sprays.
3. Remedies for the common cold help to remove swelling of the mucous membrane, help to clear the sinuses from mucus, facilitate breathing.
4. Inhalations. For inhalations a small vessel (a pot, a pan) and a sheet of thick paper or paperboard, folded with a cone, are necessary; You can also use a paper bag with a cut-out bottom. In a vessel pour, l of boiling water, add a solution for inhalation and naryvayut paper cone. Steam is inhaled through the nose and exhaled through the mouth. Inhalation is carried out for 5 to 10 minutes 3 times a day, including once before bedtime. After inhalation, blow your nose.
Treatment of maxillary sinusitis in children with folk remedies is carried out mainly with the help of inhalations. For this, infusions of chamomile, sage, calendula and other medicinal plants with antiseptic effect, as well as eucalyptus, menthol oil, propolis are used.
6. Physiotherapy and sinus lavage. Washing of the maxillary sinuses is one of the most effective methods for treating sinusitis in children. It is performed with the help of two catheters inserted into the nasal passages. One treatment catheter receives a therapeutic solution, and the other draws off fluid. The child with this procedure should repeat "ku-ku so that the solution does not get into the larynx. Hence the everyday name of the method - "cuckoo".
Flushing can be performed using a special sinus catheter.
At stihanii acute inflammatory phenomena are appointed fizioprotsedury - ultrasound, UFO, UHF on the nose and sinuses.
7. Use breathing exercises in the form of breathing through one nostril 10 times, then through the other also 10 times. Such exercises can be done repeatedly throughout the day. You can carry out a point massage of the points corresponding to the projections of the sinuses (above the eyebrow, between the eyebrows, nose bridge, middle point of the lower edge of the orbit). These points are massaged with a finger for 30 seconds.
Treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis is usually carried out within 7 to 10 days. With an exacerbation of chronic maxillary sinusitis, the treatment time is up to 3 weeks.
Prevention of maxillary sinusitis in children consists of general restorative measures and measures aimed at the local causes of this disease.
It is necessary to properly temper the child, strengthen its immunity, timely and fully treat colds. It is necessary to remove foci of a chronic infection, such as carious teeth.
It is necessary to timely adjust the curvature of the nasal septum, treat adenoids, rhinitis, otitis. It is recommended that children should breathe through their nostrils.
Sinusitis in the child: treatment, signs
Genyantritis is one of the most dangerous diseases, which is hard to tolerate even by adults. In children, due to the special anatomical structure of the sinuses, this ailment often leads to serious complications, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. In addition, accumulated mucus causes irritation of the nerves of the face and provokes severe headaches. Only timely diagnostics and correct measures of struggle can save from such ailment as sinusitis. At the child treatment should be supervised exclusively by the doctor. This will protect the baby from unpleasant consequences.
Often, signs of sinusitis in children appear as a result of a runny nose. Infection, located in the respiratory tract, gradually passes into the maxillary sinuses. Here it provokes the onset of the inflammatory process. Statistics show that children's colds in 5% of all cases result in genyantritis.
In this case, not only ARVI can trigger the development of ailment. Sometimes a serious illness causes adenoids, polyps, curvature of the septum of the nasal cavity. Such conditions lead to a breach of breathing. As a result, the child becomes stagnant with mucus, which leads to inflammation.
After long illnesses, when the immunity of the baby is weakened and can not fully combat infection, the risk of sinusitis is high. Frequent allergies are a constant companion of the ailment.
Symptoms of the disease
The inflammatory process in sinusitis captures epithelial cells and the underlying loose tissue, as well as blood vessels. In the stages of leakage, two types of maxillary sinusitis are distinguished:
Each of them distinguish their own, characterizing the genyantritis symptoms. Treatment in children also depends on the form of the course.
Acute sinusitis is manifested by the following symptoms:
- discharge from the nasal cavity;
- impaired breathing;
- an unpleasant feeling in the near-nasal region;
- feeling of tension and pressure in the inflamed sinus;
- pain in the area of cheekbones, temple, forehead;
- severe discomfort in the teeth, significantly worse during chewing;
- a headache, provoked by a pile of pus in the affected sinuses.
If measures are not taken in time, the ailment passes into a more severe stage - a chronic one. There are several differences in this case, such a disease as sinusitis, symptoms, treatment. In children, all signs of an illness cease to be pronounced. However, the disease for a long time bothers the baby. There is a constant alternation of stages of exacerbation and remissions. Chronic form is characterized by an irreversible process present in the mucosa. As a result of such changes, the latter loses its protective properties.
