Causes of bronchitis
Bronchitis, the causes of which are quite diverse, is one of the most common diseases of the respiratory system. With this pathology, bronchi are involved in the process. Bronchitis is affected by adults and children regardless of age. Bronchitis, unlike influenza, can not be transmitted from one person to another. It occurs most often when supercooled or exposed to irritating substances.
The disease can occur in acute and chronic forms. Separately, one can distinguish dusty bronchitis, which at present belongs to professionally conditioned pathology. What are the etiology, the clinic and the treatment of bronchitis?
Classification of bronchitis
Bronchitis is a disease of the respiratory system, characterized by inflammation of the bronchi. Bronchitis, depending on the course, is divided into acute and chronic. It is also obstructive and non-obstructive. In the first case there is a blockage of the bronchus lumen due to edema or a large amount of bronchial secretion.In the acute form of the disease, diffuse inflammation of the entire mucosa occurs, against which a productive cough appears. In the event that cough with bronchitis lasts more than 3 months a year, it is a chronic bronchitis. Often inflammation of the bronchi is diagnosed in childhood.
In children, there are 3 forms of this pathology: simple acute, obstructive and acute bronchiolitis. The latter is detected in infants. In this case, small bronchi are affected. The prevalence of bronchial inflammation is very high. Each person for his life at least once faced with bronchitis.
There are 3 degrees of severity of this pathological condition: mild, moderate and severe. It is known that the lower parts of the human respiratory system include trachea, large, medium and small bronchi (bronchioles). Inflammation can occur at any level. This severely affects the severity of the course of the disease.
What are the causes of bronchitis? The etiology of acute and chronic forms of the disease is different.Most often acute inflammation of the bronchi has an infectious etiology.In this case, the pathogens can be bacteria and viruses. Among bacteria, pneumococci, streptococci, haemophilus influenza are the most important.
Among the viruses most often are viruses of influenza and parainfluenza. Less common acute bronchitis is caused by microscopic fungi, allergic or toxic substances. The infectious agent penetrates the respiratory tract via an aerosol transfer mechanism. It can be realized by airborne or airborne dust.
The main reasons for the formation of acute bronchitis are:
- short-term exposure to chemical compounds (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, smoke);
- hypothermia of the body;
- insufficient production of alpha-1-antitrypsin by the body;
- bad ecology;
- impact of environmental factors.
Provoke acute bronchitis can regularly inhale cold air, dust, smoke. Bronchitis can be allergic in nature. In this situation, the main cause will be the effect of allergens and an increased allergic predisposition. It is necessary to know not only the causes of bronchitis, but also possible predisposing factors. These include smoking, abuse of alcoholic beverages, increased humidity of the ambient air, climatic features, decreased immunity. The risk group includes people over 50 years of age.
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis
The main causes of chronic inflammation of the bronchi are:
- prolonged exposure to dust, carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide;
- passive or active smoking;
- increased or decreased air humidity;
- penetration of microbes from foci of chronic infection in tonsillitis, caries, sinusitis;
- violation of the cardiovascular system.
- harmful production factors.
It is established that chronic inflammation is most often diagnosed in citizens living in large cities. All this is due to poor environmental conditions, gas contamination of the air. Sometimes, with repeated pneumonia, SARS, there is a development of chronic bronchitis. It is important that chronic inflammation often develops in the absence of proper treatment of acute bronchitis.
The importance of dust in the development of bronchitis
Very often, a pathology such as dust bronchitis is diagnosed. The main reason is the effect of dust. This disease is professionally conditioned and is directly related to the working conditions of workers. Dust can be different: mineral, organic, coarse, medium dispersed, finely divided. Large dust particles do not reach the lower respiratory tract, but settle higher.
In this situation, the development of tracheobronchitis. Fine dust, along with air masses when inhaled, can penetrate into the bronchioles. When exposed to dust particles in the bronchi, the following changes can occur:
- irritation of the mucosa;
- change ciliary cells of the bronchi;
- desquamation of the epithelium;
- disturbance of surfactant production;
- secretion of secretion in the lumen of the bronchi;
- increased viscosity of secretions;
- necrosis of ciliated epithelium;
- sclerosis of the bronchi.
