Symptoms of pneumonia in adults
Pneumonia is an infectious disease. It remains one of the most common in the world. It is the leader among nosocomial infections leading to death. It is important to know the symptoms of pneumonia in adults in order to take timely action. Treatment of pneumonia and the prognosis of the development of the disease depends on the nature of the infection, age and general condition of the patient.
What is pneumonia and how dangerous it is
Inflammation of the lungs in an acute form is called pneumonia. It is caused by infections that can be transmitted in various ways, affecting the lung tissue. In the list of diseases that caused death, she is in fifth place, and medicine does not always help. Lethal outcome among adults from pneumonia is 10-33%. Intrahospital and atypical form of the disease takes even more lives - the risk of dying increases to 50%. In elderly people, people with weakened immunity, the prognosis of pneumonia is often disappointing.
From usual pneumonia, 1-3% of young patients who do not have diseases that die, can die. Among elderly patients, the mortality rate is up to 40-50%. Causes of death from pneumonia:
- Concomitant diseases, such as cardiac pathologies, existing respiratory diseases (such as bronchitis), diabetes mellitus, problems in the genitourinary system;
- bad habits (smoking, especially lengthy experience, drug addiction, alcoholism);
- dysfunctional living conditions;
- weakened immunity.
A special risk of inflammation of the lungs is for pregnant women. The disease itself is heavy due to dangerous pathologies. For a woman who carries a child, she is doubly dangerous - for the future mother and fetus. In early terms, pneumonia is threatened by an embryo, the tissues and organs of which are not yet formed. In the last trimester for a child, pneumonia is less dangerous than for a mother. Prevention is simple: strengthening the immune system of the mother.
The first signs of pneumonia
Symptoms of pneumonia in adults depend on the type of infection that caused the disease. There are several types of pneumonia, and each has its own clinical picture. The provoking factor for the onset of pneumonia is hypothermia affecting the upper respiratory tract. In the elderly, it often goes into a pathological form. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults are several: they are divided into varieties of insidious disease. The common form of pneumonia is viral, occurs in half the cases. Other reasons:
A disease that occurs without symptoms characteristic of pneumonia is called atypical. The latent inflammation of the lungs is dangerous because it is delayed for its treatment, when many complications appear. Pulmonary manifestations fade into the background, the patient is more concerned about general intoxication. The X-ray does not show changes in the airway. Signs of atypical inflammation:
- dry cough;
- sore throat;
- muscle pain;
Aseptic atypical pneumonia is caused by Legionella, viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, therefore, it is treated with antimicrobials. After infection, the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in a period of 2 to 10 days. Changes in the lungs begin later than with a typical pneumonia. The temperature rises, the patient starts to suffocate, he does not have enough air. A large percentage of patients can be cured at home, but sometimes the ailment is difficult. The mortality from this type of disease is 3-5%, the cause is cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
This type of disease is caused by several viruses. In the first place - the flu. At the onset of pneumonia, triggered by the influenza virus, malaise is noticeable during 3-5 days. Then the condition worsens, shortness of breath starts, chest pains appear. Pneumonia is treated with rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir. Viral pneumonia is caused by cytomegalovirus.
Serious complication of viral pneumonia is SARS, respiratory syndrome. It is caused by the viruses of Paramyxoviridae (they are also the cause of measles and mumps). The syndrome poses a great danger. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults with viral pneumonia are:
- very high temperature accompanied by chills;
- dry cough (unproductive);
- headache and muscle pain;
- fatigue without reason.
The cause of pneumonia in this case are bacteria: pneumococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus. Bacterial pneumonia begins with a sharp temperature jump to a mark of 41 degrees. It lasts up to 3 days, and this symptom is considered a clear sign of bacterial infection. If the temperature then falls, then rises - this is a viral picture. Pneumococcal pneumonia is accompanied by the escape of "rusty" sputum, cardiac contractions become more frequent (tachycardia), breathing becomes more difficult. Treat the disease with antibiotics.
The most dangerous variant of pulmonary inflammation is fungal infection. It is due to the fact that fungal pneumonia is not manifested at first, and people do not know that they are sick. The disease is diagnosed late. The onset of the process of inflammation of the lung tissue is like atypical pneumonia, but with the exacerbation of symptoms, the nature of lung damage changes, cavities are formed. A frequent causative agent of such pneumonia is Candida albicans, a fungus. Initially, the patient has catarrhal symptoms: fever, cough, fatigue and shortness of breath. Then, when pussy is pus, then the correct diagnosis is made.
The main symptoms of pneumonia in an adult
The cold, the flu, should not last more than 7 days, if in 4-7 days after the onset of an acute respiratory infection the condition of the patient worsened, this signal starts in the lower respiratory tract of a dangerous inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults include pallor and dyspnea. If they have a cold, they are accompanied by weakness, sweating, decreased appetite - this is typical for intoxication in the beginning of pneumonia.
