Glaucoma: what is this, how to treat and preventive measures

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The disease "glaucoma" got its name from the Greek word, translated as "the color of sea water" since such a slightly greenish or azure color has a pupil in the period of acute attack of the disease. Glaucoma is a serious illness of the organs of vision, the causes and mechanisms of development of which there is no single and final opinion. The main characteristic of the disease is a constant or periodically occurring increase in intraocular pressure, which leads to the further development of atrophy of the optic nerve, trophic disorders in the outflow pathways of the intraocular fluid, and field defects view.

The term "glaucoma" denotes not one, but about sixty eye diseases.
The restoration of vision depends on how far the pathogen process has "advanced". Some of the nerve fibers have already been atrophied, the other part is in a state of parabiosis, which makes possible their medical or surgical treatment. Let's figure out what this "glaucoma of the eye" is and how to treat it properly.

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  • 1Definition of disease
  • 2Causes
  • 3Symptoms
  • 4Possible complications
  • 5Treatment
    • 5.1Medication
    • 5.2Surgically
  • 6Prevention
  • 7Video
  • 8conclusions

Definition of disease

Glaucoma is a chronic pathology, but there is a possibility of an acute attack of the disease (a very sharp increase in pressure, which causes severe pain in the eyes).

Specialists call the two main forms of the disease:

  • Open angle glaucoma;
  • Closed-angle glaucoma.

When the open-angle form of glaucoma appears, the iris-corneal angle remains open. The outflow of the intraocular fluid decreases, which causes its accumulation.This causes a gradual but steady increase in pressure. At the same time, although asymmetrically, both eyes are affected.The open angle form of glaucoma is most common (about 90% of all cases of the disease).

Closed-angle glaucoma is the less common problem. It most often affects people with the development of hyperopia. Patients at the age of thirty are at risk.This form of the disease is characterized by a rapid increase in intraocular pressure. The outflow of intraocular fluid is blocked by any factor that leads to pupil dilatation. The eyeball hardens quickly.There are painful sensations and blurring of vision.

However, in addition to these main types of glaucoma, there are many forms of the disease.Among them are glaucoma associated with problems of eye development, congenital glaucoma, transmitted at the gene level, and others.

The maximum number of patients with glaucoma is older people (over sixty years old). However, the disease can occur at any age.

This ailment is the most common cause of incurable blindness.


The mechanism of development of the processes leading to glaucoma and the destruction of vision has not been sufficiently studied.It is assumed that the development of the disease provokes a whole successive chain of factors, which as a result trigger the pathological process.That is, for the development of the disease requires a number of reasons that act in combination.

Among these reasons are called individual features of the structure of the eye, hereditary factors, problems arising in the field of the nervous system, as well as the endocrine or cardiovascular system.To secondary glaucoma can result in many additional factors: prolonged use of steroids, development of conditions that limit the flow of blood to the eye, eye trauma, in time not operated cataract.Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma: heredity, nearsightedness, advanced age, diabetes, arterial hypotension and hypertension, atherosclerosis, cervical osteochondrosis. Factors for the development of closed-angle glaucoma are:

  • Age-related changes in the organs of vision;
  • Individual anatomical features of the eye;
  • Functional reasons for closing the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye.

An acute attack of glaucoma can provoke:

  • Overwork and nervous tension;
  • Expansion with the help of medicines;
  • Long stay in the dark;
  • Long stay in the position with the head tilted forward.

A large amount of liquids can also lead to a problem.


The main signs on which it is possible to assume the development of glaucoma are called:

  • Painful sensations, "pain and heaviness" in the eyes;
  • Narrowed field of view;
  • Blurred vision;
  • The appearance of rainbow circles when looking at the source of bright light;
  • Problems with vision, manifested in the dark;
  • Sensation of moisturizing of the eyes;
  • Not too severe pain in the area around the eyes;
  • Redness of the eyes.

The main symptom of the disease is the process of increasing IOP (intraocular pressure). In the case of open-angle glaucoma, IOP increases slowly.At the beginning of the development of the disease it is not permanent. But later it becomes firm. The most important symptom to diagnose open-angle glaucoma is considered to be a change in the visual field. However, such signs are difficult to detect in everyday life.Pathological changes in the doctor with special field of vision research. The further development of glaucoma provokes the appearance of defects in the peripheral field of vision. Its narrowing occurs mainly from the nose, then this process affects the peripheral parts up to complete loss of vision.The patient is complicated by the process of dark adaptation. All these processes are manifested against a background of persistent increase in IOP. In the severe stage of the disease, vision deteriorates strongly, the atrophy of the optic nerve becomes almost final.

