- Statistics confirming the complex diagnosis of
- Which organs are located in the lower left corner of the abdomen?
- How is the pain formed?
- What kind of pain in the left side should be considered?
- What kind of pains characterize small bowel disease?
- Pathology of the left part of the large intestine
- Other causes of pain
- Characteristics of pain in urinary tract diseases
- Pain manifestations in gynecological pathology
- What are the pains caused by left hip joint disease?
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The lower abdominal area of the anatomical structures refers to the digestive tract and accommodates the organs of the genitourinary system. The pain in the left side at the bottom of the abdomen is a very multifaceted symptom.
By its location and nature, one can only have an assumption, but not complete confidence in the diagnosis. Always need additional testing, consultations of different specialists. In medicine, the symptom is called pelvic pain.
Statistics confirming the complex diagnosis of
According to statistics, when referring to a hospital, patients are distributed according to profiles:
- 65-90% need urological care;
- 60-70% fall into gynecology;
- about 60% go to the gastroenterological departments of hospitals;
- from 7 to 15% need the help of a traumatologist.
The total is not 100%, because the preliminary diagnosis is incorrect and the patient has to be transferred to another department.
Which organs are located in the lower left corner of the abdomen?
The organs of different systems are localized to the left of the abdomen. To digestion are: the small intestine - loops of the jejunum, part of the descending colon and sigmoid colon - the large intestine. To the organs of the genitourinary system: the left half of the uterus, the left appendage with the ovary and fallopian tube in women, the ureter and part of the bladder.
It should not be forgotten that pains on the left side of the abdomen can cause disorders in the skeleton of the pelvis, hip joint, lymph nodes, nerve bundles and vessels, irradiation down in diseases of the spleen, left kidney.
How is the pain formed?
The causes of the pain syndrome by the mechanism of formation are different in the parenchymal and hollow organs. Dense organs( spleen, uterus, kidney) are covered with a protective capsule. It contains painful nerve endings that react to any damage.
In hollow organs( intestines, ureters), pain is formed by stretching the muscle wall, if the damage reaches the level of the submucosal and muscular layer. The mucosa itself does not have the ability to cause pain, since it is not provided with special receptors.
Pathological processes leading to pain in the lower abdomen can be:
- degeneration of the organ or wall due to impaired metabolism at the cell level;
- local circulatory obstruction;
- functional or organic malfunctioning of internal organs.
Necrosis( necrosis) of the intestine - extreme degree of ischemia
Physiologists distinguish 3 stages in the development of the pain syndrome:
- I - aching sensations appear in the focus, they are not defined by the patient as painful;
- II - formation of reflected pain, possible loss of communication with the true cause;
- III - expansion and deepening of pathological disorders, strengthening pain impulse from the lesion.
We will consider the variants of the pain syndrome in the left flank and in the lower abdomen, depending on the possible pathology of the organs.
What kind of pain in the left side should be considered?
The nature of pain sensations serves as a guide in the assumption of localization and type of pathology.
Aching aching pain
Often worried about women with a unilateral gynecological problem. Dull pains above the pubic and left are possible in case of cycle disorders, sex, inflammation and endometriosis. Inflammation is indicated by a combination of fever and weakness.
Intensity is much inferior to other species, but exhausts the person by its constancy. In men, it occurs with inflammation of the scrotum, infringed inguinal hernia, orchitis. Initially, a malignant tumor manifests itself in this way.
Sharp side pain
The sharp nature of the pain accompanies intestinal spasm, gassing, acute bladder enlargement and pelvis of the left kidney with urinary retention, ovarian rupture in women, passage of stones along the ureter.
Colic called acute spasm with contraction of the intestine or ureter. Typically, the stigma after bowel movement and urination. A kind of shooting pain is a variation. It is typical for inflammation in the lumbar region, joints. Stitching pains can precede the rupture of the ovarian cyst.
What kind of pain characterizes the small intestine?
Diseases of the small intestine affect all departments, cause severe pain with a cutting shade, cramping type. They are accompanied by a violation of the absorption capacity, frequent liquid stool, loss of fluid and electrolytes, vitamins, protein.
A small segment of the jejunal loops lies in the left side of the abdomen. With infectious enteritis and gastroenteritis, inflammation is accompanied by patients' complaints that "the lower abdomen hurts from the left."
Symptoms of the disease can not be separated from signs of gastritis( inflammation of the stomach).The temperature rises, nausea appears, vomiting is possible, the pains migrate from the epigastrium to the center of the abdomen. In the stool there is a lot of mucus, undigested food particles, there are possible admixtures of blood.
