- 1Osteoporosis - treatment, prevention
2How dangerous is osteoporosis and how to fight it
- 2.2Risk factors
- 2.3Classification of osteoporosis
- 2.4Clinical manifestations of osteoporosis
- 2.5Diagnosis of Osteoporosis
- 2.6Beam techniques
- 2.7Biochemical diagnosis of osteoporosis
- 2.8Histological examination
- 2.9Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
- 2.10Physical activity
- 2.12Medication for patients with osteoporosis
- 2.14Preparations of salts of strontium
- 2.15Hormone replacement therapy
- 2.16Preparations for selective modulation of estrogen receptors
- 2.17Vitamins and minerals
- 2.18What can be done at home?
37 effective methods of preventing osteoporosis
- 3.1Who is facing osteoporosis?
- 3.21. Healthy lifestyle
- 3.32. Correctly-high-calorie food
- 3.43. Preparations
- 3.54. Physical Education
- 3.65. Sunbathing
- 3.76. Treatment of chronic diseases
- 3.87. Medical control
4The main measures for the prevention of osteoporosis
- 4.1Who is at risk?
- 4.2Exercise stress
- 4.4Bad habits
5Osteoporosis - symptoms and treatment at home, diagnosis and prevention of disease in women
- 5.1Osteoporosis - the symptoms
- 5.2Osteoporosis of the joints
- 5.3Signs of osteoporosis in women
- 5.4Osteoporosis in men
- 5.5Preparations for osteoporosis
- 5.6Gymnastics for osteoporosis
- 5.7Calcium for bones
- 5.8Vitamins for osteoporosis
- 5.9Treatment of osteoporosis with folk remedies
- 5.10Prevention of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis - treatment, prevention
Osteoporosis (fragility of bones) is a progressive systemic disease of the osseous system, in which the structure is broken and bone tissue density is reduced.
This disease is manifested by the degradation of the structure of bone tissue and loss of bone mass, which leads to increased brittleness of bone structures, thereby increasing the risk of fracture of the wrist, hip and vertebrae (more often Total). Vertebral fractures disrupt the stability of the vertebral column and biomechanics of the spine. Women suffer most from this disease, which is confirmed by the following observations: after 70 years in 30% of women there was at least one vertebral fracture
Osteoporosis begins its development after the age of thirty and can affect any person, regardless of gender, but the most often this disease develops in postmenopausal women (bone loss in women is associated with an age-related decline in levels estrogen). Due to loss of bone tissue, the bones become brittle and weak, thereby increasing the risk of fractures from various, even minor injuries. Fractures in elderly women can occur even without falls, with the usual torso torso, or when lifting from a bed. In very severe cases, this can often lead to disability. The loss of bone tissue in men is associated with a decrease in testosterone levels, and in women - with a decrease in the level of estrogen. The main reasons for the development of osteoporosis include:
- Elderly age. During this period, the body begins to poorly absorb calcium
- Long-term compliance with various diets, especially if from the daily diet were excluded dairy products
- Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) with the removal of both or one ovary
- Excessive physical exertion, due to which the production of female sex hormones is exhausted (marathon run, inadequate strength exercises, etc.)
- Alcohol abuse and heavy smoking
- Insufficient amount of calcium in the diet
- The period of pregnancy. In the case of a lack of calcium in the diet, the fetus begins to take it from the maternal bones
Osteoporosis is divided into primary and secondary. Most often, there is primary osteoporosis (in women six times more often than men)
Primary osteoporosis(the first type) is a rapidly progressive disease leading to a rapid loss of trabecular bone tissue (internal spongy part of the bone).
Normally, this bone tissue is present in large enough numbers in the limbs and vertebrae, Therefore, with the loss of trabecular bone tissue, the risk of a fracture of the wrist significantly increases vertebrae.
Primary osteoporosis (the second type) is observed twice as often in women, usually after seventy years.
Its development is associated with an increase in activity of parathyroid glands and a violation of absorption of vitamin D and calcium.
With this type of osteoporosis, bone tissue decreases rather slowly and is observed both from the inside of the bone and from the outside.
Due to the fact that the rate of loss of bone tissue is negligible, the consequences are not as rapid as in the first type of development of this disease. The most common fractures in the second type of osteoporosis are hip fractures
Secondary dearthoporosisdevelops in the case of development in the human body of processes that alter the exchange of bone tissue (a decrease in its mass).
To the reasons for the development of secondary osteoporosis include the following disorders of hormonal metabolism: increased activity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, hypercorticism (developed as a result of prolonged use of corticosteroids, or as a consequence of chronic diseases). In addition, the causes of secondary osteoporosis may be: leukemia (leukemia), myeloma, metastatic bone damage, thalassemia
The main danger of the clinical picture is that the onset of osteoporosis is low-symptomatic or completely asymptomatic, skillfully masked for arthrosis of joints or osteochondrosis of the spine. Often, the disease is diagnosed after a fracture, which can occur with minimal load or lifting a fairly small severity.