Temperature with pneumonia
With atypical pneumonia, body temperature is not always greater than 3,. In the usual cases, a sharp increase to 40 degrees is typical. With pneumonia, antipyretic drugs do not work. If you can not bring down the temperature - it's a sign of pneumonia. The temperature begins to drop when antibiotics work. It is dangerous if the disease runs without temperature: the patients sometimes do not take measures until the condition worsens. How much the temperature lasts depends on the pathogen: a fungus, a bacterium or a virus.
What a cough with pneumonia
At the beginning of the disease, a cough is dry, this is called unproductive. He becomes obtrusive, constant, exhausting. Inflammation develops - this symptom also changes. The sputum departs, the color of which depends on the nature of the infection: yellow-green, purulent, "rusty." Nasal cough, which does not pass for 7-10 days, is a clear sign of the inflammatory process in the lungs.
The doctor can recognize the symptoms of the disease, assessing the patient's jittery response. The patient says words where there are several "p" sounds, and the doctor puts his hands on his chest, and determines the voice trembling. With pneumonia, part of the lung, or it is whole, becomes denser. This will be noticed by the medical doctor who conducts the diagnostics, by the fact that the voice tremor is amplified.
Diagnosis of the disease
If there is a suspicion of an inflammatory process in the lungs, a comprehensive diagnosis is performed. Sometimes already at the primary admission the doctor can determine the disease by conducting an auscultation, that is, having listened to the chest with a phonendoscope. But the main method of diagnosis in an adult is an X-ray. Necessarily the patient will take blood for general and biochemical analysis. If the patient is in the hospital, examine the culture of sputum, urine, check blood for antibodies to viruses.
Types of pneumonia
The mild forms of pneumonia, found in the initial stage, are treated at home. Remember that even mild pneumonia will complicate with improper care. It is necessary to adhere to the doctor's recommendations how to treat pneumonia in the home:
- antipyretic drugs, anti-inflammatory;
- an abundant drink is prescribed;
- an important component of the treatment is a diet: the body is poisoned by toxins, light foods, more fluids are required.
How to treat pneumonia, how long the process will last depends on the severity and variety of the disease. Infection is sometimes found in the lung tissue for years, leading to a chronic illness. Fibers and connective tissues are damaged, they press on the pulmonary vesicles, which leads to hardening of the lungs, pneumosclerosis. The patient feels discomfort, constantly coughs. It is a slow, prolonged illness, which gradually leads to complications.
Conventional pneumonia is divided into mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe in severity, it depends on how the disease proceeds. Severe acute forms include pleuropneumonia, when one or more of the lungs are inflamed. There is pneumonia in the localization:
- Focal (concentrated in the focus of inflammation);
- segmental or polysegmentary, depending on whether one or more segments are located;
- share - does not exceed one share;
- total - covers all the lungs.
One-sided and two-sided
The inflammatory process is concentrated either on one side or it is bilateral. Unilateral pneumonia is divided into two types:
- Right-sided - occurs more often, the right bronchus is wider than the left and shorter than it, the infection penetrates there freer.
- Left-sided - develops less often, with it there are stagnant processes in the lung.
Two-sided covers both lungs: all lung tissue becomes inflamed, and the disease is provoked by bacteria (pneumococcus, hemophilic rod). Against the background of one infection, other harmful microorganisms are multiplied, mixed-infection develops. In the fight against a person enter several pathogens, to select antibacterial drugs for treatment is difficult.
The focus of inflammation, located along the root of the lung, is difficult to diagnose. Such cases are called basal pneumonia. In the diagnosis of computed tomography. The doctor should exclude tuberculosis and lung cancer, the focus of inflammation is similar to a picture on a tumor. Tuberculin tests are carried out. If you mistakenly prescribe drugs against tuberculosis, but they do not give an effect - this is considered a diagnostic sign.
Bronchial pneumonia characterizes the lesion of small branches of the bronchial tree of the patient. Bronchopneumonia refers to focal. The process of recovery will take a long time. Sometimes the disease is secondary, develops against the background of bronchitis. A person tries to cure bronchitis, that is prolonged, the condition worsens, weakness appears, temperature jumps. The cough that accompanies bronchitis intensifies, unpleasant purulent sputum is separated, at times - with veins of blood.
Important symptoms of this disease: shortness of breath, increased heart rate to 110 strokes for a minute, chest pain. To the development of bronchopneumonia leads not only bronchitis, but also ARVI. Often this type of pneumonia and viruses cause this kind of pneumonia, in order to treat the disease correctly, establish a pathogen, prescribe antiviral drugs or antibacterial. How much the disease is treated depends on the type of pathogen.
