Signs of bacterial pneumonia in an adult
- Bacterial pneumonia
- Viral pneumonia
The disease of pneumonia or pneumonia is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms.
This inflammation causes fluid to flow into the infected part of the lungs, affecting one or both of the lungs.
Inflow of blood to the infected part of the lung (or lungs) decreases, which means that the oxygen level in the blood can decrease.
This decline is likely to occur in the elderly or malnourished people. During illness, the body tries to maintain blood flow to vital organs and reduce blood flow to other parts of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract.
Causes of pneumonia in adults:
Bacterial pneumonia: this type of pneumonia usually begins after a flu, cold, or upper respiratory tract infection. Decreased immunity allows bacteria to multiply in the lungs, causing disease. There are many different bacteria that can cause inflammation of the lung tissue. The most common pathogen is pneumococcus. Microorganisms can spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes or touches objects with unwashed hands. Bacterial pneumonia can be a more serious disease than viral pneumonia.
- Viral pneumonia. A variety of different viruses can cause viral pneumonia. Among them: influenza, chicken pox and respiratory syncytial virus. Viruses can be transmitted between people through coughing, sneezing or touching something that has been in contact with the liquid of the infected person.
- Fungal pneumonia. It is most often caused by fungi from the environment.
- Pneumonia of mycoplasma. Mycoplasma organisms invisible to the eye easily spread, especially in places of large concentrations of people (such as offices or schools). This type of pneumonia, as a rule, quickly passes.
- Pneumocystis pneumonia. Caused by a yeast-like fungus, which is usually found in the lungs, without creating problems for the "master but can grow and lead to pneumonia in people whose immune system is weak (eg, due to AIDS, organ transplant, cancer, or chemotherapy).
- Aspiration pneumonia. Occurs when the contents of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx are inhaled into the respiratory tract.
- Legionnaires' disease. It is caused by a bacterium legionella, which lives in water. Disease Legionnaires can spread through contaminated plumbing, shower or air conditioning.
Signs of pneumonia in an adult with bacterial pneumonia
Doctors often divide bacterial pneumonia into a typical and atypical, based on the signs and symptoms of the disease.
A typical pneumonia occurs very quickly.
- Typical pneumonia usually leads to severe fever and chills.
- At the patient at cough sputum of yellow or brown color is allocated.
- There can be a pain in the chest, which, as a rule, increases with deep breathing or coughing. The chest can hurt when it is touched or pressed. Chest pain can be a sign of other serious illnesses, so do not try to diagnose inflammation of your lungs yourself.
- A typical pneumonia can cause dyspnea, especially if a person has any chronic lung disease, such as asthma or emphysema.
- Elderly people may suffer from confusion or mental impairment during pneumonia or other infections.
Atypical pneumonia begins gradually.
- Sometimes another illness begins several days or weeks before pneumonia.
- Fever is usually weak, and chills are less likely than in the case of typical pneumonia.
- The patient can complain to the doctor about a headache, body aches, and joint pain.
- Cough can be dry or with it a small amount of sputum is released.v
- Chest pain is often absent.
- There may be abdominal pain.
- There is a feeling of fatigue or weakness.
Bacterial pneumonia, like the virus, is contagious.
When to seek medical help?
- If the patient has a fever and cough with yellow, green or brown sputum, he should visit a doctor.
When to call an ambulance for pneumonia?
- If the patient has shortness of breath. This sign of lung inflammation in an adult as a breathlessness is not just a feeling that a person can not take a full breath. Shortness of breath means that the patient can not dial into the lungs enough air to meet the needs of the body. This is a potentially serious symptom and he always requires a visit to the emergency room.
- If the temperature rises above 39 ° C or falls below 35 ° C.
- If the pulse is equal to or greater than 125 beats per minute at rest.
- If the respiratory rate is more than 30 breaths per minute at rest.
- If a systolic blood pressure drop below 90 mm Hg occurred, resulting in dizziness, blockage, or fainting.
- If there is pain in the chest or confusion.