At an early stage, it is difficult to notice the presence of this disease, but there are several signs that can help in diagnosis.
This pain in the bones with changes in weather conditions, tooth decay, fragile hair and nails, irregularities in posture.
Wrists, bones of the hands, spine and neck of the thigh, are the most sensitive to the disease.
The main symptoms of osteoporosis- These are compression fractures of the head of the femur and the body of the vertebrae.
Due to compression fractures of the vertebrae, painful sensations in the back can be observed, which after a while spontaneously disappear.
In cases of repeated vertebral fractures, pain is often permanent.
Sometimes, in severe cases of osteoporosis, even such minor movements as the inclination of the trunk forward can cause a compression fracture of the spine (more often in elderly women). As a result of such fractures, kyphosis develops (pronounced inclination of the spine forward).
At occurrence of any painful sensations in a back, especially it concerns elderly women, it is necessary without fail seek medical help for advice and possible timely prescription of treatment or prophylaxis osteoporosis
Diagnosis of Osteoporosis
To date, the most informative method used to diagnose this disease is X-ray densitometry.
It is prescribed only if there is a suspicion of osteoporosis, and the earlier the densitometry is done, the more effective the treatment will be.
However, in order to prescribe adequate full-fledged treatment of osteoporosis, one x-ray densitometry is not enough. A general analysis of urine and blood, as well as a complete complex of biochemical (protein, calcium, phosphate) blood tests is carried out.
Elderly, to exclude myeloma, X-ray examination of bone tissue is performed. If there are suspicions of fractures, all patients are assigned radiography. Computer tomography is prescribed for suspected metastatic lesions
Treatment of osteoporosis is a rather complex problem, which is seriously handled by endocrinologists, neurologists, immunologists and rheumatologists.
It is necessary to slow down the loss of bone mass, prevent the appearance of fractures, achieve stabilization of bone metabolism, reduce pain syndrome, and expand motor activity.
To treat the underlying disease that led to osteoporosis, etiological therapy is used, and symptomatic therapy is used to relieve the pain syndrome. In addition, pathogenetic (pharmacotherapy) therapy of osteoporosis is used.
Used in the treatment of osteoporosis drugs:
- Preparations stimulating bone formation: bioflavonoids, vitamin D3; salts of strontium, calcium and fluorine
- Preparations for suppression of bone resorption: bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid, risedronate, ibandronate, alendronate, pamidronate), calcitonin, natural estrogens
Unfortunately, to date, it is impossible to completely cure osteoporosis, but with the help of absorption and subsequent assimilation of calcium by drugs, it is possible to significantly improve the state of the bone system.
Therapeutic physical training in osteoporosis includes walking, which gives a load on the bones.
The diet for osteoporosis consists in the correct selection of food. They should contain vitamin D and calcium, these are: various dairy products, nuts, cabbage, greens, fish, broccoli. In addition, vitamin D is in sufficient quantity in fish, yolk and fish oil
Prevention of osteoporosis
The primary goal of prevention of osteoporosis is to consume enough calcium, which in of the required concentration is found in such foods as: low-fat dairy products, salmon, cauliflower, cheese, broccoli.
Simultaneously, it is necessary to significantly reduce the consumption of products containing phosphorus, and this: sweet carbonated drinks, red meat, etc. It is necessary to limit the use of caffeine and alcohol.
The recommended daily dose of calcium to 60 years is 1000 mg, after 65 years - 1500 mg.
In case of ineffectiveness or impossibility of carrying out usual preventive measures of this disease, reception of means of medicamental prophylaxis is shown.
In the period of menopause (menopause), for the prevention of osteoporosis, estrogens are used (in the form of subcutaneous implants or inside), as well as regular physical exercises.
All without exception, women who have crossed the forty-year boundary, it is necessary without fail check the functioning of the thyroid gland and, if necessary, conduct a timely adequate treatment.
A source: http://vlanamed.com/osteoporoz-lechenie-profilaktika/
How dangerous is osteoporosis and how to fight it
The human skeleton consists of 206 bones that are connected by means of ligaments and joints to the musculoskeletal system. It provides protection of internal organs, gives shape to the body, deposits mineral substances, participates in hematopoiesis and metabolic processes.
In 1824, the English surgeon Astley Cooper pointed out that in elderly patients the risk of fracture of the femoral head is significantly increased.
Since the middle of the XIX century, the study of increased fragility of bone tissue is taking more and more scientists around the world. The information was accumulated and refined in 1984 by the Englishman V.
Albright was the formulated modern theory of osteoporosis.
According to the theory, chronic generalized lesion of bone tissue is considered an osteoporosis, which manifests itself a decrease in density, a change in structural architectonics, and an increase in bone fragility due to metabolic changes. Fractures of the vertebrae, bones of the wrist and hip are the most common localization in this pathological condition.
It is believed that osteoporosis is a disease characteristic of the weaker sex. However, statistical indicators indicate that every fifth injured man has a fracture, the cause of which is the increased fragility of bone tissue. Most often damaged:
- vertebral bodies;
- proximal femur;
- distal forearm.
