1Compression fracture of the spine in the thoracic region
- 1.1General information
- 1.3Signs and Symptoms
- 1.4First aid
- 1.8Prevention of complications
2How to treat a compression fracture of the spine
- 2.1Symptoms of compression fracture
- 2.3Consequences of compression fracture of the spine
- 2.4Treatment of compression fractures
- 2.6Causes of Compression Fractures
3Compression fracture of the spine - treatment and symptoms, consequences, gymnastics and rehabilitation
- 3.1The causes of compression fracture of the spine
- 3.2The severity of compression fracture of the vertebral column
- 3.3Symptoms of compression fracture of the spine
- 3.5Diagnosis of compression fracture of the spine
- 3.7Treatment of compression fracture of the spine
- 3.8Conservative treatment
- 3.9Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty
- 3.10: Vertebroplasty procedure
- 3.11Rehabilitation after compression fracture of the spine
- 3.12Consequences of compression fracture of the spine
- 3.15: Rehabilitation after a fracture of the spine
4Compression fracture of the thoracic spine: treatment, LUTS, effects, degrees
- 4.2Degrees of pathology
- 4.4Traumatic origin
- 4.5Structural changes in the bones of the spine
- 4.10Exercise therapy
5Treatment and consequences of compression fracture of the spine
- 5.3Compression fracture of the cervical spine
- 5.4Compression fracture of the thoracic spine
- 5.5Compression fracture of the lumbar spine
- 5.8Conservative treatment
- 5.13Massage and physiotherapy
Compression fracture of the spine in the thoracic region
The spine is the base and core of the entire skeleton, which allows a person to walk, move and rotate the lower, upper limbs, the head, and with all this, all the actions are performed smoothly and consistently. The importance of spinal column functions can not be assessed. The more difficult physically, and psychologically too, any trauma of this part of the human body is perceived.
Due to various circumstances - an unsuccessful jump, excessive squeezing, bending, strong impact may occur compression fracture of the thoracic spine, the severity of which is determined by:
- the severity of the pain syndrome;
- symptomatic severity;
- zone of defeat;
- number of damaged vertebrae;
- involvement in the problem of nearby tissues and blood vessels.
The mechanism of origin of fractures of the thoracic part consists in the excess of the axial load with a sharp tilt of the spine, and as a result - wedge-shaped contraction of the vertebrae with a high probability of damage processes.
In the first place, this is dangerous because of the squeezing of blood vessels and nerve roots, which are directly related to the spinal cord.
With such injuries, not only the vertebrae, but also all nearby tissues can be injured: ligaments, muscles, nerve endings, roots, intervertebral discs, ligaments. Certainly, the circulatory system suffers.
But do not despair - modern doctors have long, successfully, successfully treated with compression fracture. There are a number of specialized treatment complexes with the use of the latest technological devices and a properly selected course of rehabilitation.
Much will depend on the number, nature of the damaged vertebrae, the degree of trauma to the nerve endings.
In other words, the intensity of the pain syndrome, the structuring of the medical approach, the duration of treatment with the rehabilitation period are directly related to the degree of compression.
Severe damage to the thoracic vertebrae occurs extremely rarely due to the lack of mobility of this anchoring zone to the base as compared to other parts of the spinal column. If nevertheless it happened, immediate hospitalization is needed to alleviate suffering, in order to avoid serious consequences.
It happens that the victim receives a hidden fracture, while he does not even guess that he had a compression fracture of the thoracic vertebra. This threatens with serious complications, sometimes irreversible.
The reasons for the compression fracture of the vertebral column of the thoracic part can be:
- A powerful blow to the area of the thoracic vertebrae, which can occur due to accidents.
- Falling from height.
- Breaking bone in osteoporosis.
- Complications of serious diseases: tumors, tuberculosis, metastasis.
- Too high physical activity.
- Injuries in the workplace.
Everything that makes a person's life more intense - sport, going to the mountains, creative types of recreation, transportation trips, dangerous production, conceals unforeseen dangers. It is important to keep the precautionary measures.
It is doubly insulting to a person when he is in old age and deprived of all the joys of social life, because because of painful internal changes is at risk of damage to the thoracic vertebra even with a slight jerk or sharp movement.
How not to overlook the signs of a dangerous disease?
Signs and Symptoms
The main signs of injury are:
- severe retrosternal pain;
- hematoma in the area of injury;
- change of posture;
- impaired breathing;
- deformation of the spinal column;
- paralexia of internal organs;
- change gait;
- impaired sensation, local paralysis;
- numbness of areas around the damaged area;
- protrusion of thoracic vertebrae;
- puffiness in the fracture site;
- pinching of nearby soft tissues.
