Chronic sinusitis - symptoms and treatment in adults

Chronic sinusitisChronic sinusitis in the modern world is more and more often. A distinctive feature of this form of the disease is that the inflammatory process develops and lasts more than two months.In itself, sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses located in the thickness of the wing of the upper jaw.

Chronic sinusitis symptoms and treatment which we will consider may develop from an acute form of the disease, if therapy has not been given enough attention. In addition, it can become a complication of diseases such as measles, influenza, rhinitis, scarlet fever and some other infectious diseases.

How the disease develops

When the infection enters the nasopharynx, it begins to spread in the maxillary sinuses, inflammation can occur, in severe cases, swelling.

The mucous membrane connects the nasal cavity with the maxillary sinuses, thus very much swells, because of this the air gets poorly and mucus leaves badly. In the mucus that accumulates, a variety of microorganisms begin to multiply, which intensify the inflammatory process.

Most often, only one sinus can be involved, very rarely there can be bilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis.

Causes

When chronic sinusitis develops, the reasons lie in the violation of the protective properties of the body, the penetration of infection in the upper respiratory tract as a result of pathological processes that occur in the pharynx, the nasal cavity and in the mouth.

More oftenprovoke the development of chronic sinusitissuch pathologies as:

  • the consequence of acute inflammation, especially if unfavorable conditions are created for the outflow from the maxillary sinuses of the pathological secretion;
  • curvature of the nasal septum;
  • too narrow nasal passages;
  • close contact of the lateral wall of the nose with the middle nasal shell;
  • polyps and adenoids;
  • granuloma in the root of the tooth.

Contributing factors are unfavorable conditions that prevent the outflow of the pathological secretion from the maxillary sinuses. Quite often, the inflammatory process, which is of a one-sided nature, changes to another sinus, in which case chronic bilateral sinusitis develops.

It is also known that chronic odontogenic sinusitis, as a rule, immediately develops in a chronic, but sluggish form. Because of this, a person with this kind of sinusitis can, for a sufficiently long time, not notice any symptoms, but with the activation of the inflammatory process, the consultation of the otolaryngologist and the dentist will be necessary for the patient.

Classification

There are several variants of this disease:

  • Purulent- with this form of discharge from the nose thick, they have a yellowish-brown color and a rather unpleasant smell;
  • Catarrhal- characterized by abundant and liquid secretions, except for this with a given form of the disease there is a pronounced local edema of the face;
  • Chronic polyposis- changes in the condition of the mucosa occur, as well as the growth of polyps;
  • Odontogenic- the cause of its development lies in inflammation in the jaw region or in the area of ​​the teeth;
  • Allergic- characterized by serous or transparent secretions and occurs due to the effect of the allergen on the patient's body;
  • Mixedpolyposis-cystic;
  • Cheesy- with this formably abundant discharge, curdled;
  • Necrotic- occurs quite infrequently and is accompanied by necrotic changes;
  • Rhinogenic- begins as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages;
  • Chronic hyperplastic- as a rule, proceeds in severe form and is difficult to treat.

Depending on the form of chronic sinusitis, the symptoms and aspects of treating the disease in adults will differ.

Symptoms of chronic sinusitis

In adults, during periods of remission of chronic sinusitis, symptoms are mild, in most cases the patient complains of:

  • nasal congestion;
  • impaired sense of smell;
  • change voice timbre;
  • aching pain in the nose.

In addition, general weakness, a feeling of fatigue, sluggishness, a decrease in working capacity, a lack of attention are characteristic. During periods of remission of the disease, it may not be accompanied by pain.