Risk factors for the development of pneumonia:
- a chronic health problem, such as diabetes;
- alcoholism or drug addiction;
- cardiac ischemia;
- a weak immune system, for example, due to the use of steroids or the use of drugs to suppress immunity (people with transplanted organs take such drugs);
- sick or damaged lungs due to asthma or emphysema;
- very young or very old age (over 65 years);
- life in a nursing home;
- problems with vomiting reflex (frequent suffocation or difficulty swallowing);
- a surgery to remove the spleen.
Complications that may occur from pneumonia include:
- Bacteremia: the infection penetrates into the bloodstream and can spread to various organs.
- Pleurisy and empyema: with pleurisy occurs an inflammation of the membrane, which covers the lungs (pleura). The empyema occurs when the fluid in the lungs that causes inflammation becomes infected.
- Lung abscess: cavities (or one cavity) filled with pus may appear in the infected area of the lungs.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome: when the lungs are severely damaged due to pneumonia, respiratory arrest may occur.
The first signs of viral pneumonia in adults: how to recognize viral inflammation
Viral pneumonia usually occurs in young children and the elderly. This is because the body of a young or elderly person is harder to fight the virus than an adult human body with a strong immune system.
In healthy adults, pneumonia usually proceeds easily. In contrast, elderly people and those with weakened immunity often develop severe viral pneumonia. Patients aged 65 years and over are at risk of dying from viral pneumonia, as well as from influenza not complicated by pneumonia.Viral pneumonia is most often caused by one of several viruses:
- Paragrippus. Parainfluenza virus is the second most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and pneumonia and bronchitis in children under 6 months of age.
- Respiratory syncytial virus. This is the most common cause of lower respiratory infection in infants and children, and the second most common viral cause of pneumonia in adults. The first is influenza viruses.
Swine influenza (H1N1) was associated with an outbreak of pneumonia in 2009. The first reports came from Mexico, where there was a very high mortality from this disease. Many cases were also recorded in the US Nevertheless, early detection and treatment helped to significantly reduce the death rate from viral pneumonia.
Serious viral pneumonia is most likely to occur in:
- Premature babies.
- Children with heart and lung diseases.
- People infected with HIV.
- People undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or taking drugs that weaken the immune system.
- People who underwent organ transplantation.
The first signs of pneumonia in adults with viral infection
Symptoms and signs of viral pneumonia often develop slowly and at first seem harmless, whereas when Bacterial pneumonia develops very quickly and patients seek medical attention within a few days.
The most common signs are:
- Subfebrile temperature (less than 38.8 ° C).
- Cough with a little mucus.
- Muscle pain.
- Blue nails (due to lack of oxygen in the blood).
- Nausea and vomiting.
During a physical examination, the following signs of pneumonia can be observed in a patient:
- Tachypnea (rapid breathing).
- Tachycardia or bradycardia.
- The wheezing in the lungs.
- Breast or intercostal retraction (internal muscle movements between the ribs).
- Decreased breathing sounds.
- Cyanosis (blue skin).
- Rashes on the skin.
- Acute respiratory distress (a dangerous violation of pulmonary function, respiratory failure).
When to seek medical help?
You should see your doctor if any of the following symptoms appear:
- Persistent cough.
- Dyspnoea in motion, or at rest.
- Severe chest pain.
- Severe weakness.
- Coughing with blood.
- Vomiting is so strong or frequent that dehydration has occurred.
- Impossibility to eat and drink fluids.
How to recognize pneumonia in adultsPhysical examination is necessary for the diagnosis of pneumonia. It can also help to determine how serious the disease is, and what can be its cause.
The doctor will listen to the heart, lungs and chest of the patient through a stethoscope.
It will also consider vital signs such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate.
Information collected during a physical examination can help a doctor determine if pneumonia is mild or severe.
- A chest X-ray may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of "pneumonia". Many people with mild pneumonia symptoms are prescribed effective treatment without radiography. Nevertheless, patients with moderate and severe pneumonia often receive a chest x-ray to determine the extent of the disease and identify complications of the disease, such as pus in the lungs.
- Laboratory tests are sometimes required to diagnose pneumonia. Laboratory tests can help a doctor find out what caused pneumonia and how the patient's body tolerates the disease.