Types of inflammation
In medicine, there are many classifications of this ailment. So, according to the type of inflammatory process, the disease is divided into the following types:
- Catarrhal sinusitis in children.Treatment is complicated by the acute course of the disease. The main distinctive feature of this species is the complete absence of pus. In this case, the inflammatory process can affect even the periosteum.
- Purulent sinusitis.This form characterizes the deep degree of the inflammatory process in the mucosa. In this case, the child has purulent discharge.
Diagnosis of the disease
Initially, the doctor finds out all the complaints of the patient, interrogates parents about the symptoms, examines the child. For adults, the most effective diagnostic method is X-ray. In the picture, in the case of genyantritis, clearly visible darkening of the maxillary sinuses. In children this method will not give a reliable answer. After all, even the usual rhinitis can show in the picture a darkening of the sinuses. In addition, X-rays are not recommended for a child.
If the doctor observes signs of genyantritis in children, he can recommend a puncture. To do this, using a special needle is a puncture of the sinuses and sucked its contents.
Foreign medicine leads many arguments against the use of this method:
- in most cases, the puncture proves the purity of the sinus;
- puncture can provoke emphysema of the orbit, cheeks, blockage of blood vessels;
- piercing in babies is done exclusively under anesthesia.
There is also a completely harmless, but quite effective method of diagnosis. This is diaphanoscopy. In the darkened room, the doctor enters the Goering's bulb into the mouth. The child tightly grips her lips. In addition to this method, ultrasound can be used.
Treatment of genyantritis
Often, this ailment in children is treated with pharmacotherapy. It should be remembered that the effective treatment of sinusitis in children is able to appoint only a doctor based on the patient's condition, age and the course of the disease.
Depending on the above factors, anti-inflammatory therapy is selected, physiotherapy and "cuckoo" type procedures are prescribed. If necessary, an antibiotic is introduced into the treatment regimen.
In the severe condition of a small patient, a doctor may hospitalize a child. If the diagnosis reveals acute sinusitis in a child, treatment of the disease lasts from 1 to 2 weeks on average. In the case of a chronic species this period is stretched to a month.
Drug medication of acute form
Only a doctor can diagnose this species. If the tests showed acute sinusitis in children, treatment should be prescribed exclusively by an otolaryngologist. As a rule, drug therapy includes:
- Vasoconstrictors. These are various drops and sprays for the nasal cavity. Their action is aimed at removing the edema of the mucosa and removing stagnant fluid from the sinuses. These drugs are prescribed for a short period (about 5-7 days). They include such means: "Tizin" Nazivin "Nazol" Galazolin "Sanorin" Zanos ".
- Antihistamines. This group is appointed if the disease develops against the background of an allergy. Often these are the following drugs: "Claritin" Telfast. "
- Sprays for the nose, which include steroid hormones or antibiotics. Such drugs as "Bioparox" Isophra "Bactroban reduce the inflammatory process.
- Mucolytics. Sufficiently effective medicines if a sinusitis is diagnosed in a child. Treatment is aimed at dilution of the contents filling the maxillary sinus. As a rule, the following drugs are prescribed: "Fluimucil
"Mukodin" Robotussin "Fljuditik" Guafenizin ". As a result, mucus is better excreted.
- Antibiotics in the form of injections or tablets. Such therapy is relevant for purulent sinusitis. Preference is given to the penicillin group. These are the preparations "Amoxicillin" Ampicillin "Flemoxin" Amoxiclav. "
Bilateral sinusitis in the child
The disease can affect one of the sinuses. In this case, right-sided or left-sided sinusitis is diagnosed. Sometimes such a diagnosis can be determined even visually. About the disease is able to indicate unilateral swelling in the face.
Sometimes the ailment seizes both sinuses. In this case, bilateral sinusitis is diagnosed in the child. Treatment is much more difficult. Because this form of the disease signals a weak immune system. In such a situation it is very important to turn to a doctor in time, and not to engage in self-medication. Often the doctor directs to take a smear from the maxillary sinus. This allows you to identify the causative agent of the disease. And consequently to appoint adequate treatment.
Most often, if a bilateral sinusitis is diagnosed in a child, treatment is prescribed with the connection of antibiotics. The choice of the necessary drug depends entirely on the causative agent of the infection. These drugs help to suppress the inflammatory process and stop the multiplication of pathogens.
As a rule, the following drugs are prescribed:
It should be very carefully monitor the condition of the baby. If treatment of genyantritis in children with antibiotics does not have a positive effect for several days, you should immediately consult a doctor. After all, in this case, the infection was resistant to this drug.
Only complex methods can defeat sinusitis in a child. Treatment includes non-drug therapy. What measures to choose, the doctor decides on the basis of the patient's condition, neglect of the disease.