In addition to community-acquired pneumonia, which develops under normal conditions, there is a serious form of illness - hospital, it is also hospital-acquired. The diagnosis is made when the inflammation appears after two days and more after placing a person in a hospital clinic with a completely different diagnosis. This is the most ruthless species, killing 50% of patients. The disease is caused by microorganisms. Types of nosocomial pneumonia:
- associated with artificial ventilation;
- Hospital-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized in serious condition.
Immunity of patients is weakened, the body struggled with another disease, was not ready to invade new microbes. To save the situation, patients are placed with droppers, use intravenous nutrition to maintain the vital forces of the body, use drugs of a new generation, potent drugs. Cure nosocomial pneumonia can not always. Treatment of pneumonia in this case is excluded.
Fracture pneumonia affects the lobe of the lung and the pleura. With this type of pneumonia, it is important to schedule injections of antibiotics, the duration of which is determined by the doctor. Applied physiotherapy, detoxification. Partial pneumonia begins suddenly and sharply. There are three forms of the disease:
- Upper-lobar - it is difficult, with neurological disorders;
- lower-lobed - gives a pseudo-picture of the "acute abdomen which confuses during diagnosis, chills and "rusty" sputum are characteristic;
- central - inflammation develops deep in the lung, symptomatology is poorly defined, difficult to define.
Croupous pneumonia proceeds acutely. The nature of the defeat of the lungs is bilateral. If the pathology is not recognized and the treatment is not started quickly, the patient will die from cerebral hypoxia and cardiovascular insufficiency. The first day the patient has a dry cough. The next day, sputum is rusty, vomiting occurs. On the third day, it becomes worse, dyspnea appears, tachycardia develops. The patient is not able to climb to one floor. Treat croupous pneumonia in pulmonology, in a hospital or resuscitation. Pulmonary lobes of the patient are totally affected on both sides.
Video: types and symptoms of pneumonia
Pneumonia is a dangerous disease, it is important to determine it in the early stages, when the treatment is effective even with folk remedies at home. In the video offered below, experts will tell in detail about the symptoms of pneumonia, teach what to look for if pneumonia occurs without the typical symptoms. Timely detection will avoid irreversible consequences.
All symptoms of pneumoniaInflammation of the lungs or, as it is also called, pneumonia is a disease of an infectious nature, it occurs in both adults and young children. Its pathogens can be various bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi and so on.
Pneumonia can develop as a complication of some illness of the upper respiratory tract, as a result of hypothermia, trauma and so on. As a rule, the symptoms of the disease appear immediately, from the first days of the illness.
Common signs of pneumonia
Usually it is not difficult for doctors to recognize pneumonia, because its symptoms are very clear. The patient has a temperature increase sometimes to significant digits - 39-40 degrees. Simultaneously with this sign, there is a pronounced chill and sweating. Also the first symptoms of this terrible disease include the phenomena of general intoxication. Patients complain of severe headaches, vomiting, nausea, lethargy and loss of appetite.
On examination, you can see that the patient's face is hyperemic, and the blush may be more pronounced on the side where the affected lung is. Very often on the lips appear herpes rashes in the form of vesicles. On the background of dyspnea, which can be 30-40 respiratory movements per minute, cyanosis of the lips may occur. Also, signs of pneumonia include a slight decrease in blood pressure and tachycardia (up to 100 beats per minute).
Often, this lung disease is accompanied by conjunctivitis, that is, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes. And in some cases, the symptoms of this pathology include also icterism, that is, icteric staining of mucous membranes and skin. It is caused by the destruction of erythrocytes in that lobe of the lungs, where the pathological process is localized, liver dystrophy occurs, blood levels of bilirubin increase.
Often the first signs allowing the doctor to suspect the patient of this disease is the occurrence of pain in the muscles and joints against the background of fever, which are often localized in the chest area and in the upper part stomach. It happens also against the background of a significant increase in temperature, confusion, hallucinations and delirium may occur, and psychosis may develop. All these symptoms should alert the doctor, because pneumonia is a very serious disease, fraught with the development of a number of complications. In order to establish an accurate diagnosis, fluorography, blood and sputum analysis, as well as examination of the function of external respiration.
Pulmonary signs of pneumoniaWith such a lung disease as pneumonia, a number of specific symptoms arise, and along with a fever, a cough appears, at first it is dry and painful, and then it becomes wet. Sputum can be a rusty shade due to the fact that it contains an admixture of red blood cells. Sometimes blood sprouts may appear in the sputum, and at times it may be all stained with blood.
On the side where the inflammatory process is localized, there is pain, which is intensified during coughing and deep breathing. Often because of unpleasant feelings a person takes a compulsory position: lies on his side, on the side where inflammation in the lungs. Also, a doctor who knows how inflammation of the lungs manifests will necessarily pay attention to the lag of the affected side of the chest during breathing.