Because of the split of one or more vertebrae, their deformation occurs in the form of a cone, a peculiar protrusion occurs. There is a severe pain in the thoracic region with possible subcutaneous bruising. Compression of the discs and nerve roots leads to dysfunction of the entire spine.
Dangerous is the moment that internal organs suffer, the level of damage which directly depends on the number of affected vertebrae and nearby tissues, as well as the degree of their compression.
Trauma can happen with any vertebra, but most often there is a compression fracture of 12, 7 and 11.The main symptom of damage to the 12 thoracic vertebra is the appearance of a hump.
There are several conditional degrees of compression fractures:
- Easy, in which: the height of the vertebrae decreases by 1/3; their integrity is not visualized; there is no internal damage.
- Average, at which: the height became less than half; the integrity of the vertebral body is impaired; not damaged spinal cord and neighboring organs.
- Heavy, in which: the height of the vertebrae has changed more than ½; the integrity and stability of the vertebral tissue is severely impaired; there are damages to the organs or spinal cord.
- Particularly severe, in which: the stability and integrity of the vertebrae is severely impaired; At the same time, the spinal cord and internal organs are damaged.
Pain sensations may be absent or occur gradually due to internal pathological processes with kyphotic formation. If there is an overload of segments and compensatory muscle spasm develops, the pain becomes more tangible.
It happens that the destroyed vertebrae are introduced into the spinal canal or squeeze the blood supply system, nerve fibers, which is manifested by muscle weakness, numbness of the upper limbs.
Immediately after traumatization, the thoracic vertebrae, due to their lack of mobility, may remain in place for some time, but then the stability is gradually broken, the deformation is observed more and more..
Time in this case plays against the victim - the faster the diagnosis is made and the treatment process is started, the higher the likelihood of a favorable outcome..
Due to the large inertial force with particularly severe injuries, the following can occur:
- fracture of ribs;
- rupture or bruise of cardiac or pulmonary tissues;
- disturbance of the rhythm of the heart;
- changing the color of the skin on cyanotic;
- limitations in respiratory function.
People who are close to the victim with signs of compression should prevent any movement, any plane so that the entire vertebral column is strictly horizontal and as soon as possible to call for medical help.
The more vertebrae involved in the process, the more severely the affected compressive fracture of the spine of the thoracic region, up to diagnosis and treatment, when the first moments come relief.
For a more accurate classification of the injury, its level, the degree of damage, specialists conduct a thorough diagnosis. To do this, use:
- magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography;
- examination of a traumatologist, cardiologist, surgeon and neurologist;
- collection and analysis of blood to detect the level of prostate-specific antigens, antinuclear antibodies, ESR indicators.
Having finished the diagnosis, specialists make a conclusion about the degree of damage and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Immediately after diagnosing a compression fracture of the thoracic region, it is necessary to start complex therapy as soon as possible, which is important to observe first of all for the patient himself.
In uncomplicated compression fractures, conservative treatment is performed, which includes:
- the appointment of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs;
- fixation of the damaged area by means of a special corset with a compression fracture and a replicator;
- strict bed rest on a hard surface for at least two months;
- complex of physiotherapy exercises.
The final fusion of compression fractures and elimination of the effects of compression occurs in 3 month period, provided that all the prescriptions of the attending physician with a periodic X-ray control. In elderly people, the cure period increases to 4-6 months.
In the treatment of compression fracture of the spine in children, bed rest is extremely strict throughout the whole recovery period until rehabilitation, since bone tissue at this age is not up to the end are formed. To avoid possible complications, parental, medical and radiological monitoring should be strengthened.
If the injury affected important organs, there was compression of the nerve roots, discs, relief of pain and symptoms with conventional treatment is not possible, the attending physician appoints operative treatment. From a number of techniques can be identified specifically:
- Vertebroplasty, in which a cementing composition is introduced into the body of the spinal column.
- Kifoplasty, which helps restore the natural height of the vertebra.
- Operative decompression, which removes fragments that break the integrity of the spinal cord and apply the technique of fixing the vertebrae through metal structures.
- Implantation, which is used for severe destruction of vertebral bodies by replacement with artificial ones.
However, it must be understood that the effects of compression fracture can lead to undesirable consequences dangerous for normal operation of the spine, internal organs and all vital functions rights. Therefore, correct and timely diagnosis, treatment and a long rehabilitation period are so important.
A patient who has undergone the entire course of treatment should not forget the importance of the rehabilitation period and understand that prolonged exposure without special physical exertion adversely affects the ligaments and muscles back. Therefore, without a course of massage, medical gymnastics, physiotherapy procedures it is difficult to quickly get into shape - you need to develop a muscle corset.
Each type of rehabilitation procedures the doctor appoints individually.