Significant deterioration in the quality of life of patients, a serious economic burden in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures are the cause of the development and implementation of modern principles of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this disease.
As a result of long-term observations of patients with symptoms of osteoporosis, a number of factors influencing the formation of the disease were identified. It can be both physiological states that can not be affected, and situations that are amenable to correction.
The following risk factors for osteoporosis have a high degree of evidence:
- Spontaneous fractures in the anamnesis. To estimate the forecast, the number and location of the damage must be taken into account.
- Age over 50 years. This is due to a significant predominance of catabolism in bone tissue in the elderly.
- Female. The main role in the development of osteoporosis is played by hormonal changes occurring in menopause. In addition, smaller bone sizes and a greater loss of bone mass in comparison with men contribute to the appearance of minor traumatic fractures.
- Similar diseases of relatives. In population studies, there is a clear link between sick parents and an increased risk of fractures in children.
- Low body weight. For adults, the critical weight is less than 57 kg.
- Bad habits. It is definitely proved that smoking reduces the bone mineral density by 2 times. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. The use of alcohol prevents the cells of bone tissue from dividing and differentiating normally. Also, the hormonal parameters change, calcium absorption in the intestine is disrupted. Consumption of 36 grams in terms of pure ethanol - a direct path not only to alcoholic liver disease, but also to osteoporosis.
- Reduced intake of calcium and vitamin D. Adequate nutrition with inclusion in the diet of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits is able to minimize this problem.
- Systematic intake of glucocorticosteroids for more than 3 months.
- Diabetes mellitus type 2, celiac disease, systemic connective tissue diseases are conditions that increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Classification of osteoporosis
According to the recommendations of the Presidium of the Russian Association for Osteoporosis, issued in 1997, the disease is divided into primary and secondary. The first type is associated with the physiological processes in the body. It includes:
- postmenopausal osteoporosis;
- senile osteoporosis, which develops in the elderly;
- osteoporosis of early age;
- idiopathic osteoporosis.
Secondary pathology is a manifestation of diseases and external causes. Such a diagnosis can be made with the defeat of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system organs, connective tissue diseases and other conditions.
Clinical manifestations of osteoporosis
The disease for a long time does not give symptoms, so patients often do not know about their condition.
However, a fracture with a minimal level of trauma is the main sign of a decrease in bone mineral density.
Such lesions have a standardized localization, which, combined with a carefully collected history, helps to quickly place a preliminary diagnosis.
Pain syndrome develops with a compression fracture of one or more vertebral bodies. An important symptom in the absence of pain is a decrease in growth.
A significant indicator is a decrease in body length by 4 cm compared to that at 25 years, which indicates fractures of the vertebrae of osteoporotic nature.
Under the change of posture is understood the development of kyphotic changes in the spine, which leads to the formation of an "aristocratic hump".
The most significant medico-social symptom is a fracture of the femoral neck. This condition in the elderly often leads to death.
Diagnosis of Osteoporosis
For the final diagnosis it is important to use informative methods of examination.
In combination with carefully collected history, examination, physical methods of research and characteristic symptoms, this allows you to see the complete clinical picture of the disease.
The main diagnostic methods can be considered: radiation, biochemical and histological.
Densitometry of the central skeleton is the main method of diagnosing osteoporosis. Assessing the 2 main indicators (bone mineral component and mineral density of bone tissue) can reliably estimate the risk of fractures.
Possessing high specificity, accuracy and affordable cost, it became the standard among densitometric diagnostic methods. Carrying out the study of the lower parts of the spine and the proximal part of the femur, one can follow the dynamics of changes in bone tissue no more than once a year.
Radiography of the osteoarticular system has not lost its relevance in the diagnosis of osteoporosis.
In addition to assessing the mineral density with the help of this method, it is possible to determine the anatomical and structural features, various damages of bone tissue.
The disadvantages of radiography can be attributed to low sensitivity. This does not allow to diagnose the decrease in mineralization at the initial stages.
If signs of osteoporosis are detected, densitometry should be additionally performed. The use of these two diagnostic methods gives much more objective information about the condition of the osteoarticular apparatus.
Biochemical diagnosis of osteoporosis
Specific laboratory symptoms of the disease are markers of bone destruction. These include: pyridinolines, hydroxyproline and calcium in the urine. Markers show the metabolic rate and metabolic activity of bone tissue.
Conducting a biochemical blood test after 3 months from the start of treatment gives an opportunity for an early prognosis of the effectiveness of therapy. Reducing the resorption markers by 30% indicates a good response to ongoing treatment.
For differential diagnosis of tumor processes, an invasive method is used - a biopsy. For this, a tissue site is excised from the iliac crest and examined for the presence of tumor cells.
Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
The resulting pain and other symptoms cause the patient to think: how to treat osteoporosis of the spine or thigh bone? To whom to address with such a problem? Which doctor treats osteoporosis? An undeveloped mechanism of development of osteoporosis prevents the creation of pathogenetic regimens of therapy.