During an objective examination, along with an increase in temperature, percussion the doctor will detect a shortening of percussion sound over the zone of pneumonia. During auscultation, one can hear breathing with a bronchial tinge; in the lungs, small bubble wet crepitic wheezing occurs early. All these signs indicate that the patient needs to conduct a study such as fluorography, that is, to do an x-ray of the lungs. During the period of illness the patient is contagious, so it must be isolated from others, including children.
Focal pneumonia, which usually occurs in patients who have chronic bronchial or cardiovascular disease, the signs usually do not have very pronounced. There is a rise in temperature to 3, degrees, when a cough appears mucopurulent sputum, the patient can complain of pain in the chest. At auscultation, crepitating rales in the lungs are heard.
Features of pneumonia in old age
If this severe lung disease has occurred in the elderly, then it is not so easy to recognize it. The disease is manifested by a slight rise in temperature, pain in the chest area with deep breathing, lack of appetite and growing weakness.
Often, patients already in the first days of illness are so weak that they can not get out of bed. Upon examination, the doctor can detect other symptoms of the disease, such as severe shortness of breath, severe tachycardia, dry tongue and a bright blush on one of the cheeks. With auscultation you can hear wet rattles.
In elderly people with severe cardiovascular pathology, septic shock and pulmonary edema can develop. A harbinger of shock is a strong tachycardia. Then there is a sharp weakness, there may be a decrease in temperature, the skin becomes gray, there is a pronounced cyanosis, dyspnea increases, the pressure drops below the 90/60 mark.
A person develops acute heart failure and develops pulmonary edema, so he needs urgent treatment. Doctors, at the first suspicion of this dangerous disease should send the elderly person for examination, and if necessary - and hospitalize.
Features of pneumonia in childhoodEven small children may develop pneumonia, so their parents should closely monitor their health and recognize the symptoms of pneumonia in children at the proper time. The disease usually begins acutely: children are fevered up to 39 degrees, there is shortness of breath (if the child less than two months, the frequency of respiratory movements in it can reach up to 60), cyanosis in the nasolabial area triangle. Also, children have weakness, they become apathetic and refuse to eat. Diagnosing this disease in children is not so easy, but if it is not done in time serious complications can develop.
In older children, the disease usually occurs in the same way as in adults. In this case, children have fever, there is a cough with phlegm and pains in the chest. The behavior of children also changes: they can become capricious, sluggish, irritable.
The chronic form of this disease develops as a result of unresolved acute pneumonia. It can occur in both adults and children. During the exacerbation, sweating and general weakness are observed, the temperature rises. There is also a cough with mucopurulent sputum, and sometimes pain in the chest.
With a bronchoectatic form of the disease, the patient can have hemoptysis, changes in fingernails and phalanges of the fingers (like "watch glass" and "drum sticks"), loss of appetite and weight loss. Above the focus of inflammation at auscultation, small bubbles, and sometimes even medium bubbling rales, can be heard, and bronchoconstriction reveals the presence of bronchiectasis. This form of pneumonia in both children and adults often leads to complications, such as spontaneous pneumothorax, pleural empyema and amyloidosis of the kidneys.
Such a pathology as pneumonia requires compulsory treatment in a pulmonary physician. After all, this serious disease can lead to a number of serious, deadly complications.
What are the first signs of pneumonia in an adult
Pneumonia (pneumonia) can develop in different ways, depending on many factors: the type of pathogen, the way it enters the lungs, the individual characteristics of the body.Often a person with pneumonia does not even suspect that he has health problems and does not consult a doctor, hoping to be cured by domestic methods. As a result, health can be severely damaged. Therefore it is important to know what are the symptoms of pneumonia, especially at the very beginning of the disease, in order to start treatment as soon as possible.
Classic signs of beginning pneumonia
In most cases, the onset of pneumonia is manifested by symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, sneezing. Then there comes a rise in temperature and a breakdown - fatigue, fatigue. After a while these symptoms can be supplemented with shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air. Often also about the beginning of pneumonia is evidence of a strong sweating, which can not be explained by objective reasons (hot weather, high physical loads, etc.). At such signs it is necessary to address to the doctor and pass or take place inspection which includes a roentgen of lungs, and in different projections.
Symptoms of developing pneumonia
However, pneumonia may be accompanied by other symptoms. For example, it often develops as a complication against the background of influenza. Then her symptoms are: pain ("aches") in the joints and muscles, headache, severe weakness in the body. Runny nose and sneezing, as a rule, no. Cough causes pain in the chest, often with sputum. With such symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and do not refuse hospitalization if it is offered.
