Why there is a narrowing of the pupils?

Today, almost every person has certain problems with vision. Often there are situations when pupils narrowing. This reaction is considered normal if, for example, after darkness, turn on bright light. Thus, the narrowed pupils protect the retina from penetrating too much light onto it.

Content

  • 1Definition of a symptom
  • 2Causes
  • 3Possible diseases
    • 3.1Disorders in the work of the liver
    • 3.2Disturbances in the work of the kidneys
    • 3.3Edema of the brain
  • 4Diagnostic Methods
  • 5Treatment
    • 5.1Antropin
    • 5.2Midratsil
    • 5.3Irifrin
    • 5.4Cyclomed
    • 5.5Mesatone
    • 5.6Appampamide plus
  • 6Home methods
  • 7Prevention
  • 8Video
  • 9conclusions

Definition of a symptom

The constriction of the pupils is a reflex mechanism, which takes into account the fact that in the iris the circular tapering muscles are concentrated.When they are reduced, the pupils decrease in size. But sometimes this phenomenon is permanent in both normal and insufficient lighting.

In medical practice, the narrowing of the pupils is a common symptom, which can indicate the presence of a certain ailment. So it is important to make a diagnosis in time.

When the size of the pupils decreases, this is the result of contraction of the two major muscles.The radial promotes the expansion of the diameter, but the circular one - the narrowing of the pupil. These muscles have a direct connection with the activity of the nervous system.

Causes

Often, the narrowing of the pupils is the result of taking certain drugs.It is also possible to influence this phenomenon by the decreased activity of the brain. And it happens mainly in people in old age.

Pupils are narrowed - this is the physiological norm that can be observed under the following conditions:

  • infancy or senility;
  • farsightedness;
  • severe overwork: mental or physical;
  • accommodation and convergence;
  • reaction to bright light;
  • when you wear contact lenses.

Possible diseases

Often narrowed pupils can indicate the development of a certain pathological process.

The earlier the cause of the disease is identified, the faster it is possible to begin treatment and prevent the development of complications.

Disorders in the work of the liver

If this pathological process takes place, then the patient has the following symptoms:

  • Skin covers and whites of the optic organs acquire a yellow tinge;
  • unpleasant odor from the oral cavity and from the skin, which is similar to the smell of boiled liver;
  • increased bleeding gums when cleaning teeth, during menstruation in girls, as well as admixture of blood in the vomit;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • inadequate behavior;
  • in the daytime you always want to sleep, and at night you get insomnia, and when the disease progresses, drowsiness acquires a permanent character.
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Eye drops from glaucoma and eye pressure

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Disturbances in the work of the kidneys

If there is a narrowing of the pupil, then this may indicate the last stage of such a disease as uremia. The following symptoms are possible:

  • small amount of urine;
  • odor of ammonia from the mouth;
  • pain in the head, while the temperature can be normal or slightly reduced;
  • poor appetite;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • stomach ache;
  • diarrhea;
  • The skin is thinner, it becomes dry and covered with powder;
  • drowsy condition;
  • tendency to bleed.

Edema of the brain

Influence on the development of edema of the brain can be a variety of reasons, among which:

  1. Diabetes mellitus, in which the concentration of glucose in the blood becomes large.
  2. Uremia.
  3. Insufficient liver function.
  4. Tumors in the brain that can be concentrated in the cerebellum, the cupola or the middle brain. In this case, the pupils react to light.
  5. Inflammation of the brain or its membranes.
  6. Stroke that occurs as a result of a hemorrhage into the cavity of the skull.
  7. Drug taking.

The main symptom of cerebral edema remains constant drowsiness. At first, it is very difficult to wake a person, but then he wakes up, but he does not get an answer to a question. In addition, there is an increase in intracranial pressure, which becomes the cause of narrowed pupils.

Diagnostic Methods

At the heart of the diagnosis is a careful collection of anamnesis. The doctor must necessarily determine the presence of accompanying pathologies, as well as the dynamics of their development. And the doctor can use the old photos of the patient to diagnose it. Considering them, he will be able to determine whether there was a similar symptom earlier or later.

