A coagulogram or hemostasiogram is assigned when blood clotting parameters are to be determined.
Most often, this need arises before surgical interventions to prevent blood loss. Also, pregnant women, people with heart, liver, kidney problems are taking the test.
As a result, a number of indicators are obtained. Each parameter is important individually and their totality. What is this analysis, where do they get the blood, how to prepare for the coagulogram delivery, how many days is the extended study done and what are the rules for deciphering the results?
- 1 What is the purpose of the detailed blood test for
- 2 Preparing for such procedure how to correctly take it
- 3 What does the blood test show for the coagulation of
- 4 ? Scores in norm and deviations in children and adults in table
- 5 Interpretation of possible disorders and diagnosis
- 6 Diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases
For what purpose are the deployed blood test
Blood circulates through the vessels in a liquid form, but with their damages thickens, forms thrombi to close the wound and give damagerecover-degenerate tissue. This ability is controlled by the hemostasis system. Clotting is carried out in three stages:
- The internal surface of the vessels in case of damage triggers the processes of thrombosis. The walls of the vessels are spasmodic to reduce blood loss.
- Thrombocytes are produced in the bone marrow. Which are plates that rush to the damaged area and stick together to close the wound.
- 15 clotting factors are formed in the liver( mainly enzymes).Reacting with each other, form a fibrin clot, which finally stops bleeding.
Hemostasiogram shows the status of hemostasis. Assigned in the following cases:
- Before any operations to determine the coagulation time;
- during pregnancy before any kind of delivery;
- pathology of the hematopoiesis and control of their treatment;
- varicose veins;
- liver disease;
- for cardiovascular diseases with a high risk of blood clots;
- when taking certain medications;
- blood loss of various nature;
- chronic foci of inflammation in the body.
Before surgery determine the coagulation time to avoid blood loss. And in the case of heart disease , it is important to prevent the accumulation of in order to prevent a heart attack, stroke or thrombosis.
Look at the informative video animation about the human hemostasis system:
Preparing for such procedure, how to correctly take it
To get reliable results, it is important to correctly submit the material for examination.
For this you need to remember:
- Blood sampling is performed in the morning on an empty stomach. The last meal should be at least 8 hours before the test( preferably in 12).Do not eat spicy, smoked, fatty or alcoholic beverages on the day before.
- You can not smoke before giving the test.
- You can drink. But only pure water.
- Some drugs affect clotting and can make the results unreliable. It is necessary to provide the doctor with a list of medications taken. If possible, 2 days before the examination, you need to stop taking medication.
The fence is made from a vein without using the harness. It is important that the test material is sterile. The result is ready in 1-2 days.
Hemostasiogram is one of the most complex studies. For the correct diagnosis of , it is advisable to perform a general blood test for ( what does it include?).Then the picture will be complete.
Infringement on rules of a fence of a material for the analysis, recent blood transfusions, hit in the collected sample of fabrics from capillary blood can affect the result.
What does the blood test for clotting
show? A hemostasiogram can include a different set of indicators. It all depends on the purpose of the study. The doctor indicates the necessary parameters in each case.
Usually as a result, hemostasiograms are determined:
- Prothrombin level .Prothrombin is a complex protein. Its quantity indicates the state of the hemostasis system as a whole. With an increase in the norm, there is a tendency to thrombosis, and with a lower one, to bleeding.
- Prothrombin index .Ratio in percent of the patient's clotting time to normal.
- MNO is the international normalized ratio of the prothrombin time of the test material to the averaged index of this time. At excess of norm or rate - the person is inclined to bleedings, at depression - to formation of thrombuses.
- ACTTV is an activated partial thromboplastin time. Time of formation of a blood clot. Often researched under the influence of different factors.
- Fibrinogen .One of the main proteins when forming a clot during clotting. An overestimation of the level is characteristic of inflammatory processes. Can indicate a violation in the mid-vascular system. A low amount of protein is observed in problems with the liver, a tendency to bleeding.
- TV - Thrombin time. Duration of the final stage of coagulation.
- Antithrombin III .Reduces coagulability.
- Platelet level .
- Lupus anticoagulant. Normally absent. Presence can indicate autoimmune processes in the body.
- D-dimer .It controls the process of thrombus formation. A rapid increase in this parameter can be with diabetes, blood and kidney diseases.
More useful information about the delivery of this analysis for women's health in childbearing age can be found in the video:
Indicators in the norm and deviations in children and adults in the table
We bring to your attention a table with normal indicators of blood analysis for coagulation and possible causes of changes in hemostasis.
|Coagulogram score||Child norm 3-14 years||Adult norm||Indicators below norm||Parameters above norm|
|Coagulation time according to Li-White, min. Hemorrhagic or anaphylactic shock.||Inflammations, burns, pregnancy, intoxication, kidney disease, liver.|
|Bleeding time( according to Duke), min.||2-4||-||Platelet deficiency, alcohol intoxication, blood diseases.|
|Prothrombin time( PI) according to Kwick, sec.||13-16||11-15||-||Risk of formation of thrombi|
|Prothrombin index( PTI),%||70-100||73-122||Diseases of the liver, thrombosis, pregnancy and childbirth.||Lack of vitamin K, the effect of certain medications.|
|MNO||0.82-1.12||Thrombosis.||Pathological processes of the liver and kidneys, lack of vitamin K, taking certain drugs.|
|APTT, sec.||24-35||22,5-32,5||Increased coagulability, incorrect sampling of material for analysis.||Reduced coagulation, liver and kidney pathology, vitamin K deficiency.|
|Thrombin time, sec.||10-16||14-21||Some medications are taken.||Reduced amount of fibrinogen, autoimmune disorders, liver disease|
|Fibrinogen, g / l||1.7-3.5||2.7-4.013||Diseases of the liver, consequences of bleeding, blood diseases.||Inflammatory processes, malignant formations, menstruation, pregnancy, heart disease, burns.|
|Antithrombin III,%||80-120||75-125||Ischemia, thrombosis, sepsis, congenital pathologies, last trimester of pregnancy.||Strong inflammatory processes, lack of vitamin K, hepatitis.|
|Lupus anticoagulant||negative||-||Autoimmune processes.|
|D-dimer, ng / ml||250-500||-||Thrombosis, multiple hematomas, long-term smoking, postoperative period, liver disease.|
Interpretation of possible disorders and diagnosis of
The final diagnosis is made by a physician. Based on hemostasiograms, general blood test, medical history, examination of the patient. Additional testing is possible.
Causes of hemostasis disorders:
- of liver disease, kidneys of acute and chronic nature;
- insufficient amount of vitamin K in the body;
- congenital or acquired diseases of the hematopoiesis system;
- cardiovascular pathology;
- burns, bruises and other damage to the skin and connective tissue;
- taking certain medications;
- autoimmune processes;
- intoxication of the body;
- malignant tumors;
- inflammation of various localization.
Assign a coagulogram to cardiologists, hematologists, surgeons, therapists, hepatologists, gynecologists.
Diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases
For cardiovascular problems of , it is important to exclude the thickening of the blood .Since there is a risk of blood clots and clogging of blood vessels. There may be a heart attack, stroke, thrombosis. With increased viscosity, preparations for liquefaction are prescribed.
Coagulogram - is the most important study to determine the parameters of blood coagulation , which is performed for the safe operation, in heart diseases, during pregnancy. By results, one can judge the risk of bleeding or thrombosis.