If the pathogen causing pneumonia is bacteria of the genus "legionella the initial symptoms are: lethargy, weakness, sore throat. Often the onset of the disease is accompanied by severe diarrhea.
With pneumonia caused by a particular kind of microorganisms - mycoplasmas, the first signs of the disease are: general weakness (albeit in most cases, insignificant), headache, perspiration in the throat, as well as a prolonged cough - at first dry, and then with a retreat phlegm. There is swelling of the nasopharynx, bronchitis can develop. Body temperature is increased slightly. But on the 5th-7th day of the disease, it can reach 39-40oC. To knock down a heat of a body in house conditions at times it is very complex or difficult.
In any case, to put the correct diagnosis and prescribe the treatment can only the doctor. Therefore, it is better not to risk and seek medical advice.
Symptoms and signs of pneumonia in adults
Is pneumonia dangerous for adults?Pneumonia is an acute infectious disease that occurs with inflammation of the lung tissue. Inflammation of the lungs remains one of the leading causes of death from respiratory diseases, despite a giant leap in the development of medicine. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults, children and the elderly, as before, make doctors worry about the fate of patients.
In 2006, 591493 cases of pneumonia were detected in Russia, which amounted to 4 ‰ among adults & 8 years. But these figures from official reports do not fully reflect the true picture. The calculations of scientists show that the real incidence of pneumonia in Russia reaches 15 ‰. The absolute number of cases of pneumonia is 1500000 people every year. According to statistics in 2006, pneumonia and its complications claimed the lives of 3, 70 Russian adults.
If elderly patients & g; 0 years there is a chronic concomitant pathology (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer; alcoholism; diseases of the liver, kidneys, heart and blood vessels; diabetes), then with severe pneumonia, mortality increases to 30%. The highest mortality from pneumonia in Russia is registered in adult men of working age. Typical for Russians, the risk factor for the fatal outcome of pneumonia is later seeking medical help.
Signs that increase the risk of death from pneumonia in adults:
- Severe hypothermia before the disease.
- Dyspnea with respiratory rate & g; 8 in 1 min.
- Violation of the mental state of the patient.
- Concomitant diseases - chronic heart failure, decreased immunity, diabetes, atherosclerosis of the heart vessels, oncological processes, chronic renal failure.
- Low blood pressure
- Low body temperature
If patients who died of pneumonia knew the first signs of a dangerous illness and turned to the doctor on time, their lives could be saved.
The first signs and symptoms, indicating an inflammation of the lungs:
- Suddenness of onset of the disease;
- fever (a sharp increase in body temperature & 8 ° C);
- chills (muscle trembling);
- chest pain when coughing and deep breathing;
- dry or unproductive cough with sputum rusty;
- shortness of breath - a feeling of lack of air;
- general weakness and fatigue;
- heavy sweats at night and at the slightest load.
These signs in a person who has fallen ill with a "cold" should alert his relatives, as he is quite likely to diagnose pneumonia. If you suspect an inflammation of the lungs, consult a doctor.
Objective signs of the disease
The doctor, examining the patient, reveals the objective symptoms of pneumonia:
- Dullness of sound when tapping over the affected places of the lungs;
- hard breathing over the inflamed part of the lung tissue;
- listening to wheezing over the site of inflammation.
The main rule that confirms pneumonia is the asymmetry of objective findings, that is, the presence of pneumonia symptoms in only one lung. After the examination, the doctor will prescribe an X-ray of the chest.
X-ray symptoms of pneumonia
The main radiographic evidence of pneumonia is local dimming of the lung in a patient who has symptoms of inflammation of the lower respiratory tract.
X-rays for suspected pneumonia are performed by all patients: children and adults. This mandatory rule is associated with the risk of complications of pneumonia with a delay in the appointment of antibiotics. The consequences of procrastination can be fatal.
Treatment of inflammation of the lungsThe main component of treatment, determining the prognosis, is the correct choice of antimicrobial agent - antibiotic. Treatment of mild cases of inflammation of the lungs in adults can be carried out at home. In addition to antimicrobial drugs, the patient needs a bed rest for the time of fever, abundant warm drink and adequate nutrition. If the patient coughs up phlegm, then cough can be alleviated with the help of expectorants and compresses on the chest.
Diet for a patient with pneumonia is in frequent fractional nutrition, the food should be easily assimilated and fully-fledged in composition.
In case of a serious condition, the patient is treated in a hospital (hospital).
After recovering from pneumonia, the patient is observed at the clinic therapist for 1 year.
Prevention of disease
To prevent the disease will help vaccinate against pneumococcus - the main culprit of the disease. If the vaccine is contraindicated to a patient at risk, you can use drugs such as "vaccine-tablets." Such drugs contain surface proteins of microbial pathogens that enhance immunity. The action of such immunomodulators is regarded as "grafting only without injection. For a competent choice of treatment and prevention of pneumonia, a doctor's consultation is necessary.