- The most common laboratory tests include: measuring the number and type of white blood cells in the blood, and using a sputum sample to help identify possible pathogens of the infection. People with difficulty breathing can undergo pulse oximetry (a test that allows you to assess the oxygen saturation and heart rate).
The patient should inform the doctor about any illnesses that he has, including abnormal vomiting reflex, alcohol or intravenous drug use, smoking and recent hospital. You also need to tell the doctor about a recent episode of a viral infection or flu-like symptoms.
What should I do with the first signs of pneumonia in adults?
- Do not smoke and do not allow others to smoke near the patient. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can lead to lung damage. Talk with your doctor before using electronic cigarettes and other drugs to help stop smoking.
- Have more rest.
- Use a household air humidifier. The patient is able to clear more sputum, if breathing with moist air.
- Drink fluids to help prevent dehydration when vomiting. In addition, the liquid helps to thinning the mucus, so it leaves the body more easily.
- Deep breathing and coughing. Deep breathing helps open the airways to the lungs. Cough helps to "drive out" mucus from the lungs. You need to take a deep breath and hold your breath for as long as you can. Then exhale the air and cough hard. Do 10 deep breaths in a row every hour from the moment you wake up.
Viral pneumoniaIs a disease in which the lower respiratory tract becomes inflamed. The causative agents of pneumonia are viruses, less often bacteria or fungi, which against the background of a general weakening of immunity attack the cells of the body and successfully reproduce in them. Most often, the virus causes influenza A and B, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza in children.Symptomatology and development of pneumonia
Viral pneumonia, the incubation period of which lasts from three to five days, is often misled by the similarity of symptoms characteristic of ODS or influenza. Since infection of the body occurs against the background of these diseases, it can be diagnosed by worsening the patient's condition, despite the treatment of these diseases.
Symptoms of viral pneumonia are manifested in a chill that indicates a strong intoxication of the body. He suffers sick:
- severe fever;
- pain and aches all over the body;
- thread in the field of eyeballs;
- unproductive, dry cough.
Some viruses-pathogens provoke headache, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, which are nothing more than an organism's response to intoxication and its protective reaction. High temperature indicates an adequate response of the body to manifestations of the virus. If the temperature does not get out, then the inflammatory process has begun.Diagnosis of the disease
Viral pneumonia, the symptoms and treatment of which in the initial stage were misdiagnosed, and the drugs appointed after several days, may be aggravated by the addition of bacteria, and this complicates the condition patient. There is pain in the chest area, a strong cough with the separation of phlegm and mucus with inclusions of pus. Given the combination of symptoms and indications of fluoroscopy, the doctor can diagnose viral pneumonia, and prescribe a treatment.Treatment and prevention of pneumonia
Pneumonia is a viral disease, and drugs prescribed by a doctor are symptomatic and antiviral. Antiviral drugs are effective only if they are taken no later than 48 hours after infection. For this reason, they are prescribed to patients for prevention at the first symptoms.
If time is lost, further use of antiviral drugs does not make sense. Before treating viral pneumonia, which can not be diagnosed immediately, the patient is prescribed cough preparations. At a time when the cough is no longer dry, and sputum appears, the use of these drugs must be stopped immediately. Further reception of such drugs will entail a complication in the form of pneumothorax - air accumulation in the lungs.
To facilitate the departure of phlegm, the doctor prescribes expectorant in the form of tablets, syrups and inhalations with these drugs, as well as drainage massage. After the bacteria are added to the common disease, pneumonia is prescribed antibiotics, depending on the patient's condition and the course of the illness.