Sinus puncture (puncture)
Under local anesthesia a thin needle is pierced by the sinus in the place where it is the thinnest. The cavity is washed with a special antiseptic solution. Then the medicine is injected into it. The main advantage of this method is the rapid disposal of accumulated pus and the possibility of introducing the necessary drugs directly into the sinus. This contributes to the rapid reduction of facial and headache, as well as general improvement in the condition. In addition, puncture allows in most cases to do without the use of antibiotics.
The main disadvantage of the procedure is the need to repeat these manipulations in order to achieve complete cleansing of the sinus. It is extremely rare, but there is a possibility of complications. This occurs when the atypical structure of the maxillary sinus.
To avoid a repeated puncture, during the first puncture the child is given a special drainage. Through such a thin rubber tube, further washing of the maxillary cavity is carried out.
Using the YAMIK catheter
This method is an excellent alternative to punctures. A rubber catheter is inserted into the nasal cavity under local anesthesia. Two balloons are inflated in it. One of them - in the area of the nostril, and the second - in the nasopharynx. This allows hermetic closure of the nasal cavity. Through a separate channel using a syringe sucked up the contents of the sinuses, and inside the drug is injected.
The biggest advantage of this method is the preservation of intact mucosa. If we talk about shortcomings, then, as in the case of a puncture, it often requires re-manipulation. In addition, this procedure is not carried out in all medical institutions.
In the people this procedure is called "cuckoo". Manipulation occurs in the ENT room. A small patient is poured a special solution into one of the nostrils. From the other, the content is suctioned. At this time the child should say "ku-ku". This protects the oropharynx from getting into the solution.
The procedure is completely painless. But, unfortunately, is ineffective when compared with the two manipulations described above.
Folk treatment of sinusitis in children also implies the washing of sinuses. But in this case, manipulations are carried out at home on their own. For washing, salt, antiseptic and herbal solutions are used.
Very carefully it is necessary to make such procedure to children. Be sure to pay attention to the outgoing mucus. In case of any unwanted changes, consult a doctor immediately.
Washing is carried out using a syringe, spray. You can draw fluid from one of the nostrils from the palm of your hand or cup. But this should not cause the baby unpleasant feelings.
Home methods of treatment
It should be remembered that in the acute phase of bilateral sinusitis, inhalation over potatoes is absolutely not suitable, applying heated salt, sand, boiled eggs to the sinuses. Such manipulations are quite dangerous for this form of ailment.
One of the important conditions of home treatment is a full-bodied diet rich in vitamins. Very fresh juices from spinach, beets are very useful for children. In the diet it is recommended to enter garlic and onions. After all, they contain the most powerful antibacterial components. The doctor can prescribe a vitamin course. These measures are aimed at maintaining the protective functions of the body.
If you are implementing folk treatment of genyantritis in children, consult a doctor without fail. The use of any means without advice to the doctor is absolutely unacceptable.
Some activities can be carried out at home without fear of harming the baby. They include:
- Massage.On the first day of a baby's illness, it is recommended that you tap lightly on the nose bridge with your thumb. The procedure lasts for 2-3 minutes. It is advisable to repeat the tapping every half hour. The massage is effectively assisted by a clockwise (about 30 seconds) massage of the following points: the inner upper corners of the eyebrows, the lower inner parts of the orbit, and the central region between the eyebrows.
- Breathing exercises.The baby should alternately breathe for 5 seconds of each nostril. You need to repeat this exercise 10 times. While breathing one of the nostrils, the second one should be covered with a finger.
The most important direction is to strengthen the immunity of the child. Any viral or infectious diseases should be treated in a timely manner. A very small baby should be taught to properly clean the nasal cavity with a cold.
In the case of predisposing factors (for example, curvature of the septum), measures should be taken to eliminate them.
A special place is given to the need to temper the child. Excellent wiping, the adoption of air baths (if we talk about the youngest children).
It is important to remember that sinusitis often occurs in a child who is constantly in a dry air and having a dust. Therefore, it is advisable to hold in the room a constant moistening, airing.
The main signs of sinusitis in children: the first symptoms and treatment
Sinusitis is a serious disease, especially it is necessary to know the signs of sinusitis in children. It is very important to provide the patient with timely treatment, to prevent possible complications and to ensure full recovery of the child.
According to experts, sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous layer of the maxillary (maxillary) paranasal sinuses, which occurs as a result of a runny nose.As a rule, in young children over 3 years of age there is bilateral sinusitis due to the specific nature of the anatomical structure of these sinuses and the nasal cavity.