In addition, depending on the structure of the form, dust can injure tissues. Dusty bronchitis affects people who work in the foundry and metallurgy industry, behind grinding machines, at woodworking enterprises. Important in this situation is the neglect of individual and collective protective equipment (masks, respirators, gas masks). In addition, the cause of an increased level of this pathology in production may be poor performance of the mechanical ventilation system, the absence of dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators, cyclones.
The course of acute and chronic bronchitis varies.
The following symptoms are characteristic for the acute form of the disease:
- strong, sonorous cough with sputum discharge;
- increased body temperature;
- tension of abdominal muscles;
The most frequent symptom is a cough. Initially, it can be dry, but after a few days mucous or mucopurulent sputum is secreted. With complicated flow, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing are possible. Chronic bronchial inflammation occurs with periods of remission and exacerbation. Cough often worries the sick in the morning. It is wet, accompanied by wheezing. In the warm season, the cough is weakened. Additional symptoms include sweating, weakness, shortness of breath after physical activity. Possible complications of the disease include the development of bronchopneumonia, COPD, emphysema, cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
Diagnosis and treatment
To make a correct diagnosis, you need:
- analysis of blood and urine;
- physical examination (auscultation);
- a patient interview;
- visual inspection;
- X-ray examination of the lungs;
- evaluation of the function of external respiration by spirometry and peakflowmetry;
- sputum examination for the purpose of determining the pathogen.
Treatment of bronchitis conservative. Acute uncomplicated bronchitis of viral etiology does not require specific treatment. In case of complications, antiviral agents (interferon, ribavirin, remantadine) are indicated. It goes by itself in about a week. Treatment of bacterial bronchitis includes the use of antibiotics (amoksiklav).
Symptomatic treatment involves the use of mucolytics and expectorants in the form of tablets, syrups.
With a dry cough, you can use antitussives. Treatment also includes copious drinking, respiratory gymnastics, diet, physical therapy. If necessary, bronchial lavage is done. Thus, bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. When performing treatment, it is important to prevent the transition of acute bronchitis to chronic bronchitis.
Causes of bronchitis
Overcooling, reducing immunity, weakening the protective mechanisms of the body, viruses, bacteria.
Bronchitis is a disease of the human respiratory system, which is based on acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchi. The most common causes of bronchitis are viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, PC infection), bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, hemophilic rod, pneumococcus), intracellular parasites (chlamydia, mycoplasma).
In some cases, bronchitis occurs when exposed to bronchial irritating or toxic gases, as well as allergens (allergic bronchitis).
Mechanisms of development and symptoms of bronchitis
In a healthy person, the air passing through the bronchi to the lungs is practically sterile. Such deep air purification is achieved due to the filtering ability of the nose, the presence of a cough reflex, and also the work of microresets lining the bronchial mucosa. However, in some cases, microbes or chemicals nevertheless penetrate into the bronchi, which in their turn causes damage, which is accompanied by inflammation, increased production of mucus, cough.
If we are talking about a viral infection (for example, the flu), then the inflammation develops quickly and affects only the upper layers of the walls of the bronchi - this is how acute bronchitis develops.
In acute bronchitis, the inflammatory reaction does not last long, and the structure of the bronchi is completely restored after the transferred illness.
Acute bronchitis is especially common in children. This is due to the high susceptibility of children to various types of respiratory infections (ARI).
In other cases, when the pathogenic factor acts on the bronchi over a long period of time (for example, dust in working rooms, tobacco smoke from smokers, chronic bacterial infection), the inflammation develops slowly, but covers the entire thickness of the walls of the bronchi and leads to their irreversible deformation and narrowing - this is how chronic bronchitis develops (chronic obstructive bronchitis).