The essence of pathological disorders is reduced to the inability of the mucous membrane to suck certain foods( for example, fruits, milk).The main symptom is a quickened loose stool with the release of fat.
The intestine is bursting with gases, so the pain in the left lower abdomen and in the side is cramped, unstable, capable of causing seizures. After evacuation of the intestine or taking medications with spasmolytic action, painful sensations cease. At the same time, patients complain of rumbling, bloating, and taste in the mouth.
Disease is diagnosed in infants during the infancy during the transition to nutrient mixtures, the introduction of nutritional supplements. It turns out that the child does not tolerate gluten( a vegetable protein of cereals).Clinically manifested by pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, weight loss, development of rickets.
Pathology of the left part of the large intestine
The abdomen hurts below on the left side, if the process involves a descending or sigmoid colon.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
The cause of the disease remains unclear. It is associated with stress, hormonal disorders. Most often, middle-aged women suffer. It is established that the exacerbation develops against the background of menstruation.
The disease proceeds chronically, manifested by pains in the abdomen to the left, swelling, disturbance of the stool( constipation alternating with diarrhea).An important feature is considered to be the absence of any morphological disturbances in the intestine. Acute pain in the left side is provoked by unrest, the reception of fried or smoked meat dishes.
Nonspecific ulcerative colitis
The disease is caused by an autoimmune disorder or inherited.
Pathological changes begin with the rectum and spread from the bottom to the upper intestine
The principle of localization distinguishes nonspecific inflammation:
- only rectum( proctitis);
- sigmoid and rectus( proctosigmoiditis);
- of the left( left-sided colitis);
- with colon lesions all over( total colitis).
In 18-30% of patients the process reaches the ileum and appendix( ileocolitis).The walls of the intestine have morphological changes, histologically they are located only in the mucous and submucosal layer. Ulcers are more often found in the sigmoid and rectum. There is a tendency to degeneration into a malignant neoplasm.
Clinically in patients with exacerbation there is a sharp pain in the lower abdomen on the left, a paroxysmal character. Concomitant symptoms are: joint pain, fever, diarrhea with blood and pus. The treatment uses antimicrobial agents, antihistamines, corticosteroids.
Diverticula are saccular formations from the intestinal wall. They protrude outward, interfering with peristaltic waves. Most often observed in old age. In the presence of dense fecal stones and inflammation in the patient there is a throbbing pain in the left side of the abdomen. Concurrently, constipation, black feces in connection with bleeding are disturbed. Treat the disease only surgically.
Benign mucosal formations( polyps) are a mechanical obstacle that disrupt the absorption of water. Determined by constipation, signs of dehydration. The pain in the lower abdomen on the left has a pulling character.
Despite benign nature, polyps can cause intestinal obstruction
Atonic constipation of
Atony of the large intestine can cause chronic inflammation, polyps, neurological problems. The main violation is the lack of proper regulation of peristalsis, loss of ability to reduce and transport the contents.
Often observed in old age. The main symptom is long constipation, bloating, dull pains of a bursting character. The processes of fermentation cause increased gas formation, and the accumulation of gases in the descending bowel manifests a constant aching pain in the left side.
Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells located in the colon and rectum. In Russia, among malignant tumors in men is the third in frequency, in women - in fourth place.
The disease lasts asymptomatically. Symptoms begin with increased fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, bloating, sudden vomiting, a taste in the mouth, belching, feelings of heaviness in the upper abdomen.
First it hurts only to the left, in the place where the tumor is localized. Then the intensity increases and the pain spreads all over the abdomen. With a hardware examination of the intestine, it becomes clear why the left side hurts and the area in the lower abdomen.
Pain syndrome with left colon cancers is more pronounced
Other causes of pain
A relatively rare disease is Hirschsprung's disease - inherited mainly by the heirs of boys.
The essence of pathology is the presence in the large intestine of zones without innervation. Therefore, the main violation is the absence of peristalsis in the affected areas, the accumulation of fecal masses in them, and severe constipation.
The main complaints of patients: constipation, constant swelling of the intestines, pulling pains in the left part of the abdomen. Treat the disease only surgically, removing the unsuitable for digestion.
Crohn's disease is the formation of inflammatory nodules( granulomas) in the intestines and other parts of the digestive tract. The reason is unclear. With inflammation in the descending colon, the abdominal pain is localized on the lower left. Patients experience constant fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
Characteristics of pain in diseases of urinary organs
Urinary diseases occur in cases of kidney, bladder, ureter pathology. To the localization we are investigating there are local pains in the ureter caused by its stretching and irradiating pain sensations from the left kidney.