However, the recently developed preventive and curative measures aimed at restoring bone mineral density, prevention of fractures and reduction of pain syndrome, are sufficient effective.
It is proved that people who are engaged in sedentary work during the day are more prone to loss of bone mass.
The most pronounced dystrophy is noted in people in old age.
Therefore, regular exercise can be considered an effective prevention of osteoporosis. There are 2 main types of activity:
- Exercises with a load of their own body weight: aerobics, gymnastics, running, game sports. Such exercises affect the areas most susceptible to the disease (spine, thigh). Patients after 50 years of age are recommended walking, which is easy to do at home. It is useful not only for the prevention of osteoporosis, but for general strengthening of the body. Lessons need to be spent constantly, load gradually increase. It is recommended to overcome the distance of 12 km per week for 3-4 times. When the speed of movement or the angle of inclination increases, the increase in bone mass increases.
- Strength exercises: swimming, exercising on simulators, bicycling. Selection of such loads is carried out individually, the main group are people under 50 years old. High intensity of exercise is a contraindication for patients with osteoporosis.
If possible, you need to combine 2 types of loads. To maximize the effectiveness of the program physical activity must be selected individually, which will help reduce the risk of osteoporosis of the hip and spine.
The main principle in feeding patients with osteoporosis is adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. The age population group after 50 years and women in menopause should consume up to, a gram of mineral per day.
The use of spinach, canned fish with bones, soy products replenishes the mineral reserves in the body. Alcohol is completely excluded from the diet, salty foods are limited. It is important to fully consume other inorganic substances: potassium, phosphorus, magnesium.
Medication for patients with osteoporosis
The World Health Organization has developed and recommended treatment regimens for this disease.
Preparations that can cure a patient are formed into 4 groups of pharmacological agents: bisphosphonates, strontium salts, hormone replacement substances, selective modulators of estrogen receptors.
A group of such medicines can be attributed to preparations for starting therapy of patients with osteoporosis.
They increase the anabolic activity of the osteoarticular apparatus and prevent pathological destruction due to the action on osteoclasts.
The drugs of the bisphosphonate group include:
- alendronate (the original preparation of Fosamax);
- ibandronate (Bonviva);
- zoledronic acid (Aklasta);
- risedronate (Actonel).
These drugs are proven to reduce the risk of developing spontaneous fractures and can be used in osteoporosis of the hip joint, spine and other problem bones. The drugs are prescribed for a long time, with courses for 3-5 years. Simultaneously with bisphosphonates it is necessary to take calcium and vitamin D in a full-time daily dosage.
Preparations of salts of strontium
Since 1991, studies have begun on the use of strontium in the therapy of patients with osteoporosis. In 2004, the first drug, Protelos, was registered.
Such a chemical element has a double effect on bone tissue: it enhances anabolic processes and slows down the destruction.
An increase in bone mineral density and a decrease in the risk of vertebral and femoral neck fractures have been proven bones in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis with long-term therapy (3-5 years) with strontium ranelata.
Hormone replacement therapy
The lack of estrogen is the main cause of osteoporosis in women during the menopause. Proposed more than 70 years ago, substitution therapy is being used at the present time.
Prolonged use of small doses of the drug significantly reduces the risk of fractures of different locations. In the absence of cardiac pathology, women up to age 60 can use estrogens to prevent bone disease.
Preparations for selective modulation of estrogen receptors
It has been observed that some nonhormonal compounds can attach to receptors, increasing their tropism to estrogens. Due to this, a positive effect similar to hormone replacement therapy is achieved.
In addition to minimizing the risk of fractures, this drug reduces the incidence of estrogen dependent oncological processes in the mammary gland. As a secondary agent in therapy, raloxifene can be used to prevent osteoporosis in women.
Vitamins and minerals
Clinical studies argue that adequate intake of minerals helps maintain normal bone density. Using special salts (carbonate, triphosphate), you can achieve maximum absorption and absorption of calcium in osteoporosis.
Tablets, which include minerals and vitamins, help to fill the deficiency of trace elements, but are not effective in monotherapy of osteoporosis.
What can be done at home?
The principles of treating osteoporosis with folk remedies are similar to traditional medicine. The main task is to reduce the rate of bone tissue degradation and prevent the development of fractures in patients aged. For these purposes use:
- Eggshell, from which the powder is prepared. It should be taken for 2-3 grams in the morning during meals.
- Mummy solution. A ball, the size of a match head, is dissolved in boiled water and taken 2 times a day for 20 days.
- Infusions are prepared from walnut leaves, birch buds, field horsetail, dill and parsley.
- At home, prepare a mixture of dairy products, add calcium salts and take 100 ml per day.
Rational nutrition, physical activity, medications, traditional medicine - all this can prevent the progression of bone loss and cure osteoporosis.