Pneumonia in adults treatment and symptoms | How to treat pneumonia in an adult
It is an infectious disease in which the infiltration occurs in the lung parenchyma. Pneumonia captures lung tissue and proceeds when harmful bacteria and microorganisms enter the body. There are a number of main factors that directly affect the development of the disease in adults: alcohol, smoking, chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and lungs.
Symptoms of developing pneumonia in adults
This disease in the people is called simply - pneumonia. This is a fairly common and dangerous disease, which has severe consequences for the body and sometimes for a person's life.
Symptoms of pneumonia at the initial stage can be misleading to any doctor. Often there are cases when a doctor makes a false diagnosis and after a couple of days changes his mind.
The first sign of the disease is a cough, which is wet and dry, at the beginning of the disease only dry. When you cough, there are sharp pains in the chest area, and this is already alarming, pneumonia is more likely to begin, and you need to urgently tackle the illness.
When rusty sputum appears, this indicates that the patient has croupous pneumonia. When there is blood sputum, you need to act immediately. To be engaged in a selftreatment in that case is contraindicated, as blood allocation appears, when the disease is caused by Friedlander's wand. To localize the rod, you need to take more serious methods of treatment.
Such bacteria as streptococci, cause purulent sputum, with a characteristic unpleasant smell of sputum is very important to know that there are purulent foci and the disease begins to progress. When a patient has severe pain in his side, it is a lung infarction, a sign of hemoptysis. Another symptom of the disease in adults is often chest pain, with a deep inspiration or a fit of coughing manifests itself at full strength. When a patient feels a sharp lack of air - this is a sign of shortness of breath. In some cases, with the disease, the temperature rises to 40 degrees, sometimes adheres to 3 degrees, and the patient feels a certain malaise, lethargy, chills. Sometimes there is vomiting and a decrease in appetite.
The main syndromes of pneumonia:
1. compaction of lung tissue,
3. general inflammatory,
6. bronchial discretion,
8. respiratory insufficiency.
Types of pneumonia in an adult and its manifestation
The source of infection is most often the bacteria, but sometimes there is a viral form of pneumonia. According to the nature of the current, acute and chronic pneumonia is distinguished. If the infection penetrates into the pulmonary lobes, then this disease is called lobar pneumonia, while bronchopneumonia is an inflammation of the smaller airways within the lung.
Pneumonia in an adult is divided into several types, which contributes to a different approach to treatment:
1. Non-hospital form of the disease, which occurs in an adult person outside the hospital walls.
2. Nosomial or hospital (hospital) - developing for 48 hours in connection with the stay of an adult at the hospital.
3. Aspiration - which is associated with the inhalation of foreign masses into the lungs (vomiting after surgery, loss of consciousness, facial trauma, nasopharynx).
4. Pneumonia associated with human immunodeficiency (HIV-infected, oncological, drug-dependent, diabetic).
Stages of pneumonia in the adult and their symptoms
Pneumonia is divided into three stages according to the severity of the disease. Symptoms of the disease at each stage are different.
1. an easy stage in which mild intoxication, fever, tachycardia, dyspnea;
2. for the average stage of pneumonia in adults characterized by signs of weakness, dry or wet cough, moderately severe intoxication;
3. with pneumonia of severe severity, there is an increase in temperature to 40 degrees, turbidity, shortness of breath, tachycardia more than 100 beats per minute.
When pneumonia is in the tidal stage, the deterioration of health in the form of chills, headaches, fever, dry cough, dyspnea, acute pain in the chest area is noted. By the end of the tidal phase, there is a cough with the release of "rusty" sputum and herpes.
When the disease is at the stage of densification, during coughing sputum with purulent sputum is discharged, dyspnea increases, severe pain in the chest with a fit of cough and inspiration, high body temperature, also observe nervous excitement and icterism sclera.
When the disease is at the final stage of resolution, then normalize the temperature, chest pain and shortness of breath pass, sputum is not significant, improve your well-being.
How to treat traditional methods of pneumonia in an adult?
Treatment of the disease is prescribed when the diagnosis is clearly established. And only after this, a qualified treatment is prescribed. The first step (in treatment) is to remove focal inflammation. In this case, prescribe a course of antibiotics. The second step is to lower the temperature of the body, relieve the exacerbation of cough and organize care for the sick person. Recall that pneumonia, a serious disease. To reduce the elevated body temperature (if above 39 degrees), prescribe antipyretic drugs. Assign mucolytic agents for better separation of sputum. Particular attention should be paid to general toxication manifestations, the output of sputum, the disappearance of infiltrates. It is necessary to conduct an X-ray examination while establishing the inflammatory process. In medical practice, there are pneumonia with a changed immunological reactivity, especially in military hospitals. Pneumonia in adults is characterized by an atypical onset and presents certain difficulties in treatment, since the body does not respond to pathogens.
