Urinalysis is a mandatory procedure in order to find out the general condition of the body and the presence of any diseases. One of the indicators of this analysis is the epithelium.
It is a cellular layer lining the skin surfaces, mucous internal organs and systems. Epithelium has its own characteristics and structure.
In the urine, each person has these cells, they get into it through the urethra. A sharp increase in this indicator may signal a presence in the body of an infection. By itself this element practically does not carry any information, but in combination with other indicators, it can become a signal about inflammatory processes that occur in the body. What this means we will consider below.
In addition to the amount, the type of epithelium that is secreted together with the urine is determined in the general urine analysis. In this biological fluid, microscopy can detect three types of epithelial cells.
- Flat epithelium- lining the urethra - their amount increases with inflammation of the urethra (urethritis).
- Transitional epithelium- covers mainly the walls of the bladder, as well as the ureters, ducts of the prostate gland, renal pelvis. Just like cells of the flat epithelium, this type of shaped elements is found in the analysis of urine in a single quantity. A sharp increase in the amount of this type of epithelium speaks of cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, urolithiasis. In addition to diseases, a number of other factors can influence the number of these cells in urine.
- Kidney epithelium- lining the buds of the kidneys - in the urine of a healthy person should not be detected at all. The presence of the presented type of epithelial cells for children up to 1 month in number from 1 to 10 is allowed. The detection of renal cells in the human urine indicates damage to the kidney parenchyma.).
The definition of epithelial cells in the urine requires from the lab technician special accuracy - even if the amount at first glance normally, it is necessary to correctly determine the type of cells - this determines the diagnosis and assessment of the severity of a person's condition.
The norm of the epithelium in the urine
In women and men, epithelial cells are always found in the analysis. They get there, sluchisvayas from the mucous membrane of the urinary tract. Depending on the origin, transitional vtc (bladder), flat (lower parts of the urinary tract) and kidney (kidney) epithelium are isolated. The increase in epithelial cells in the urinary sediment suggests inflammatory diseases and poisoning with salts of heavy metals.
The norm of the epithelium in urine:
- in children 0-1 / Negative;
- in men and women 0-1-2-3 in sight.
The amount of epithelium found in the urine depends on whether there is a pathology in the body. The indicator of no more than 3 units means that the person is completely healthy. If the cells of the epithelium are larger, then the inflammation of the urethra is preliminary diagnosed, which is quite often observed in men.
The disease is caused by viruses and bacteria. In women, such an amount of epithelial cells does not always mean the presence of disease. Often a reanalysis is carried out: it may be that the patient has incorrectly made urine sampling.
How correctly to hand over the analysis?
Often, cells of the flat epithelium are detected in urine as a result ofwrong preparation for the analysis.
- Transfer the container with urine to the laboratory should be within 1-2 hours after urination.
- At a menses it is better to refrain from delivery of the analysis.
- Collection of urine is carried out only in a clean (preferably sterilized) container, a sufficient amount of urine - 100 ml.
The main rule that must be adhered to is carrying out hygienic procedures of the external genital organs before collecting urine.
The causes of increased flat epithelium in the urine
If cells of the flat epithelium in the urine are found to be above normal, this means the presence of an inflammatory process. Here are the diseases that are diagnosed in adults, if the analysis indicates high rates:
- Nephropathy of medicinal nature. Structural and functional changes in the kidneys that develop on the background of pharmacological therapy.
- Nephropathy(kidney disease, in which their functioning is disrupted) of a dismetabolic nature. The disease, associated with structural and functional disorders of the kidneys, developing against a background of metabolic disorders, accompanied by crystalluria.
- Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder caused by a urinary infection.
- Other urethritisvarious etiologies, for example, prostatitis (in men).
If the value is increased in women, this does not always mean a serious illness (one of the above), while for a man this is a warning signal for his health.
Renal epithelium in urine: causes
If an increased concentration of renal epithelium in urine is found, this fact identifies the kidney diseases that occur in the body, for example, about the defeat of the kidney parenchyma, because the kidney epithelium forms the surface of the tubules in the kidneys. The cause of inflammation is intoxication, infections, pyelonephritis, circulatory failure, glomerulonephritis.
If the patient underwent kidney transplantation, and after three days the result of the analysis shows the presence of a renal variety, and its content is 15 and higher in the field of view, this fact indicates the possibility of rejection of the allograft.
Transient epithelium in urine: causes
Transitional epithelium lining the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, large ducts of the prostate and the upper part of the urethra. The cells of the transitional epithelium in the urine of healthy people are found in a single quantity.
An increase in the number of cells of the transitional epithelium can be observed with cystitis, pyelonephritis, and nephrolithiasis. Norms of transitional epithelium do not have subdivisions in accordance with age and sex. The maximum amount for a healthy person is no more than 3 cells in urine.
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