The course of antibiotic treatment lasts from seven to ten days. In this case, the patient is prescribed a bed rest in a hospital in a medical institution. Since viral pneumonia is transmitted by airborne droplets, the patient is in quarantine to avoid the spread of infection.Consequences of the disease
Viral pneumonia, the treatment of which was successful due to the timely diagnosis, takes two, three weeks without any significant consequences. But more often patients do not always go to the doctor on time, referring to the fact that they have the flu and prescribe themselves treatment, guided by the abundance of advertising medications on TV. In the treatment of advanced pneumonia, cases of complications are frequent, such as:
- obstructive bronchitis;
- chronic respiratory failure;
Viral pneumonia is caused by various viruses. In adults, the most common cause is influenza A and B, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus. It should be noted again that primarily viral pneumonia caused directly by viruses, usually occurs in the first 1-3 days, and from 3-5 days of pneumonia becomes viral-bacterial.ICD-10 code B25.0 Cytomegalovirus pneumonia J17.1 * J12 Viral pneumonia, not elsewhere classified J12.0 Adenovirus pneumonia J12.1 Pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus J12.2 Pneumonia caused by parainfluenza virus J12.8 Other viral pneumonia J12.9 Viral pneumonia unspecified
This viral pneumonia begins acutely: body temperature rises rapidly, chills often occur, pronounced the phenomena of intoxication (intense headache, sensation of aching in the bones, pain in the muscles, lack of appetite, nausea and even vomiting). Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (nasal congestion, obstruction of the nasal respiration), dry paroxysmal cough, in the future begins to separate mucous sputum (sometimes with an admixture blood).
With percussion of the lungs, there is practically no change in percussion sound. A distinct shortening (dullness) of percussion sound is noted with the development of viral-bacterial pneumonia and the appearance of foci of pulmonary tissue infiltration. However, it is often possible to detect muffling of percussion sound over the region of the lung root. With auscultation of the lungs, hard breathing is most often observed, with the development of viral-bacterial pneumonia - small bubbling rales and crepitation in various parts of the lungs. Characteristic is also a rapid (within 1-2 days) alternation of foci of hard or weak breathing, dry wheezing with foci of feces, wet wheezing. Such a dynamic auscultatory pattern is due to abundant exudate closing the lumen of the bronchi, and the development of dynamic atelectasis.
In view of the widespread bronchitis and bronchospasm, pronounced dyspnea is possible.
Radiographic examination of the lungs reveals predominantly interstitial lesion with increased vascular pattern, peribronchial infiltration. With the development of viral-bacterial pneumonia, signs of pulmonary parenchyma lesions appear in the form of focal (more rarely - share) dimming.
In the general analysis of blood, leukopenia and lymphocytopenia are determined.
There is a special form of influenza pneumonia - hemorrhagic pneumonia. It is characterized by a severe course and pronounced symptoms of intoxication. From the first day of the disease appears a cough with the separation of serous-bloody sputum, the amount of which then increases sharply. Characterized by high body temperature, dyspnea, cyanosis.
In the following days, against a background of high body temperature and pronounced dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency develops, pulmonary edema and hypoxemic coma develop. Hemorrhagic influenza pneumonia often results in death.
Pneumonia caused by other viruses
The clinical picture of pneumonias caused by other viruses (parainfluenza, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus) is mainly manifested by symptoms similar to influenza pneumonia. However, with pneumonia due to the parainfluenza virus, fever is less pronounced, tracheitis is more common, a slow resolution of the inflammatory process in the lungs is characteristic.
Adenovirus pneumonia is accompanied by catarrhal tracheobronchitis with a prolonged cough, often hemoptysis, rhinopharyngitis, persistent fever, the increase and soreness of lymph nodes on the neck, radiologically small foci of darkening and sometimes the increase in lymph nodes in the root lung. Adenovirus infection is also characterized by eye damage in the form of conjunctivitis. As a rule, pneumonia with adenovirus infection is viral-bacterial.
Pneumonia caused by a respiratory syncytial virus is characterized by a high body temperature for 7-10 days, pain in the chest, wet and dry wheezing in various parts of the lungs, accompanied by symptoms of rhinopharyngitis. Radiographic examination of the lungs determines the intensification of the pulmonary pattern, it is possible to identify the foci of compaction of the lung tissue.