Even during the diagnosis, the doctor must determine the size of the pupils in the light, in the dark.The results obtained make it possible to understand the cause of the development of the pathological symptom. From auxiliary survey methods, CT or MRI is used.If the doctor suspects vascular anomalies, then the diagnosis will presuppose a contrasting antigraphy, Doppler ultrasound.

Treatment

After an accurate diagnosis, the doctor can make an effective therapy regimen.

The prescribed drugs should be used with the dosage and duration of therapy.

Antropin

This drug perfectly dilates the pupils, but only it has not received wide popularity in the field of medicine. And this is due to certain shortcomings. This includes the high toxicity of the substance, many contraindications and long-term effects. The action obtained from Atropine can be 2-7 days. Side effects include deterioration of visual function and discomfort, which will not last long.

And although the medicine dilates the pupils, it can not be used without medical supervision and the doctor's appointment.

Midratsil

After applying this medication, you can feel a positive effect after 15 minutes, and the effect lasts for 3 hours.For this reason, the visual organ quickly regenerates. Use Midratsil can both children and adults.And although the drug is safe, use it must be extremely cautious, especially during inflammation in the eyeball or increased intraocular pressure.

Irifrin

This drug has found its active use for diagnosis and treatment of eye pathologies.His popularity today is very high, despite the fact that the action from the drops is short. By means of the agent, it is possible to reduce the intraocular pressure.It is forbidden to use children under 12 years old, and the drug is contraindicated for patients with diseases of the heart and cerebral vessels.

Cyclomed

This medication has gained wide popularity in ophthalmology.With its use, the positive effect lasts 6-12 hours. Women may use the drug during pregnancy. But it is contraindicated for patients under 3 years old. Also, the medicine should not be used for people with adenoma and intestinal obstruction.

Mesatone

The drug has an effect similar to other eye drops.But only has a number of contraindications, which include:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • pregnancy;
  • high blood pressure;
  • hepatitis;
  • pancreatitis.

Appampamide plus

This drug refers to the potent.Positive effect is noted only 5 minutes after instillation, and it lasts 2 hours. Do not use the product for children, women breastfeeding and during pregnancy.

Also as contraindications is diabetes, arrhythmia, thyrotoxicosis and angina.

Home methods

You can dissolve the pupils at home without the use of drops. To do this, use some simple guidelines:

  1. Close your eyes and imagine that you are in total darkness.According to the research, this method will allow the pupils to expand for a while.
  2. Now you can take an object that is at a remote distance and focus the entire look on it.Another way to use the reverse method is to defocus the view so that all surrounding objects are odd. Then the eyes relax and the pupils are enlarged.
  3. If you are in an illuminated place, then the view should be translated into the darker part of the room.Thus, you will firstly catch the eyes and then let the light in, so that the pupils will expand.
  4. To cause a rush of adrenaline, and for this you need to imagine something dangerous.

Prevention

In order not to use medicines and protect yourself from unpleasant methods of therapy, you need to think about prevention in a timely manner.

With daily use of common activities and no complicated manipulation, one can maintain eyesight, and still maintain the health of the visual organ.

The following measures are based on prevention:

  1. When using various medications, you should consult your doctor.Therapeutic course can be prolonged independently without the doctor's knowledge. If side effects were seen, then continue therapy is not necessary.
  2. When the work involves a long stay at the computer, then you need to take breaks.Still it is necessary to use means, which will minimize the negative impact from the monitor. To do this, you can purchase special computer glasses or protective screens. During the rest it is necessary to perform exercises, which allow to stop tension and improve blood flow.
  3. Minimize reading and watching TV.During the reading, you must use auxiliary lighting.
  4. When replacing glasses to correct vision for the lens during their wearing, you will also have to take a break.
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As evidenced by the yellow protein of the eye in newborns this article will tell.

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Video

conclusions

Such an unpleasant symptom as the narrowing of the pupil can not cause any special inconvenience to a person, but at the same time point to the development of a rather dangerous disease. With this joke is not necessary. If you notice that the narrowing of the pupil acquires a permanent character, then immediately go to the doctor for the diagnosis and the appointment of proper treatment.

Read also about what is the destruction of the vitreous humor, and how to cure demodectic eyelids.