Prevention of complications
If the doctors correctly treated the patient, and he observed all the prescriptions, then complications can not be considered. Otherwise, you need to beware:
- protrusion of vertebral discs;
- occurrence of intervertebral hernias;
- secondary compression of the nerve roots.
To prevent such unpleasantness and in the intact vertebrae there were no problems, the competent doctor always appoints in the first week treatment of light complex exercises, special gymnastics for breathing, which strengthens muscles, prevents their atrophy, eliminates spasms, levels posture.
It is important to remember that with the right attitude to one's health, treatment approach and rehabilitation procedures, the risk of complications is minimized.
Due to the extreme danger of this type of injury, one should resort only to specialized treatment and exclude all self-treatment.
A source: https://PerelomaNet.ru/perelomy/kompressionnyj-perelom-grudnogo-otdela-pozvonochnika.html
How to treat a compression fracture of the spine
Compression fracture is a severe and fairly common trauma to the spine, which occurs when it is sharply compressed and bent simultaneously.
Fracture of the vertebra is one of the main causes of back pain, which can last continuously for a long period.
Olga Rubtsova, a neurologist of the highest category, Into-Sana Clinic
As a result of a specific load, the pressure on the bodies and discs of one or more vertebrae substantially increases. In this case, the anterior part of the vertebra is usually "flattened acquiring a wedge shape. In addition, the height of the spinal column decreases, which leads to severe consequences.
With compression fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine, soft tissues, surrounding vessels and nerves are damaged. But the most serious of spinal injuries is a fracture of the cervical vertebrae, the consequences of which can be the most serious and dangerous for the life of the victim.
The compression fracture 1 and 2 of the lumbar vertebra, as well as the 11 and 12 vertebrae of the thoracic region, are usually obtained at the time of the car accident or when falling from a height. It is noted that one or more vertebrae may suffer as a result.
Such traumas are also quite common among the elderly, whose bones become brittle due to the development of osteoporosis. In this case, the compression fracture is no less dangerous and acts as a complication of the underlying disease.
Fractures of the spine, in which the spinal cord was not damaged, it is common to divide into 3 degrees:
- the first - at which the height of the vertebra decreases less than half;
- the second - at which this height is reduced by half;
- the third - at which the most significant reduction in the height of the vertebra is fixed - more than 50%.
It is noted that pain in vertebral fractures, already weakened by other diseases, is usually insignificant and often ignored by victims, who often prefer not to seek help from doctors, which may have negative effects.
It is not always taken into account that in the case of a fracture, the sign of the lesion of the nervous structures may not be pain, but characteristic neurological symptoms (muscle weakness, numbness in the hands or feet, etc.)
Symptoms of compression fracture
The most common signs of such a fracture of the spine are:
- acute pain in the back, both during injury and immediately after it;
- pain in the back, giving in the hands or feet;
- sensations of numbness and weakness in the limbs;
- limited movement of the spine;
- painful sensations when pressing on sections along the axis of the spine;
- abdominal pain;
- fast fatigue and general weakness;
- labored breathing.
Before making a diagnosis and deciding on the upcoming treatment, the doctor can prescribe to undergo a set of diagnostic procedures:.
- Radiography of the spine (direct and lateral projection) - to identify the damaged vertebra.
- Computed tomography (CT) - for a more detailed study of the structure of the damaged vertebra. In parallel with CT, myelography is sometimes performed, which makes it possible to assess the state of the spinal cord in the area of trauma.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - to determine the presence of lesions of the neural structures of the spinal column.
- Densitometry is recommended for all women over 50 years for timely diagnosis of osteoporosis.
- Neurologic examination - to check the functions of the nerve roots, peripheral nerves and spinal cord.
Consequences of compression fracture of the spine
Such a serious trauma of the thoracic and lumbar spine can subsequently lead to:
- to instability of the vertebrae in the injured area;
- stenosis of the spinal canal;
- various neurological disorders;
- development of posttraumatic osteochondrosis and radiculitis (if the nerve roots continue to experience pressure from the damaged vertebra).
- kyphotic deformation (not physiological bending of the spinal column back in the chest area) or other curvature of the spine;
- paresis and paralysis of the extremities (with a compression fracture in the thoracic or lumbar region, when the vertebra exerts pressure on the spinal cord).
More common are compression fractures in the neck (fracture 4, 5 or 6 vertebrae), obtained by unsuccessful divers with a blow to the head of the bottom. Due to the so-called "diver's injury" these people risk getting at least segmental instability, and as a maximum - instant death.
Fractures in the thoracic region are almost always the result of direct trauma.
Since at the fracture of 7 thoracic vertebrae a person often experiences severe but quite tolerable pain, he rarely seeks medical help, hoping that "it will pass by itself". As a result, a number of complications that require more serious therapy develop.