Inflammation of internal structures( lohans, calyxes) caused by infection. It begins suddenly with a high fever, vomiting, chills, lower back pain, radiating to the left side of the abdomen. The violation of urination, rezi, urinary retention is associated. Pulsation of pain is an unfavorable sign indicating the formation of an abscess in the kidney.
With a chronic course of exacerbation proceed milder, but with the same symptoms. As a result, scar tissue appears on the site of the inflamed tissue, the kidney deforms, loses its function. Renal failure occurs if the second healthy kidney ceases to work hard, compensating for the diseased organ. The disease is treated by urologists with antibacterial agents, diuretics, if necessary by opening the suppuration or resection of part of the kidney.
Often accompanied by inflammation of the urinary tract, metabolic disorders. It is caused by the precipitation of a crystalline deposit in the urine, its settling in the pelvis and gluing into the stones. By composition, phosphates, oxalates, and urates are most often found.
The stone causes a disturbance in the process of urine outflow, therefore stagnation and bursting is formed in the above located sections. Movement of the calculus along the ureter explains why the lower abdomen hurts. Clinically, after intense shaking, running, the patient has an attack of renal colic.
Pains are very intense in nature, cutting. Localize in the lower back or left of the navel. There is an acute retention of urine. The duration of the attack is up to several hours. Anesthetic drugs, antispasmodics are introduced for emergency care. Frequent repetition of seizures - an indication for the rapid extraction of stone.
Pain manifestations in gynecological pathology
Since the uterus is an unpaired organ, the pain associated with inflammation and endometriosis spreads from the suprapubic zone both to the left and to the right, it is possible to isolate only left-sided localization for diseases of the left appendage.
Inflammation of the ovary is provoked by hypothermia, heavy physical work. The cause is an infection. Chronic disease is accompanied by persistent aching pain in the lower abdomen on the left, increasing temperature. Strengthens during intercourse, during menstruation. A long process leads to the formation of adhesions.
Torsion of the cyst
Volumetric hollow formation from the left ovary may have a narrow base( stem).In the presence of cysts, women note that before the acute attack it hurt in the left side "tolerated".Torsion causes intense pain on the left in the ileum region, in the side. Against the background of an attack, a cyst can be ruptured with the appearance of local peritoneal symptoms. Treatment in gynecology is only prompt.
At the initial stage of the cyst of the left ovary is located inside the organ and does not cause symptoms other than the failure of the monthly
schedule. Ectopic pregnancy
The disease is manifested by a seizure of gradually increasing pain in the left side of the abdomen, below, with nausea and vomiting. There is a delay in menstruation. The absence of measures leads to rupture of the left tube, peritonitis and multiple spikes. A woman becomes infertile because the egg does not pass into the uterus.
The disease is manifested in women in the postpartum period. It occurs in the rupture of the uterine ligaments during severe childbirth. Often complicates abortion. The patient has cramping pains, they are localized in the lower abdomen, sometimes only to the left or in the area of the anal opening. Increase when straining.
The pain is burning, radiating to the left half of the abdomen. In finger research, a gynecologist reveals excessive mobility of the cervix, soreness with pressure on the abdominal wall.
What kind of pain causes left hip joint disease?
The hip joint is the largest in the body. From the pathology, bone surfaces and cartilage, adjacent muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels suffer.
The most common causes of pain in the hip joint with irradiation to the lower abdomen are:
- inflammation( arthritis) is infectious and autoimmune;
- inflammation in the periarticular bag( bursitis);
- degenerative disorders in bone tissue of osteoarthritis or coxarthrosis;
- fractures and dislocations;
- aseptic necrosis in the head of the femur;
Coxarthrosis affects joint surfaces, limits mobility of the head of the thigh bone
All diseases are expressed in the intensification of pain in the joint with the support of the left leg, walking. The doctor will note the deformation of the articular surfaces, the shortening of the left leg. The diagnosis is confirmed by an x-ray method. Tomographic sections are used at different depths.
Diagnosis of pain in the left in the long lower abdomen is very insidious, because it is necessary to assume and exclude many diseases. Therefore, the doctor should not rely only on the clinic and the patient's complaints.
Reliable data provides a survey, the use of laboratory and hardware techniques. Patients who feel pain in the abdomen to the left should rely only on the conclusion of a specialist and not try to get rid of them on their own.