A source: http://MedOtvet.com/osteoporosis/chem-opasen-osteoporoz-i-kak-s-nim-borotsya.html
7 effective methods of preventing osteoporosis
Osteoporosis - increased fragility of bones, which leads to their frequent fractures.
Usually, the disease is activated in old age, but its prerequisites are formed long before the onset of old age.
And only timely prevention of osteoporosis can prevent the development of the disease and preserve the health of bones for a long time.
Throughout life in the human body, continuous processes of formation (osteogenesis) and destruction (resorption) of bone tissue: young cells replace old ones, and old ones die and break apart.
Normally, these processes are in balance: the volume of newly formed bone substance is equal to the volume of the destroyed.
And if bone resorption overcomes osteogenesis, osteoporosis develops, which, unfortunately, many people pay attention only when it goes too far.
Therefore, preventive measures are important in young and middle age, until the disease began to actively "raise their heads."
After 70 years, everyone is affected by age-related osteoporosis
Who is facing osteoporosis?
One of the first preventive measures is the assessment of the risk of developing the disease.
In order to compose it, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors: constitution, heredity, general health, lifestyles, the nature of nutrition and the level of the most important hormones in the body (estrogen, calcitonin - the hormone of the thyroid gland, and parathyroid hormone - the hormone parathyroid glands).
The risk group includes:
- women of a fragile constitution - their bone mass is constitutionally not high and is quickly wasted;
- people who survived a hungry childhood, because their bones in the active growth phase did not accumulate a sufficient supply of minerals;
- women suffering from estrogen deficiency;
- women who entered early in the menopause period - they have a stage of bone resorption begins earlier;
- people of both sexes, living in conditions of shortage of sunlight (vitamin D deficiency in the body);
- those who use substances that disrupt or excrete calcium from the body: some medicines (eg, synthetic corticosteroids), coffee, alcohol, tobacco, etc.;
- Women whose mothers suffered from osteoporosis;
- patients suffering from a violation of the absorption of calcium or excessive excretion of it from the body.
If you are not at risk, it does not mean that this pathology does not threaten you - just the chances of its development are reduced. thereforepreferably to prevent osteoporosis.
In more detail about the disease itself, its causes, consequences, etc. we spoke in the article "Osteoporosis of bones."
With reduced bone density, vertebral fractures can occur even under the influence of body weight
1. Healthy lifestyle
No matter how much has been said about this,maintenance of health is the most important measure of prevention of osteoporosis,beginning with childhood and adolescence - at a time when bones should accumulate as much as possible a reserve of mineral substances. Therefore, adequate nutrition and the rejection of bad habits can save you from many troubles in the future. So, even small doses of alcohol reduce osteosynthesis (the formation of new cells of bone tissue) and disrupt the absorption of calcium. Smoking causes a prolonged spasm of the capillaries, thereby preventing the entry of minerals into the bone, especially the spine. Coffee helps to remove calcium from the bones and remove it from the body through the kidneys.
2. Correctly-high-calorie food
Prevention of osteoporosis with diet is based, first of all, on the consumption of calcium. Its lack of food in the period of active growth can affect the condition of bones after many years.
In addition to calcium, food should be rich in magnesium and phosphorus - that is, a complex of minerals needed to feed bones, as well as vitamin D.
All this in abundance contains sour-milk products (especially different kinds of cheeses), egg yolk, liver, sea fish, fresh herbs and sprouted cereals.
Cereals, especially soy, also contain natural natural estrogen - an analogue of the female sex hormone estrogen, which prevents resorption (destruction) of bone tissue.
To prevent the normal absorption of minerals can not only diseases and bad habits, but also a diet with a reduced content of fat. Therefore, girls and young women who sit on diets for the sake of harmony, risk to admit into their bodies this insidious and serious disease.
Excess salt in food can promote increased leaching of calcium from bones and removing it from the body with urine. Therefore, if osteoporosis already "knocks on your door the amount of salt consumed must be strictly controlled.
If calcium intake with food does not reach the daily rate - it is necessary to introduce in the diet preparations containing easily digestible forms of calcium salts (gluconate, lactate and others).
Reception of such funds for osteoporosis is a treatment and prevention at the same time, since it is impossible to restore bones without a normal amount of minerals.
It is advisable to choose products containing a balanced mineral complex, including potassium, phosphorus and magnesium - the complete set of substances necessary for bones will provide them with better nutrition.
Women during the menopause are shown products containing estrogens - female sex hormones. Preferred preparations with phytoestrogens - plant analogs of estrogen, which are able to compensate for its deficiency without negative consequences.
A promising area of prevention is the use of bisphosphonates - drugs that inhibit the activity of osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone tissue). Such tools are highly efficient and convenient to use (some of them must be taken only once a month).
There are also biologically active additives with plant analogs of thyroid and parathyroid hormones, which favorably affect calcium metabolism.
Since these drugs are not medicines, the dose of the active substance in them is lower than therapeutic and does not have side effects on the body.
They can be taken without a doctor's prescription.