In time, the treatment of fractures of the 12 vertebrae of the thoracic region and 1-2 vertebrae of the lumbar (carrying the basic load in case of trauma) allows to avoid dangerous complications if at the same time it was possible to avoid traumatization of the dorsal the brain.
When "punching" the body of the vertebra into the vertebral canal, there is a high probability of paresis or paralysis of the limbs.
It should be noted that reducing the size of one of the vertebrae due to trauma almost always leads to such consequences as degenerative changes in nerve endings in the area of injury and chronic pain syndrome.
Treatment of compression fractures
Such fractures are treated surgically or, more often, in a non-surgical, conservative way.
In the absence of indications for surgical intervention, the treatment process is usually limited to fixing the damaged spine, prolonged (up to several weeks) and strict bed rest, the taking of pain medication, and in the future the wearing of a special corset.
After restoration of the damaged vertebra, removal of gypsum and the beginning of the first attempts to move, they start rehabilitation measures.
This is necessary, since during the absence of movement the muscles of the back (muscle corset) strongly weaken and can no longer properly support the spine.
The therapeutic course is selected individually depending on the patient's age, the specificity of the suffered trauma and possible complications. The treatment course can include the following procedures:
- Medicated joint blockade of the joints and spine, used to stop the pain syndrome.
- Physiotherapeutic and medicamental treatment is a complex of measures combining blockades, droppers and physiotherapy.
As a result of treatment, patients are relieved of back pain, vertebrae return to normal, gradually the mobility and natural curvatures of the spine are restored, the blood circulation and exchange are normalized in the area of trauma substances.
At the end of the treatment course, the doctor recommends the patient a set of exercise exercises that are performed under supervision specialist in the rehabilitation center, as well as those that the patient can do on his own already in the home conditions.
It should be remembered that any physical activity can be applied no earlier than four months after the injury.
In addition, in the course of six months the patient should avoid long sitting.
The transferred trauma and the course of treatment during the year should also periodically visit the doctor, to monitor his condition and get the necessary consultations..
In addition to physical therapy, such methods of physiotherapy as massage and acupuncture will also bring tangible benefits. Thanks to them, the process of restoration of bone tissue and sensitivity of nerve fibers is more effective..
Unfortunately, not always the complications of the compression fracture can be treated conservatively.
A doctor can prescribe an operation in cases of unstable fracture of the spine or in case of a threat of development of neurological complications.
After surgical treatment, the patient also needs to undergo an individual rehabilitation course.
Causes of Compression Fractures
The cause of the compression fracture may be:
- fall or jump from height;
- injury resulting from a car accident;
- weakness of the vertebrae or osteoporosis;
- professional or sports injury.
Compression fracture due to osteoporosis is quite common in women over 80 years of age, many of whom have signs of osteoporosis.
With this disease, the density of bones decreases, because of what they can not withstand even the usual load.
For example, you can get such a fracture by slipping on the street or falling from a chair.
The presence of malignant tumors is another cause of compression fractures of the spine.
To avoid such serious injuries it is recommended:
- include in their diet products with calcium, helping to strengthen bones, such as cottage cheese, cheese, sour cream, fish, tomatoes, almonds, walnuts, grains, bananas, greens;
- do not forget to walk in sunny weather and eat foods containing vitamin D (eggs, sesame) and zinc (legumes, seafood, liver);
- Strengthen bones with the help of swimming, dancing, fitness, jogging;
- every year after 50 years pass the diagnosis of bone condition;
- to abandon bad habits in the form of smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages;
- to reduce to a minimum or to refuse absolutely from the use of the aerated drinks, coffee, strong tea, margarine and mayonnaise.
Older people with the first manifestations of osteoporosis should take timely action to combat this disease.
A source: http://www.likar.info/travmatologiya-i-ortopediya/article-79065-kompressionnyj-perelom-pozvonochnika-simptomy-lechenie-posledstvij-reabilitatsiya/
Compression fracture of the spine - treatment and symptoms, consequences, gymnastics and rehabilitation
A fracture of the spine is called a pathological condition, which occurs as a result of violations of the integrity of the bone system of the spine.
These disorders can occur with direct injury to the spine or under the influence of a certain force, causing excessive and sharp bending.
The causes of compression fracture of the spine
Compression fracture of the spine occurs as a result of excessive pressure on the body of the vertebra.
Most often, a compression fracture occurs in the lumbar and thoracic spine.
The body of the vertebra in the compression fracture takes the form of a wedge directed by the apex forward.
The internal tissues of the vertebral body are deformed and destroyed.
Compression fracture can occur with a large axial load during the tilt of the spinal column forward, which can often be seen when jumping to the feet from a high altitude.