Where does it hurt?Pain in the chest Pain in the chest in children
What's bothering you?Cough Chrumples in the lungs Shortness of breath Body temperature High fever in the child
Diagnostic criteria for viral pneumonia
When stating the diagnosis of viral pneumonia, the following provisions should be considered:
- the presence of an epidemiological situation for influenza and other acute respiratory diseases;
- characteristic clinical manifestations of influenza or other acute respiratory diseases;
- predominantly interstitial lung changes during X-ray examination;
- detection of the virus in mucus throat, nose, nasopharyngeal washings using immunofluorescence method using monoclonal antibodies;
- the growth of antibody titres in the blood of patients to the corresponding viruses is 4 times or more 10-14 days after the onset of the disease (retrospective diagnosis of a viral infection).
- Pneumonia - Treatment regimen and nutrition
- Antibacterial drugs for the treatment of pneumonia
- Pathogenetic treatment of pneumonia
- Symptomatic treatment of pneumonia
- Fighting complications of acute pneumonia
- Physiotherapy, exercise therapy, respiratory gymnastics with pneumonia
- Sanatorium treatment and rehabilitation for pneumonia
What it is necessary to survey?Lungs
How to inspect?X-ray of lungs Examination of respiratory (lung) organs Investigation of bronchi and trachea Computed tomography of thorax
What tests are needed?General blood test Sputum analysis Influenza: antibodies to the influenza A and B virus in the blood
Who to contact?Pulmonologist Infectionist
In addition to treatmentPhysiotherapy for pneumonia What to do with pneumonia? Antibiotics for pneumonia
Viral pneumonia - treatment
Viral pneumonia- an inflammatory disease in which viruses affect the lungs. As a rule, pneumonia develops on the background of weakened immunity. In this case, the body is attacked by a viral infection. Typical is the course of the disease, when in the first days there is a primary viral pneumonia, and in the consequence of pneumonia becomes viral-bacterial, as pathogenic viruses are joined bacteria.
Treatment of primary viral pneumonia
In the treatment of viral pneumonia, antiviral drugs, as well as neuraminidase inhibitors, are used. These drugs are effective if they are taken when the first signs of the disease manifest. Among modern drugs intended for the treatment of viral pneumonia, triggered by the influenza virus, it should be noted:
In the event that the causative agent of the disease is the varicella zoster virus, Acyclovir is used for therapeutic purposes.
The powerful inhibitors of neuraminidase are antiviral drugs Relenza and Tamiflu. The newest medications are particularly effective in treating severe forms of viral pneumonia caused by the H1N1 flu virus.
To reduce the increasing intoxication of the body, frequent drinking is recommended. The best are such warm drinks as:
- berry fruit drinks;
- broth of dogrose;
- compotes of dried fruits and fresh fruit;
- teas with lemon, ginger, honey, lime blossom, raspberry.
An increase in body temperature above 38 degrees requires the use of antipyretic agents. For better separation of sputum, mucolytic and expectorant drugs are used. Significantly facilitate the patient's state of steam inhalation with essential oils, for example, with eucalyptus oil, pine, thuja, chamomile. Thanks to these procedures, liquefaction and separation of sputum occurs. When viral pneumonia is recommended to do inhalations for a week for 2-4 procedures a day, depending on the course of the disease.
Important in the therapy of pneumonia are physiotherapy, including:
- mustard plasters;
- medical banks;
- hot foot basins (preferably with mustard);
- local massage;
- hardware treatment (electrophoresis, UHF, etc.);
- exercise exercise therapy.
These methods are aimed at improving blood supply and, accordingly, reducing the zone of inflammation in the lung cavity.
Attention!When pneumonia of any etiology is shown bed rest. Use of alternative medicine is possible only after consultation with a specialist.
The use of antibiotics in the treatment of viral pneumonia in adults
In case of bacterial infection, which usually occurs on the third-fifth day, course treatment of viral pneumonia with antibiotics is conducted.
For therapeutic purposes, with viral-bacterial pneumonia, the following are prescribed:
Treatment of bilateral viral pneumonia is carried out exclusively in stationary conditions. In this case, bothantiviral agents, and powerful antibiotics:
The main task of the pulmonologist is to prevent the development of severe complications against pneumonia, including obstructive syndrome, abscess, gangrene of the lungs, etc.
Therapy of pneumonia is carried out until the patient is fully recovered. The fact of recovery is established on the basis of the results of X-ray, laboratory and physical examinations, as well as medical observations of the patient's condition.