Leukocytes, which are still called white blood cells, are cells of the immune system that play a very important role in the body - protect it from toxins, viruses and pathogenic microorganisms.
By the number of these particles, one can judge how active the human defenses are, and also to diagnose certain diseases and pathological processes. For this, a general analysis is used to estimate the amount of white blood cells in the blood and the possible deviation from the norm in men, women and children.
- 1 Normal indices of analysis in infants and adults
- 2 Level increased( leukocytosis): what does this mean
- 2.1 What high values indicate for cardiac diseases
- 2.2 The main causes of increased
- 3 Leukopenia - the amount is lowered
- 3.1 Decrease in the diagnosis of heart disease andvessels
- 3.2 What causes a low content of
- 4 Changes in volume in childhood
Normal test scores in infants and adults
In adults, normal indices areyatsya in the range of 4-10 x 109 / l ( norm embodiments considered values not lower than 3.2 and not more than 11.3 109 / L) and does not depend on age or gender.
But the in babies has normal values of different , because in their organism there is a mechanism for producing new blood cells. How many leucocytes in blood should be in newborns, infants and preschool and school-age children is shown in the table.
|Age||Normal parameters, 109 / l|
|6 months - 2 years||6.6-11.2|
Let's try to figure out what this means if there are few or few leukocytes in the blood and why their level can be increased or decreased.
Level increased( leukocytosis): what does it mean
If an increased amount of white blood cells is detected in the clinical blood test, doctors say such a phenomenon as leukocytosis. True, it does not always indicate the presence of any disease, since it may have the physiological causes of .Often an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood indicates:
- intake of food before taking blood;
- heavy physical activity or intense exercise;
- strong emotional stress;
- stay in a room with high temperature( sauna, hot shop, etc.);
- second trimester of pregnancy.
To exclude these factors, a blood test must be taken strictly on an empty stomach in a calm state. If the white blood cells are still elevated, they can indicate various pathologies and diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
What high values mean in cardiomyopathies
In diseases of the heart and blood vessels, leukocytosis can be detected in several cases. First of all, these acute cardiovascular ailments, accompanied by severe pain and other symptoms: pulmonary edema, acute myocardial infarction, severe angina.
Another cause of increase in the level of leukocytes - inflammatory processes in the body .That is, this feature is typical for all diseases in which the focus of inflammation and infection is localized in the cardiovascular system: pericardial inflammation, infectious myocarditis, rheumatic fever( acute or chronic), abscess of the root of the aorta, infective endocarditis.
In addition to leukocytosis, in such cases, the patient often has a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cell volume, and also increases ESR.
The main causes of increased
- ARVI and respiratory tract infections, accompanied by fever, cough and other respiratory manifestations( pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis, etc.);
- Acute conditions caused by bacterial infections: pyelonephritis, cholecystitis, appendicitis - in this case not only leukocytosis, but also a change in the blood formula due to an increase in the number of neutrophils;
- Inflammation of the spinal cord or brain;
- Purulent infections and sepsis often cause very high numbers( up to 50 x 109 / L);
- Infectious viral diseases;
- Inflammatory processes in the acute phase: for example, intestinal diseases or arthritis;
- Conditions that are accompanied by great blood loss - injuries, surgeries, burns;
- Severe diarrhea in which there is dehydration and thickening of the blood;
- When infecting the body with parasites in the blood of patients, there is an increase in the number of eosinophils.
The more rare causes of leukocytosis include malignant diseases of the hematopoietic system and some cancers, kidney failure, infectious mononucleosis.
Leukopenia - the amount is lowered
The lowering of the level of white blood cells, which is found in a blood test, is called leukopenia. This phenomenon is observed in protracted pathological processes, which severely deplete the human immune system, reducing the number of protective cells.
Decrease in the diagnosis of heart and vascular diseases
This condition can be observed with infective endocarditis, when the heart tissue develops severe, , the long infectious process and even sepsis.
In addition, a decrease in the number of white blood cells is characteristic for diffuse connective tissue diseases - for example, rheumatoid arthritis. Their peculiarity is that they affect the joints, kidneys and heart, which greatly complicates the diagnosis.
What causes a low content of
Other reasons for the reduction of leukocytes in the blood are:
- Severe exhaustion or general intoxication of the body;
- Radiation impact on the body, radiation therapy;
- Some autoimmune diseases( eg, systemic lupus erythematosus);
- Malignant neoplasms, accompanied by the development of metastases in the bone marrow or suppression of normal hematopoiesis by tumor cells;
- Viral infections, which, when ingested, actively multiply in the lymph nodes;
- Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, which causes an increased production of hormones;
- Diseases of the immune system( HIV, AIDS);
- Congenital pathologies that affect the functioning of the bone marrow, reducing the number of protective cells;
- Anaphylactic shock;
- Disorders of the spleen and liver that develop due to malnutrition;
- Prolonged shortage of B vitamins, which affects the composition of the blood;
- Uncontrolled use of certain medications( eg, antibiotics).
In this video, the medical consultation examines the causes of leukopenia in the real case:
Changes in child size
The causes of leukocytosis and leukopenia in children may be the same as in adults, but because of the imperfection of the hematopoietic system , the number of blood cells in a child can varyvery quickly .
If the body has an inflammatory process or infection, the analysis usually shows a high level of white blood cells, and two or three days after the start of treatment, the figures may fall below the norm. In addition, the change in this indicator is often noted with unbalanced nutrition , strong physical exertion and frequent stress.
About the increased leukocytes in the blood in the child will tell Dr. Komarovsky:
Long-term increase or decrease in the level of leukocytes may be a symptom of serious diseases and pathological conditions of , so you can not ignore it. In any case, the patient must necessarily undergo appropriate research and consult with a doctor.