The main causes of compression fracture of the spine:
- excessive weakness of the spine while maintaining normal axial loads;
- excessively sharp flexion-extension movements at high load;
The severity of compression fracture of the vertebral column
There are three degrees of severity of the spinal deformity:
I degree - the height of the affected vertebra is reduced by less than one third.
II degree - the height of the affected vertebra was reduced by 33-50% in relation to its original state.
III degree - the height of the affected vertebra was reduced by more than 55%.
The greatest severity is the comminuted fracture, which differs from the wedge-shaped (ordinary) fracture of the vertebral body.
Some breakaway fragments can damage the spinal cord or adjacent intervertebral discs.
If the first degree of compression fracture allows for conservative treatment, then a third degree will require surgical intervention.
Uncomplicated compression fracture of the spine is distinguished by the absence of any damage to the spinal cord.
This type of fracture can be successfully cured by osteopathic methods, completely restoring the work of the musculoskeletal system.
Symptoms of compression fracture of the spine
First signs of fracture:
- sharp pains in the legs;
- in hand;
- in the vertebral region.
In addition, you can feel numbness and weakness (if the nerve endings of the spine are damaged).
With the gradual destruction of the spine (with osteoporosis), the pain grows gradually and more often than not it is mild.
With a more severe form of compression fracture, adjacent areas of the body can be displaced into the spinal canal, exerting excessive pressure on the tissues of the spinal cord.
However, this happens rarely enough.
Diagnosis of compression fracture of the spine
Before the diagnosis begins, the physician collects all the patient's complaints and opens a medical history (anamnesis).
It is very important to find out the main cause of the fracture and differentiate it from other types of diseases that provoke pain in the back or in the spine.
After that, the doctor appoints a complex of diagnostics to clarify the cause of the disease and choose the tactics of treatment..
Rengenography of the spinal column is performed in two projections (lateral and direct). It allows you to identify the damaged vertebra..
Neurological examination is a test of the functionality of peripheral nerves, nerve roots, and also the spinal cord.
After carrying out the radiography, the doctor usually prescribes a computerized tomography to study the damaged vertebra more closely.
In parallel with CT, myelography is performed, which assesses the actual state of the spinal cord at the site of the fracture.
When suspected of vertebral nerve damage, an MRI is usually performed.
All women who are already 50 years old, and who have a compression fracture of the spine, must necessarily pass a densitometry to detect osteoporosis.
Compression fracture of the spine in children is very important in time to treat, as further deformation vertebral column is likely to lead a child to complete paralysis of the limbs and, as a consequence, to disability.
Treatment of compression fracture of the spine
After establishing the correct diagnosis, the right treatment is prescribed.
Compression fractures of the spine require:
- adherence to bed rest;
- prolonged treatment.
Treatment is always carried out under the supervision of a doctor who prescribes the necessary procedures and medications.
The method of treatment is chosen depending on the condition of the victim and the degree of severity of the fracture.
In the treatment of compression fracture of the spine, three main directions are distinguished:
- conservative treatment;
This type of treatment requires the following procedures:
- analgesic therapy;
- temporary fixation of the spine with a special corset;
- special gymnastics and sparing exercises are prescribed;
- special massage is performed;
- physiotherapy is prescribed.
In addition, the patient can be offered a corset with a compression fracture of the spine, which will additionally fix the axis of the spine and spread the site of its fracture.
Terms of wearing a corset vary and range from one to two months.
If necessary, it is possible to make a custom-made corset.
Conservative treatment for the first time implies putting the patient on a hard, sloping bed.
This excludes any physical activity.
Over time, the doctor can prescribe the exercise therapy, which will help:
- the creation of a muscular corset that holds the spine in its normal position;
- restoration of normal mobility and flexibility of the spine;
- strengthening of long back muscles;
- restoration of the right axis of symmetry and the natural shape of the spine.
The usual terms for restoring the patient's ability to work are four to five months.
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive methods of treatment.
: Vertebroplasty procedure
When vertebroplasty on the skin, a small incision is made to insert the needle.
This operation is carried out under fluoroscopic control.
A special cement mortar enters the injured vertebra through the needle, which further prevents its complete destruction.
Operation of vertebroplasty allows:
- strengthen the vertebrae in its place;
- eliminate back pain.
Kyphoplasty is designed to correct the shape and position of the injured spine.
To the damaged vertebrae, through several small incisions from different sides, two needles are inserted, which make two small holes in the vertebrae to insert two deflated chambers.
Cameras are inflated, restoring the normal form of the vertebra.
After this, the vertebra is fixed with bone cement in the required position.
Surgical treatment of patients with chronic compression fracture of the spine is performed under more difficult conditions, and is much more difficult for patients.
Diet in the treatment of compression fracture requires taking products enriched with:
In addition, the dietary diet of the patient should contain more:
- boiled fish;
- green vegetables;
- broths of wild rose;
- bread with bran;
- black currant;
- infusions yarrow, nettle, mother-and-stepmother.