Treatment of a disease of a mean and severe course is carried out in a hospital. Assign easily digestible, high-calorie diet with a high content of proteins and vitamins. Preferred ward mode.
How to treat pneumonia in a hospital?
A person who has contracted pneumonia often needs inpatient treatment. In this case, the doctor prescribes strong painkillers to relieve pain that occurs in the chest area during breathing and coughing or as a result of pleurisy. Physiotherapy procedures are designed to facilitate the allocation of sputum, which often has a rusty color.
If the patient is hospitalized, he is prescribed treatment in the form of intravenous infusion of antibiotics (droppers), so in this case a strict dosage is maintained. Oxygen can also be prescribed, either through a special mask or through thin hollow tubes inserted into the nostrils. This facilitates breathing and provides sufficient supply of all body tissues with oxygen. In addition, there is a regular record of the temperature and pulse rate of the patient.
When the acute form of the disease is under constant control, antibiotics can be taken in the form of tablets. It is very important to ensure that the course of treatment of pneumonia is carried out to the end, in order to prevent the occurrence of possible complications.
Also, a regular examination of his breathing is performed and all improvements and deterioration of this process are accurately recorded. With the help of a blood test, the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide present in it is determined, as well as the presence of bacteria in the body of the patient that caused pneumonia.
What drugs cure pneumonia?
When a symptom of pneumonia is detected, treatment is usually directed to the localization of the inflammatory process of the disease. Apply eryiotropic treatment, in which first of all antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are appointed. After receiving laboratory tests (seeding on flora and sensitivity), correction of pneumonia treatment is performed.
Pathogenic treatment consists in improving the sputum production from the bronchial tree by reception mucolytics Bromheksin, Mukaltina, ATSTS) and bronchodilators (Berodual, Atrovent, Teopek, Eufillin). After the course of treatment of pneumonia, breathing improves, the infection is localized.
Symptomatic therapy includes antipyretic drugs. In the absence of contraindications, prescribe breathing exercises and physiotherapy.
Antibiotic therapy is carried out taking into account the results of microscopic studies. If sowing and microscopy are not performed or are non-indicative, antibiotic therapy is selected based on the patient's age, epidemiological factors and the severity of the disease. Treatment of pneumonia should be carried out in accordance with the concept of "stepwise therapy in which a two-stage application is proposed antibacterial drugs: the transition from the parenteral to the non-parenteral route (usually oral) antibiotics as soon as possible (under normal temperature, positive clinical, laboratory and X-ray dynamics).
In case of viral pneumonia (influenza viruses A, B), the drugs of choice are zanamivir, oseltamivir (therapy should begin no later than 48 hours after the onset of symptoms). Alternative drugs for influenza A - Remantadine or Amantadine. For community-acquired pneumonia, the drug of choice is Azithromycin (Clarithromycin). Fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin) are used orally. Alternative drugs are second-generation cephalosporins or "protected" penicillins (Amoxicillin Clavulanate or Doxycycline). Finally, for community-acquired hospitalized pneumonia, the drugs of choice are fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin), which are administered parenterally.
Cephalosporins of the third generation (Ceftriaxone, cefoperazone) are administered intravenously, in especially severe cases The parenteral use of carbapenems (meronem) or cephalosporins of the fourth generation (Cefepime).
In patients with "atypical" (including Legionella pneumonia) pneumonia, the use of antibiotics in the macrolide group is indicated. For the treatment of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeroginosa, combined antibacterial therapy ("protected" penicillins, Tazocym and Gentamicin, Fluoroquinolone and Carbapenem, or the fourth generation Cephalosporin with an antibiotic from another group to which Pseudomonas is sensitive aeroginosa). Improvements in the elimination of secretions from the lower respiratory tract are achieved with the help of physiotherapeutic procedures and by the appointment of mucolytic drugs. Derivatives of carbocysteine normalize the rheological properties of the secretion, its viscosity and elasticity, secretory function of glandular cells of the respiratory tract, the ratio of sialomucins and fucomycins, accelerate mucociliary transport.
Derivatives of bromhexine improve the drainage function of the lungs, increase the secretion of glycoproteins (mukokinetic effect), increase the motor activity of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium, stimulate the synthesis of surfactant and prevent its decay.
Disintoxication therapy: abundant warm drink, if necessary - intravenous fluid (polarizing solution, Hemodeza). Symptomatic therapy:
1. antipyretic drugs;
2. drugs that suppress the irritant cough (antitussive), bronchodilator, antihistamines;
3. means, modulating the general and local immunity,
4. vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid,
5. analgesics for pain.