Symptoms of exacerbation

In the chronic form of maxillary sinusitis, symptoms may be mild and manifest only during periods of exacerbation of the disease. At this time the person has a marked symptomatology:

  • weakness, general malaise;
  • increased body temperature (usually up to 37.5 ° C), chills;
  • pain in the head of a raspberry character, concentrated in the forehead, eye area and
  • tilt head forward, with coughing, sneezing;
  • severe nasal congestion;
  • Coughing (especially at night, lying down);
  • swelling of the face;
  • increased sweating;
  • difficulty in smelling;
  • restless sleep.
  • the appearance of thick discharge from the nose, often purulent;
  • hoarseness, nasal voice;

With an exacerbation of chronic sinusitis, as a rule, there is a deterioration in well-being, a strong headache, an increase body temperature, the appearance of edema on the cheeks and eyelids, the flow of pus from the nasal passages increases with the inclination of the head. Discharge from the nasal passages can provoke swelling and reddening of the mucous membrane, its pathological growth and the appearance of polyps.

Diagnostics

Typically, the doctor diagnoses chronic sinusitis, based on the symptoms and results of the examination, which is carried out using an endoscope (allows you to study the nasal mucosa and nasal apertures).

A thorough diagnostic examination should be performed to exclude any factors that affect the onset of the disease, including allergies, asthma, any immune problems. If the primary disease that provoked chronic sinusitis is not defined, then it is possible only to monitor the course of the disease. Recovering the patient depends on the accuracy and timing of the diagnosis.

Puncture (puncture) of the maxillary sinus is the most reliable method of diagnosis, but it does not always give complete information about the process.

How to cure chronic sinusitis without surgery

In the case of chronic sinusitis treatment is different from the therapy of the usual disease in that even in a period of calm it should not be left without attention. After all, the frequency and the severity of the course of the illness in the acute phase depend on the quality of prevention and treatment.

To cure chronic sinusitis without surgery, you must completely adhere to a clear scheme, which includes:

  • reduction of inflammation in the nasal sinuses;
  • restoration of patency of the nasal passages;
  • elimination of the cause of chronic sinusitis;
  • decrease in the number of arising sinusitis.

During the period of remission, physiotherapy is widely used:

  • speleotherapy (microclimate treatment of salt caves);
  • ultrasound on the area of ​​the maxillary sinuses;
  • electrophoresis with lidase on the sinus region;
  • UHF on the sinus area;
  • magnetotherapy on the pharynx;
  • ultraphonophoresis with cortisone;
  • laser therapy.

In severe cases, a puncture of the maxillary sinus can be prescribed. This procedure allows you to remove pus in a short period of time. But it does not serve as a "substitute" for antibiotics and other medications, but it greatly facilitates the "work" of tablets.

Antibiotics

Treatment of chronic sinusitis with antibiotics is carried out in the event that there is a bacterial infection. If the genyantritis is caused by any other reasons, the use of antibiotics will not bring any results.

Most often, these drugs are prescribed:

  • doxycycline;
  • amoxicillin;
  • trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

When using antibacterial drugs, it is extremely important to go through the entire course of treatment. In most cases, this means that the medication will have to take 10-14 days or more - depending on when the patient's condition begins to improve. If they stop taking after a few days, the symptoms will soon return.

Puncture of the maxillary sinus

Puncture of the maxillary sinus is one of the most common methods of treating chronic sinusitis. During the procedure, the sinus can be pumped out with a syringe, rinsed with an antiseptic solution and injected into the cavity with an antibiotic or other medication. Most often, a solution of furacilin or a saline solution of sodium chloride is used to wash the maxillary sinus.

  • As an alternative to punctures, at this point in time there is such a procedure as the installation of the YAMIK catheter. This procedure is almost painless, since it is performed under local anesthesia, and there is no need to make a puncture.

Sometimes the puncture of the maxillary sinus is the only method of treatment of sinusitis. In addition, the puncture of the maxillary sinus allows you to quickly eliminate pus, which is especially important during pregnancy, with an outflow of pus out of the sinuses and with the associated concomitant diseases.

There is also an opinion that if a puncture was made, then they will have to be repeated until the end of life. This statement is absolutely not true - puncture does not apply to the causes of sinusitis.

Prevention

If to speak about preventive maintenance the most effective method is adequate and competent treatment of disease at the initial stage when the easy rhinitis begins.

That is why people who are aware of the presence of such a disease, it is important not to let its flow into its own right. The less there is hypothermia, the more regular the hardening procedures will be performed, the more balanced and rational the nutrition will be, the easier the disease will be.


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