Rehabilitation after compression fracture of the spine
Rehabilitation of the patient in the absence of nerve damage poses the main goal - gradually mobilize the patient.
For this, in general, physiotherapy is applied, which can be started 45-50 days after the fracture.
To relieve pain, apply:
- cold therapy;
- restore the flexibility of the vertebrae;
- increase their mobility;
- restore correct posture.
Consequences of compression fracture of the spine
The danger of a compression fracture is:
- development of instability in the injured spine;
- kyphoscoliosis (persistent curvature of the spinal column);
Bony fragments, pressed into the body of the vertebra, contribute to the gradual narrowing of the spinal canal, transmitting blood vessels that nourish the nervous structures.
The result is a violation of the blood supply to the spine, which is called stenosis of the spinal canal.
Reduction of muscle strength, numbness of certain body parts and pain during stenosis develop gradually, which once again reminds us of the need for an urgent visit to the doctor..
Of particular importance in this case is the timely detection of a compression fracture of the spine and the beginning of its full treatment..
Take care of yourself.
: Rehabilitation after a fracture of the spine
A source: http://hvatit-bolet.ru/bolezni-sustavov/kompressionnyj-perelom-pozvonochnika-lechenie-i-simptomy-posledstvija-gimnastika-i-reabilitacija.html
Compression fracture of the thoracic spine: treatment, LUTS, effects, degrees
In the case of compression fracture of the spine of the thoracic department, treatment, diagnosis, rehabilitation is a very serious and responsible way. This pathology is a serious injury, which can be initially hidden.
Compression fracture is difficult to diagnose.
The spine of the chest is less mobile than the lumbar and cervical.
Most of the thoracic department performs a fixation function. A thorax with ribs is attached to it.
Therefore, this part is less mobile, and the pain in the fracture can be weakly expressed.
Compression, or compression of nerve endings, near-vertebral soft tissues and intervertebral discs is characterized by a violation of the integrity of the vertebra. There is a deformation and a decrease in size.
Degrees of pathology
Allocate several states. Each of them has a different symptomatology and treatment.
- If the fracture does not affect internal organs, the spine is generally stable. The vertebra decreased by a third.
- Structural changes occurred in the spine, but this did not affect the internal organs. The vertebra decreased by half.
- Changes affected the stability of the entire spine, involved individual internal organs. There was a decrease or destruction of the bone more than half.
- Violated stability of the spine. The vertebral column itself is badly damaged and deformed. The organs are affected.
Symptoms of a compression fracture of the thoracic spine differ depending on the causes that triggered fracture and severity of the lesion.
When you change the position of the body or movements, there is severe pain. Edema and bruising in the place of a possible fracture. In the case when nerves are squeezed, limbs become numb, sensitivity is lost.
Structural changes in the bones of the spine
At first, aching pains appear, which eventually increase.
If nerve endings have been squeezed, limbs become numb, sensitivity is lost, convulsions and tingling occur.
Increasing degenerative changes lead to a disruption in the stability of the vertebral parts and the appearance of the hump (kyphosis).
One of the means of diagnosis is a laboratory blood test.
Depending on the type, causes, severity of the fracture, in addition to the basic diagnostic procedures, an additional examination may be prescribed.
- Computer and magnetic resonance imaging.
- Laboratory tests of blood and urine.
- Special tests for osteoporosis (hyperparathyroidism, whey protein electrophoresis).
The first stages, mild and moderate, are amenable to conservative treatment, severe stages most often require surgical intervention.
Conservative technique is aimed at self-healing and splicing of bones.
- use of special beds;
- wearing a corset and a recliner;
- the use of medications: painkillers, vitamin complexes with calcium, chondroprotectors, biophosphates.
When the bone part of the spine is reduced by half and the nerve endings are squeezed, the surgical method is used.
Kypoplasty - the introduction of bone cement in the previously prepared and adjusted body of the damaged link.
Two methods have been developed and successfully applied:
They are aimed at minimizing the harm to healthy tissues. Both operations are performed under local anesthesia and are scanned by a fluoroscope. The neurosurgeon controls the process, watching him on the monitor.
With kyphoplasty, through a small incision, a container (trocar) is introduced into the vertebra, filled with fluid and the bone tissues are expanded. Thus, the vertebra becomes in place and the compression of the nerve processes is removed.
Vertebroplasty, a similar operation, only remove the trocar, and space is filled with special medical cement. This procedure lasts no more than an hour.
When the thoracic spine is destroyed, it is replaced by an implant.
Rehabilitation after compression fracture of the thoracic spine includes therapeutic gymnastics with a gradual increase in loads. The main goal is the formation of a muscular corset. The doctor individually selects and controls the complex of gymnastics for each case.