In the treatment of severe or complicated cases of pneumonia, correction of microcirculatory disorders and dysproteinemia, oxygen therapy, glucocorticoid, antioxidant therapy, etc. depending on the clinical course of the disease.
Until now, Ampicillin in combination with Clavuanic acid has been used to treat pneumonia. However, in practice, it has been proven that the antibiotic is highly resistant to this type of antibiotic. Severe course of the disease requires hospitalization and the appointment of cephalosporins or Ampiox with Synthomycin. Monitor the treatment after 3 days.
How to be treated by home methods for pneumonia?
Most people who have pneumonia (up to eighty percent) can be treated at home. The patient needs to arrange appropriate care, appropriate care. This is done in order to improve the effectiveness of treatment of pneumonia in adults and accelerate its recovery. As with most diseases, it is necessary to include as much vegetables and fruits as possible in the patient's diet. As little as possible to eat fatty foods and hard to digest food. It is recommended to the patient abundant, warm drink.
1. First, fluid in pneumonia helps to sputum.
2. Secondly, it prevents dehydration of the body during elevated body temperature.
3. You can drink: milk, alkaline mineral water, juices. A person who has become sick with pneumonia needs complete rest and a bed rest.
4. A positive result will give therapeutic gymnastics. It can accelerate the recovery of a person. It must be done from the first days. From the second day of illness, it is necessary to carry out respiratory gymnastics (lying in bed). Also, during the illness it is necessary to perform tilting (forward, sideways), rotate the body. Such exercises are useful for the chest.
5. Treatment with antibiotics is strictly individual. To prescribe antibiotics, it is necessary to establish the degree of development of the disease, determine at what stage the disease, and what form of pneumonia. From the correct diagnosis depends on the purpose of antibiotics. The duration of treatment for pneumonia is also strictly individual.
6. Give up smoking, go in for sports, change your diet so that this disease will pass you by.
Causes and prevention of pneumonia in adults
Typical pathogens of primary out-of-hospital pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamidia pneumoniae. In 20-30% of patients, the etiology of the disease can not be established. Some microorganisms are normally rare in the composition of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract and can cause development of pneumonia in older age groups with concomitant severe chronic diseases of other organs and systems.
Acute respiratory viral infections, primarily influenza, are certainly the main risk factor, but most scientists say that they rarely cause pneumonia in adults. At the same time, in infants, viruses can cause pneumonia.
In secondary (hospital) pneumonia in adults, the role of gram-negative microorganisms and conditionally pathogenic flora is great: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Esche-richia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomo-nas aeroginosa, Legionella pneumoniae. The etiology of aspiration pneumonia is characterized by the involvement of nonclostridial anaerobes (Bacteroides spp., Micoplasma spp., Candida spp.), Often in combination with an aerobic graffiti microflora (Hae-mophilus influenzae, Enterobacterio-ceae). In the development of the disease in persons with severe immunological disorders, cytomegalovirus infection, Pneumocystis cari-nii, pathogenic fungi, mycobacterium tuberculosis, along with other microorganisms encountered in other pneumonia.
The causative agent of the disease is epithelial dysfunction and mucociliary clearance disorder. Thus, pathogens search for the receptor field, adhesion on it and colonization. The use of antibiotics gives results only at the stage of colonization of microorganisms.
Mucociliary transport is the main factor of lung protection, which is disrupted in acute pneumonia. Disturbance of pulmonary ventilation is an obligatory factor of acute pneumonia.
The age of the patient influences the development of the disease. The disease also depends on the time of the year, most often a high percentage of the disease occurs during the cold season, a severe illness is observed in people who have come from the regions of the far north. A major role in the disease is chlamydia pneumonia, which affects young people. The main pathogens of pneumonia: in winter - streptococci, in autumn - mycoplasma, for summer is characteristic - legionella. The advantage is led by streptococcus, the etiology of the disease has not yet been established.
According to the European Society of Pulmonology, the number of pneumonias does not include diseases of pulmonary tissue of non-infectious nature; caused by physical, chemical factors; having allergic or vascular origin; caused by highly contagious infectious agents (plague, measles, rubella, abdominal typhus, influenza; such diseases are considered in the context of an appropriate infectious disease); diseases caused by a viral infection (in the first place with the flu).
Prevention of pneumonia in adults
In the future, it is necessary to temper and observe common sanitary and hygienic factors (do not smoke, avoid dust, airing rooms or cabinets, full nutrition and much more). Be careful to your health! Take care of yourself!
In medicine, the term pneumonia refers to an acute infectious disease, predominantly bacterial etiology, with focal lesions of the respiratory departments lungs and mandatory presence of intraalveolar exudation, which is detected during physical and / or instrumental examination, with general inflammatory and toxic changes.