It is also worth noting that this disease most often develops in the autumn-winter period and proceeds in both acute and chronic forms. This is due to the fact that preschool and schoolchildren still have immature immune system of the body, which is easily exposed to various viruses and bacteria.
Sinusitis in children: the causes of the disease
Sinusitis can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Most often doctors diagnose in children an acute form of sinusitis, developing as a complication after acute or allergic runny nose, infectious or viral diseases such as ARVI, influenza, measles, scarlet fever, as well as against oral diseases and teeth.
As for the chronic form, it develops if the acute inflammation has not been cured completely. Do not forget that the disease can go to the chronic if there is even a slight curvature of the nasal septum and anatomical features of the maxillary sinuses.
The main symptoms of the disease
To assign the right treatment of the disease, you need to know the main types and symptoms of sinusitis in children. Depending on the causes of the following types of sinusitis are distinguished:
- Rinogenous (occurs against the background of rhinitis);
- hamatogenic (has an infectious nature of occurrence);
- odontogenic (develops against the background of a dental disease);
To make the correct diagnosis, doctors pay attention to the characteristic symptoms of sinusitis, which parents should certainly know:
- obstructed nasal breathing and stuffy nose on one side, then on the other;
- presence of abundant mucous or mucopurulent discharge from the nose, after which the child practically does not feel relief;
- headache, which gives into the nose, frontal lobe of the head, teeth and is strengthened with insignificant coughing, turns or inclinations of the head;
- decreased sense of smell;
- development of intoxication syndrome (in a sick child, a chill appears, the temperature rises, lethargy, appetite decreases and sleep disturbed);
- the runny nose does not stop within 5-7 days;
- with a slight pressure on the area of the maxillary sinuses, the child feels pain.
The development of sinusitis is very similar to other types of sinusitis, when as a result of exposure to bacteria, viruses or allergens, edema is observed maxillary sinus, a narrowing of its lumen and, as a consequence, a violation of the motor activity of cilia located on the mucous membrane sinuses. This leads to the accumulation of mucus in the sinuses, blockage of the opening and restriction of air access.
Diagnosis of sinusitis: what should I pay attention to?
The common cold differs from sinusitis in that it has a bilateral, not alternating obstruction of the nose.For children is characterized by the presence of blunt pain and blockage of the sinuses, an increase in body temperature even on day 7 of the course of the disease. A purulent discharge from the nose more than 5 days requires immediate treatment to the local doctor.
In order to diagnose sinusitis, x-rays of the paranasal sinuses are prescribed, where the picture shows signs of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses in the form of a special white shading. However, in small children the X-ray image is not always informative, since similar shadows may indicate the presence of a common cold. Therefore, the doctor can direct the child to diaphanoscopy (transillumination of the paranasal sinuses with light).
The most reliable diagnostic methods for detecting such inflammation include puncture of the maxillary sinus, but this procedure is shown only in extreme cases, since various complications after its administration are possible (inflammation or abscess of the orbit, emphysema of the cheek or blockage of the blood vessels vessels). At the slightest suspicion of an odontogenic form, a computed tomography of the sinuses is performed.
Treatment of sinusitis in children
To finally diagnose sinusitis in a child, it is necessary to take into account all the symptoms of the disease, the data of the general blood test, and also the results of the instrumental examination.
In the catarrhal form of sinusitis in children, the treatment passes quickly and is aimed at eliminating the edema of the nasal mucosa, improving the outflow of pus and mucus from the paranasal sinuses. Then it remains only to eliminate the cause of this inflammation..
The complex methods of treatment of all types of disease include:
- washing of the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses in order to remove accumulated mucus, reduce edema and alleviate the general condition of the body;
- medicamentous treatment with the use of antibiotics (amoxicillin, penicillin, augmentin), antihistamines, drops or aerosols in the nose (nazivin, pharmazoline, isofra) and physiotherapy procedures (for example, microwaves, UHF, inhalation);
- surgical treatment includes a puncture of the maxillary sinus with excretion of pus from it and the introduction of anti-inflammatory drugs;
- special breathing exercises and massage during the period of resorption.
On average, treatment of acute sinusitis in children takes 1-2 weeks, and chronic treatment can last more than 3 weeks. It is worth noting that the therapy for chronic sinusitis is aimed at preventing a new exacerbation of the disease. We must not allow such deadly complications as serous or purulent meningitis, brain abscess and meningoencephalitis..
Prophylaxis of sinusitis
The best prevention is the prevention of disease, rapid diagnosis and timely treatment of major infectious and viral diseases. An important role is played by the strengthening of immunity with the help of hardening, nutrition, vitamins and long walks in the open air. Do not forget about eliminating all kinds of predisposing factors (enlarged adenoids and curvature of the nasal septum).