In this video, one of the complexes of exercise therapy is presented.
The consequences of a compression fracture of the thoracic spine are overcome over a period of time.
There may be such complications after the transfer of this pathology:
- rupture of ligaments of the spine;
- paralysis of the legs;
- stenosis of the spinal canal.
Particular attention should be paid to the elderly. This is due to the fact that due to their age they do not always attach importance to pain in the back, so this ailment can in principle not be diagnosed. For this reason, there may be consequences such as:
- repeated fracture;
- disturbances in the respiratory system;
- the emergence of neurological pathologies.
Treatment and rehabilitation in case of pathology - massage.
After splicing of bone tissues, a certain period of rehabilitation is required.
Recovery takes a different time, from three months for the early and middle stages. From a year or more, in the case of a severe form of fracture.
Compression fracture of the thoracic spine in children requires increased attention. Bones are not fully formed, so fractures can occur in several departments.
Children are recommended bed rest for a longer period, until the bone tissue is fully fused.
- performing physical exercises;
- passing the course of massage;
- Physiotherapy: electrostimulation, thermoapplication, etc.
Compression fracture of the thoracic spine and its treatment is a complex and lengthy process. But modern methods of treatment and recovery give a chance on recovery.
A source: http://SpinaInfo.com/bolezni/pozvonochnika/kompressionnoj-perelom-grudnogo-otdela-pozvonochnika
Treatment and consequences of compression fracture of the spine
The vertebral column is formed due to the relationship of individual bones - vertebrae. Like any other bone, the vertebra is prone to injury, which leads to its fracture.
Fracture of the spine is a common trauma among the elderly. However, the incidence of pathology among young people has recently increased.
All vertebral fractures can be divided into several types. Classification of the mechanism of injury is divided pathology into the following types:
- Compression fracture of the spine - in this trauma the body of the vertebra is squeezed from above and below, compressed by its own weight. This pathology is the most common type of injury.
- Decompression fracture of the spine - with this rare type of injury, the vertebra is stretched, not compressed. Basically, such a mechanism occurs in road accidents.
- Explosive, fragmentation type of injury - this mechanism is characterized by the formation of multiple fragments of the vertebra. An explosive fracture occurs not only when the blast wave is applied to the vertebral body. Bone often breaks up into fragments and with high-strength compression.
The most common type of injury is a compression fracture of the spine. It is necessary to understand it in more detail. This type of injury doctors divided by severity:
- Fracture of 1 degree - compression of the body occurs less than one-third of its height.
- Fracture of the 2nd degree - the vertebra is compressed halfway.
- A grade 3 fracture is a compression of more than 50% of the height of the vertebral body.
The most severe for treatment is a grade 3 fracture. With this pathology, the parts of the bone will inevitably be fractured from the vertebra. They break the anatomy of the neural formations and damage the spinal cord.
Why there is compression fracture of the spine? The immediate cause of injury may be the following events:
- Sports overload.
- Falls from a great height.
- Road traffic accidents.
- Explosive wounds.
- Household trauma.
Predispose the emergence of pathology factors such as:
- Osteoporosis. Because of this pathology, a compression fracture often occurs in the elderly. With age, bone mineral density decreases. Vertebrae in the elderly are able to be injured even when falling from the height of their own body.
- Exchange disorders and hypovitaminosis.
- Diseases of the intestine, pancreas, liver and associated malabsorption (insufficient absorption of food in the gastrointestinal tract).
- Weakness of the muscular and ligamentous back skeleton.
- Osteomyelitis of the vertebrae.
- Systemic diseases of connective tissue.
- Tumors of the spinal column.
- Purulent abscesses.
- Prolonged bed rest with subsequent physical exertion.
Of course, compression fracture of the spine in most cases occurs in the elderly. The main factor is osteoporosis, but with age, another pathology of organs and systems accumulates.
Regardless of the department in which the injury occurred, there are some common signs indicating damage to the spine. These include the following symptoms:
- High-intensity pain in the back, giving away in hands or feet. Occurs immediately after an injury.
- With osteoporosis, pain can grow gradually, as the body of the bone is compressed.
- Impossibility to move the corresponding department of the back.
Other characteristic symptoms inherent in the damage to any part of the back are difficult to isolate. It is worth dwelling on the clinical picture of the fracture of each floor of the spine (cervical, thoracic, lumbar) separately.
Compression fracture of the cervical spine
Symptoms of trauma to the cervical floor of the back have a rather characteristic picture. Signs of the defeat of the cervical department include such manifestations as:
- Pain in the cervical spine.
- Weakness, dizziness.
- Loss of consciousness.
- Lumbago of intense pain in the arm.