4. Physical Education
Physical activity also helps to maintain bone density.
Moreover,give physical education time after the osteoporosis has developed, can be useless - motor activity is useful for prevention, since muscle inactivation promotes demineralization bones.
So, bed rest for 3-4 months reduces the volume of bone mass by 10-15%. And regular physical training for the same period of time can compensate for the loss of only 1-2%.
The physical load for the prevention of osteoporosis should be moderate.
It can be not only sports training, but also dancing, fitness, aerobics... Useful moderate strength exercises on the simulators.
The main thing is that physical activity should be regular, because if you give your health time from time to time, you can not get the desired result at all.
A very effective preventive measure will be special therapeutic exercises for osteoporosis (even if you do not over-feed them).
Everybody knows about the benefits of sunlight, and if you live in regions where there is little sun - it is advisable to leave at least once a year to go where your skin can be saturated with sunlight and vitamin D. If there is no such possibility, there is an alternative - tan under ultraviolet quartz lamps, but with all precautions and without fanaticism.
6. Treatment of chronic diseases
Those who suffer from pathologies that lead to a violation of the absorption of calcium or increased its excretion, it is necessary to take all measures to get rid of these diseases.
Such diseases are disorders of the hormonal status, some diseases of the liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. If it is not possible to cure completely, then substitution therapy with mineral preparations is prescribed.
Also, substitution therapy is prescribed for those people who have to take long-term medications - calcium antagonists *, for example, hormones, phosphates, fluorides in high doses.
* Antagonists are substances that bind to cellular receptors and reduce their response to the body's natural signals, read more about them here.
7. Medical control
Preventive measures aimed at preventing osteoporosis are undoubtedly necessary for everyone. But those who are at risk of developing this disease, especially important regular medical supervision.
If the result of densitometry (a special method of radiography, by which the mineral density of bones is measured), will show that the bones begin to lose density - the doctor will tell you how to prevent osteoporosis and prescribe a preventive treatment.
Women over the age of 40 must determine the state of bones once a year.
A source: http://SustavZdorov.ru/raznoe/profilaktika-osteoporoza.html
The main measures for the prevention of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a violation of the bone system, in which the bones gradually become brittle and brittle.
If there is no treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, the process progresses almost asymptomatically and leads to fractures with a small load on the bone.
The spine, thigh and wrist suffer more often.
Who is at risk?
It is necessary to engage in the prevention of osteoporosis since childhood. After 40 years, to increase bone mass is much more difficult. To better understand how to begin pre-emptive activities, you need to know why the disease occurs. The main risks are:
- hereditary predisposition;
- hormonal changes, especially with menopause;
- food poor in calcium;
- monotonous diets;
- bad habits;
- some medicines and diseases, as well as other causes.
The onset of the disease and its continuation
Osteoporosis develops in children, men and women. But more often other diseases are exposed to the elderly and female half of the population with the onset of menopause. In old age, bone mass is lost faster, bone strength and density decrease.
It is difficult to determine priorities in the prevention of the disease. Physical exercise is undoubtedly one of the most important.
Modern research methods allow you to accurately establish that in people who regularly exercise, doing physical exercises, bones are denser than those who do not.
Regular jogging is very useful for health
To get good results in the fight against osteoporosis, you need to load different muscle groups.
At inspection of patients have found out, that at one person density of different bones is not uniform. It is larger in those bones whose muscles "worked" more.
To maintain bone mass, it is advisable to pay attention to the following exercises:
- walking - it can be practiced at any age (foot, ankle joint, shins are involved);
- exercises with burdening on the hands (using expanders, simulators, improvised means);
- exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back - flexion, extension, swimming;
- exercise with a load on the hips, wrists, spine - squats, legs, push-ups;
- exercises on balance (they are important for the elderly, losing this ability with age);
- walking on tiptoe.
Before you begin to exercise, especially with exercise, consult a doctor, diagnose the condition of the bone system.
What is available in 40 years, can be dangerous at 60 years of age. Experts recommend that the loads be made small, but rather long and gradual.
There is a break between lessons for at least two days.
Calcium is one of the main components of bone tissue. But to maintain sufficient bone mass, magnesium, zinc, boron, phosphorus, vitamins D, K, B and other minerals and vitamins are also needed.
Foods rich in calcium
Name of elements, dosage and content in products.
|1.||Calcium||800 1200 mg||All dairy, including cheeses, whey, curdled milk, yoghurts, etc.|
|2.||Magnesium||320-420 μg||Greens, legumes, cereals, various nuts, chocolate.|
|3.||Phosphorus||8-11mg||Different varieties of fish, dairy products.|
|4.||Bor||20 mg||Fruits, nuts, vegetables, beans.|
|5.||Vitamin D||5-15 μg||Marine varieties of fish, cod liver, animals, shrimp.|
|6.||Vitamin K||65-80 μg||Cabbage is common, broccoli, spinach, salads.|
Calcium is not produced in the body, but comes with food. At its shortage special preparations in the different form are appointed - in the form of tablets, capsules, dragees, chewing plates.