Symptom of the closed-angle form of glaucoma is a periodic increase in IOP. The periods of high blood pressure are initially short-lived, and then more and more prolonged.With the complete closing of the angle of the anterior chamber, a painful condition arises, which doctors characterize as an acute attack of angle-closure glaucoma.In the intervals between attacks, the angle opens. With the passage of time, such processes cause the formation of adhesions between the iris and the wall of the anterior chamber angle. The disease becomes chronic. Intraocular pressure is constantly increased.

With an acute attack of glaucoma, a person feels pain in the eye area, headaches, blurred vision. Sometimes there is nausea and vomiting, painful sensations that "give" to the heart and stomach. In some cases, such processes may be similar to the symptoms of cardiovascular pathology.

Possible complications

Glaucoma is a pathological process, the progression of which leads to irreversible blindness. Retinal cells are destroyed, the optic nerve is completely atrophied, visual signals cease to flow into the brain.

An acute attack of glaucoma is an extremely dangerous condition.In cases where it is not possible to quickly reduce (within the next few hours) IOP by using drugs or surgically, the patient faces an irreversible loss of vision.


The consequences of destructive processes occurring in glaucoma, treatment are not amenable.

However, there are ways to stop (or slow) the progression of the disease.Therapeutic methods help to normalize intraocular pressure, slow or stop the development of processes damaging the optic nerve.This prevents the development of blindness. In the treatment of eye drops are most often used. Re drugs are given in the form of tablets. Laser or microsurgical treatment of glaucoma can also be used.


IOP decreases with the help of different classes of drugs. In the treatment of glaucoma can be used miotiki, sympathomimetics, prostaglandins F2 alpha, selective sympathomimetics, beta-blockers, cholinergic drugs, inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase, and other types of medicines, including combined.

Each of the drugs can cause both local and systemic side effects.However, even in this case the patient should be ready to continue treatment.It is necessary either to transfer undesirable effects of drugs, or under the supervision of the attending physician to change the system of taking medications. In some cases (at the first stage of the development of the disease), there may be enough initial dosage of drops.

Conscious and "competent" behavior of the patient, his regular visits to specialists are a prerequisite for successful treatment throughout the life of the disease without the appearance of severe symptoms.


For the treatment of glaucoma, conventional and laser operations are used.For patients with congenital glaucoma, the most effective and "preferable" (in comparison with the therapeutic one) is the surgical method of treatment.

When surgical treatment of the disease is used:

  • Canaloplasty (non-penetrating method using a microcatheter).
  • Trabeculectomy (the most common method of conventional surgery);
  • Laser iridectomy.

But most often the operation is a temporary solution, since the medicine for glaucoma has not yet been found.


Due to the variety of reasons for the development of glaucoma and the inability to restore the vision that has already been destroyed by the disease, it is important to take measures to detect the disease at the earliest possible stage.This requires a regular examination with an ophthalmologist.This is especially true for older patients (after forty years), people with hyperopia, patients who underwent eye operations, those who have a hereditary predisposition to the appearance glaucoma.

The development of the disease is largely determined by the way people live.To prevent the disease helps reduce physical and neural overload. In the diet, it is necessary to include mainly plant products, to limit the consumption of meat, fatty foods.It is not recommended to abuse strong coffee and tea, overly spicy seasonings, pickles. The volume of liquid drunk should not exceed one and a half liters per day. Sour-milk dishes, vegetables, bread of a rough grinding are useful.


Contact lenses of long wearing

Read about the definition of glaucoma according to the international classification (ICD-10) here.

Systein Ultra Eye Drops




Glaucoma is a serious eye disease that can lead to complete blindness.Its main symptom is the increase (constant or periodic) of intraocular pressure.This condition is the cause of irreversible destruction of the optic nerve.

In order to avoid serious consequences it is important to stop the development of glaucoma in the early stages of the onset of the disease, consistently carry out the treatment prescribed by specialists.It is important not to ignore the first symptoms of the disease, to undergo regular preventive examinations with an ophthalmologist.Self-medication in the occurrence of glaucoma is categorically not allowed.

Also read about the common inflammatory processes of the eyes, and how to get rid of cataracts.

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