- Numbness, loss of sensitivity in one or more hands.
- Change in blood pressure.
Injuries of the cervical spine are very dangerous for life and labor forecast. If such signs are found in a person, you need to immediately call an ambulance.
Compression fracture of the thoracic spine
Fracture of the thoracic spine has few special clinical manifestations. After getting injured, the patient will feel pain in the corresponding back department.
Sometimes the pain is transmitted along the ribs to the chest.
Compression fracture of the lumbar spine
Fracture of the lumbar spine in the vast majority of cases occurs in the region of L1 (the first lumbar vertebra).
L1 - level of the spine, located on the transition of the thoracic region to the lumbar region.
Features of biomechanics and bends of the spinal column cause a high incidence of L1 vertebral fractures.
If a person has a fracture of L1 or another lumbar vertebra, the following symptoms occur:
- Intense low back pain.
- Inability to straighten your back.
- Shoots in buttocks and legs.
- Numbness of one or another area of the foot skin.
- Involuntary urination and defecation.
When diagnosing a vertebral fracture, the doctor will conduct several studies. Types of diagnostic procedures:
- Radiography of the affected department in several projections.
- CT scan.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
To make a full diagnosis, you need to consult a doctor of a neurologist or a neurosurgeon.
Do not underestimate the severity of such a disease as a compression fracture of the spine, the consequences of this injury can seriously change the life of the victim. The complications of injury include:
- Instability of the vertebrae.
- Deformations of the spinal column
- Chronic dorsalgia.
- Paresis and paralysis.
- Loss of skin sensitivity.
- Incontinence of urine and feces.
- Stenosis of the spinal canal.
Prevent these phenomena can be if the time to begin treatment of damage.
How to treat the resulting back injury? First of all, you should consult a specialist. He will choose a method of therapy:
- Conservative treatment.
- Operative treatment.
After any of these methods, a full recovery is required - a course of rehabilitation therapy.
After entering the patient in the hospital, the doctor will begin treatment with anesthesia. For this, various analgesics are used.
Analgesics are taken during the entire period of the conservative period. Immediate conservative therapy is the simultaneous or gradual reclamation of the vertebrae.
With the help of special apparatus the doctor returns the body of the bone to the place of its anatomical position.
Such treatment is used at the first, rarely the second degree of injury.
At the second and especially third degree of damage, surgical intervention is necessary. Indications for surgical treatment are also lesions of nerve structures, instability of the spine, non-stopable pain syndrome.
The operation can be carried out through anterior or posterior access, depending on the degree of involvement of certain formations. The doctor performs decompression of the nerves, removes the fragments of the vertebra, stabilizes the affected bone or prosthesis in the region of the motor segment.
Rehabilitation after a compression fracture of the spine is absolutely necessary for all patients. It includes several therapies:
- Medical immobilization.
- Exercises of physiotherapy exercises.
- Massage and physiotherapy.
After the affected vertebra takes its anatomical position, it is necessary to fix it in this place. This allows you to make therapeutic immobilization. The method involves the use of various bandages and corsets, which can be worn on any part of the back.
The corset with compression fracture of the spine creates immobility, accelerates healing, prevents the recurrence of trauma. Banded constructions are appointed only by a specialist, since the doctor determines the degree of compression required.
Exercises exercise therapy for fracture of the spine are one of the main methods of recovery. Gymnastics is performed after permission of a specialist. Exercises suggest a gradual increase in the load, training the muscles of the back.
Classes are held in several stages, during which the exercises gradually become more complicated. At the beginning of the rehabilitation period, it is recommended to perform gymnastics under the supervision of a specialist.
Exercises after injury to the back are aimed at achieving the following effects:
- Improve the blood supply of the affected department.
- Removed edema and inflammation.
- Strengthen the muscular back skeleton.
- Restore the general tone of the body.
- Prepare the spine for everyday work.
With a fracture, the following exercises are possible:
- Breathing exercises.
- Exercises for the upper and lower extremities.
- Occupations on the abdomen to strengthen the muscular backbone.
- Slopes and turns.
- Classes with a fitball.
- Exercises with dumbbells.
- Axial loads.
Exercises are listed in order of increasing load. The doctor should choose the time to go to the next stage.
Massage and physiotherapy
Rehabilitation after a fracture of the spine may include courses of massage and manual therapy. Massage is useful after exercise. These procedures allow you to relax the muscles, remove puffiness and inflammation, speed up tissue repair.
A complex of physiotherapy procedures has a similar effect to the massage. The doctor chooses options for physiotherapy, depending on the contraindications and capabilities of the patient.
A source: http://MedOtvet.com/drugie-zabolevaniya-pozvonochnika/lechenie-i-posledstviya-kompressionnogo-pereloma-pozvonochnika.html