The simplest and most common remedy is calcium glucanate. But it is poorly digested. Expensive medicines - dydronal, alendronate - allow you to solve several problems associated with osteoporosis.
They regulate the mineral metabolism, increase the density of bones, form their structure.
Using daily food rich in calcium, you can actively resist osteoporosis. It should be borne in mind that there are substances that reduce the absorption of an important element for the body. It's oxalate, coarse fiber.
Oxalates are found in products rich in oxalic acid - spinach, sorrel, rhubarb, beet greens, cabbage.
On the contrary, the assimilation of calcium is promoted by vegetable and fruit juices containing organic acids.
The loss of calcium causes caffeine, proteins, sodium. The protein diet also reduces bone mass. Fans of coffee, salty and protein foods should pay attention to these products and reduce their consumption. Either adjust the diet and enrich the food with calcium. For example, drinking coffee with milk.
Women after 40 years are recommended in the diet to increase the proportion of products containing natural estrogens. Plant components are safe, do not cause side effects.
First of all, it is soybeans, beans. Of Russian plants, estrogens contain flowers of lime, oregano, sage.
Pharmacological hormonal preparations can be used only on the instructions of a doctor.
Incorrect posture appears as a result of the habit of hunching, stooping, sitting, bending to the side. The range of movements is limited, in due course there is a stiffness of a certain group of muscles. And this is an occasion to think about the appearance of osteoporosis in the future.
So you can not sit while working
Smoking is not harmless for osteoporosis. Nicotine and cadmium act toxic on the bone. Decrease the level of estrogen in the body of a woman.
Alcohol is toxic to osteoblasts, the cells needed for bone mass synthesis. It destroys the liver and pancreas, impairs the absorption of calcium.
Diets reduce and sometimes stop the intake of beneficial nutrients in the body that reduce the risk of osteoporosis - calcium, magnesium, vitamin D.
In too thin people, the amount of estrogens is often below normal.
With such eating disorders, as anorexia, bulimia, there are complications in the form of bone thinning.
Hypodinamia can be forced in case of illness. However, more often than not, the reason for this is the usual laziness and unwillingness to work on yourself. It is the lack of exercise that is the main cause of osteoporosis.
It is impossible to prevent or stop osteoporosis, if you do not get rid of bad habits. Decide what is more important to you. Have in the near future broken joints and bones, fear of accidental falls or a full healthy life.
A source: http://MoyaSpina.ru/profilaktika/osnovnye-meropriyatiya-profilaktiki-osteoporoza
Osteoporosis - symptoms and treatment at home, diagnosis and prevention of disease in women
Disease of bones, joints in adulthood is not uncommon.
The situation, when a person gets a fracture with minor loads, often occurs, can lead to long-term, not always successful treatment, disability. The situation can be corrected if you know the symptoms and turn to the clinic on time.
Osteoporosis - the symptoms
The disease is considered systemic, caused by an imbalance in the processes of reproduction and destruction of calcium - the decay prevails over the recovery. It is characterized by changes occurring within the bones:
- formation of tissue porosity;
- violation of blood supply;
- decreased bone mass;
- decrease in its density;
- increasing brittleness;
- decrease in strength.
When osteoporosis is diagnosed - its symptoms and treatment differ for reasons of origin - primary and secondary. This determines the specific features of prescribing drugs. Primary diseases are:
- juvenile - developing in adolescence;
- idiopathic - from 20 to 50 years, for unclear reasons;
- postmenopausal - typical for women with menopause;
- senile - senile - associated with natural extinction.
Secondary - diseases caused by oncology, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis. The development of processes is influenced by the use of drugs that wash out calcium - glucocorticosteroids, anticonvulsants. An important role is played by pathologies of the body systems:
- endocrine - imbalance of hormones, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal gland function;
- blood circulation - diseases of leukemia, lymphoma;
- digestive - deterioration of calcium absorption.
The disease lasts for a long time without symptoms, which makes it difficult to timely diagnose and start treatment. There are signs of osteoporosis:
- deterioration of posture;
- reduction in growth;
- the appearance of pain in the joints;
- increased fatigue;
- increased heart rate;
- cramps in the limbs;
- impaired mobility of joints;
- the appearance of periodontal disease;
- brittle nails;
- change of gait.
Particular attention should be paid to the basis of the skeleton - the spine. If the disease is not detected at the right time, serious problems are possible - a compression fracture. Diffuse osteoporosis of the spine covers all the vertebrae, with the following symptoms:
- pain in the lumbar region, thoracic, cervical;
- appearance of stoop;
- impaired mobility;
- tension of the muscles of the back;
- the appearance of a hump;
- reduction in growth.
Osteoporosis of the joints
The cause of this disease are lesions of the head of the joint bones.
The appearance of epiphyseal osteoporosis of the hip joint can result in a fracture of the femoral neck - treatment does not always lead to complete recovery.
Disease - spotted (focal) or uniform affects the knee joints, hands. For him, the symptoms are:
- morning pain at the beginning of movement;
- crunch when driving;
- cramps in the legs;
- decrease in body weight;
Signs of osteoporosis in women
The appearance of the disease is associated with hormonal changes in the body, especially with the onset of menopause. Treatment of osteoporosis in elderly women should appoint a doctor.
Recovery is possible with early diagnosis. Symptoms of osteoporosis in women are similar to those of the spine, joints.
The differences are in the reasons that caused them:
- early or surgical menopause;
- application of hormones;
- radiation therapy;
- fragile physique;
- later onset of menstruation;
To softly reduce the symptoms of menopause, non-hormonal agents based on plant components are used, for example, biologically active food additive ESTROVEL ® capsules - a complex of phytoestrogens, vitamins and microelements, the components of which act on the main manifestations menopause. ESTROVEL® contains vitamin K1 and boron, which help to reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis in men
Problems with joints in the male population are several times less likely, which is associated with greater endurance and strength of the organism. Symptoms in the elderly are more common - older than 60 years. Osteoporosis in men is accompanied by:
- prolonged aching pain;
- high fatigue;
- changes in gait;
- the appearance of a hump;
- violations of sexual function;
- limited mobility of joints.
When symptoms appear, patients often do not know which doctor treats osteoporosis.
Initially, it is necessary to go to an appointment with a traumatologist or orthopedist, they can prescribe additional consultations with a rheumatologist, an endocrinologist.
The main tasks that need to be addressed are correction of calcium metabolism, strengthening of bone tissue. Anesthetize the joints - no less important. How to treat osteoporosis? An integrated approach is required:
- taking medicines - tablets and injections;
- the use of vitamins;
- mud treatment.
Preparations for osteoporosis
When a patient is diagnosed with osteoporosis, his symptoms and treatment will be determined and adjusted to take into account the degree of damage, the condition of the bones.
Medicines contribute to the solution of several problems. You can treat osteoporosis at home, and stop the serious development of the disease - in the hospital.
Medications affect the main causes and symptoms.
Recommended preparations for osteoporosis:
- anesthetics, anti-inflammatory drugs - Ketorol, Naise;
- increasing calcium - Myocacix, Calcium gluconate;
- slowing down the destruction - Fosamax, Calcitonin;
- helping calcium absorption - vitamin D;
- forming the bone tissue - Teraparadin, Koreberon;
- vitamins - Vitrum, analogues - Ormotol Revmat, Calcium-D3 Nycomed.
Gymnastics for osteoporosis
When diagnosed with osteoporosis, symptoms and treatment are dependent on many factors. Particular attention should be given to physical activity.
Exercises for osteoporosis are simple, can be performed at home, but as prescribed by a doctor.
Approximate complex in sitting position, when each task is performed 10 times:
- fold the arms bent at the elbows to the shoulder blades, fix for 5 seconds, relax;
- circular rotation of the shoulder joints - together and separately;
- put your hands on your knees, strain all your muscles, count to five, relax.
Calcium for bones
Osteoporosis - the symptoms and treatment of which depend on the presence of calcium in the bones, requires its regular intake into the body.
To do this, use diet, traditional methods of treatment, but a greater effect from the use of medicines. The required daily dosage of the substance is 1200 mg.
Taking calcium for bones, you should consider:
- better assimilation takes place after 19 hours;
- drink plenty of water;
- it is advisable to eat during, after eating;
- effervescent forms are absorbed faster.
Vitamins for osteoporosis
These substances play an important role in the prevention of disease, tissue repair, treatment. The effect of vitamins in osteoporosis is proved:
- A, D - improve digestion, regulate calcium absorption;
- C - promotes the production of collagen, which helps to accumulate minerals, softening impacts;
- В - promote hemopoiesis, provide nutrition to bone tissue;
- K - retains calcium;
- magnesium - strengthens bones.
Treatment of osteoporosis with folk remedies
Recipes with natural components are used for complex treatment of the disease. Folk remedies for osteoporosis help to activate calcium metabolism.
Popular application of the solution mummy. A substance the size of a match head is stirred in 80 ml of water. Composition is taken in the morning, in the evening - about 20 minutes before eating.
Effective for symptoms of the disease onion broth for this recipe:
- take 2 heads, do not clean;
- fry in vegetable oil;
- add a liter of boiling water;
- boil for 15 minutes;
- drink 300 ml once a day.
Prevention of osteoporosis
Older women need to prepare for a difficult period of life. To avoid problems with joints, - pass the diagnosis, make laboratory blood tests. Of particular importance is the prevention of osteoporosis in women after 50 years. Recommended activities:
- a diet rich in calcium;
- walking in the sun;
- physical education - swimming, walking;
- reception of vitamins, medicines;
- refusal from coffee, smoking, alcohol;
- elimination of hard diets;
- treatment with hormone replacement therapy.
A source: http://sovets.net/8305-osteoporoz-simptomyi-i-lechenie.html