Symptoms of bronchitis
In acute bronchitis there is a sharp increase in temperature (up to 3, -39), a low chest cough, a general malaise. In the beginning of the disease, the cough can be dry, but gradually it becomes wet. Acute bronchitis is a frequent component of the common cold or ARI.
The course of uncomplicated acute bronchitis takes up to 7-10 days and, as a rule, ends in complete recovery.
Chronic bronchitis develops mainly in adults and is the result of numerous episodes acute bronchitis or a prolonged effect on the bronchi of irritating factors (dust, tobacco smoke).
The main symptom of chronic bronchitis is a chronic cough that has been present for several months for more than 2 years in a row. With chronic bronchitis cough moist, with abundant purulent sputum, stronger in the morning hours.
With prolonged flow, chronic bronchitis becomes Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD).
Treatment of bronchitis
Treatment of acute bronchitis is mainly symptomatic: fever, inhalation, expectorants. In acute bacterial bronchitis, antibiotic treatment may be necessary. In the case of mild forms of bronchitis and during the recovery period, the use of folk methods of treatment is welcomed.
Treatment of chronic bronchitis includes a course of antibiotic treatment (to suppress chronic infection), treatment with expectorants and drugs that extend the lumen of the bronchi. In the case of chronic bronchitis in smokers, a significant improvement in the course of the disease is observed after quitting smoking.
In addition to what has already been written, weak lungs. Since childhood, it is good to train them: to blow pipes, massage, to walk at any (within reasonable limits), in the summer to walk at home barefoot ...
the reason is conditionally pathogenic flora, due to poor immunity,
can from an inoculation or has caught or has blown, Get better!
Read, be careful and healthy:
Drink thawed water, tested for yourself, the result is excellent - where melt water is called protieva. The method is as follows: An enamel pan with filtered or plain tap water should be placed in the freezer compartment of the refrigerator. After 4-5 hours you need to get it. The surface of the water and the walls of the pan are already caught by the first ice. This water is poured into another saucepan. Ice that remained in an empty pan contains molecules of heavy water that freezes earlier than ordinary water, at +3.8 0C. This first ice containing deuterium is thrown away. And put the pot of water in the freezer again. When the water in it freezes by two thirds, unburned water is drained - it is "light" water, it contains all the chemicals and harmful impurities. And the ice that remained in the pan - this is the protonic water, which is necessary for the human body. It is purified of impurities and heavy water by 80% and contains 15 mg of calcium per liter of liquid. It is necessary to melt this ice at room temperature and drink this water during the day.
There are also recipes for the external use of melt water. Enthusiast of a healthy lifestyle, people's inventor V. Mamontov, knowing about the special properties of melt water, invented the method of melt water massage - "talism". He added to the melt water rock salt, which contains all the vital trace elements, and a little vinegar and this solution used for massage rubbing into the skin. And "miracles" began. Here is how he writes about this: "After several strokes, the heart, constantly reminiscent of itself tingling, lumbago, sharp pains, ceased to disturb, the work of the stomach was normal, sleep normalized. Began to disappear veins, ropes and bundles of speakers earlier on the legs and arms. After the normalization of metabolism, the vessels that are close to the skin began to recover. The skin itself on the face and body became elastic, soft, tender, acquired a vibrant, natural color, wrinkles were noticeably smoothed out. My legs warmed, the chronic periodontitis disappeared in a few days, the gums ceased to bleed. "
A solution of "talisma" is prepared as follows: in 300 ml of melt water, 1 teaspoon is bred. a spoon of rock salt (preferably marine unrefined) and 1 teaspoonful. spoonful of table vinegar (preferably apple or other fruit).
For the baths of the oral cavity (with angina, toothache, gum disease, periodontitis), the "talicum" should be kept in the mouth for 10-15 minutes, conducting several procedures a day for 7-10 days.
Water and massage procedures using the "talisma" can be diversified, replacing the usual water in the various water procedures with a "talicum". Procedures with "talisma" are generally available, do not require special equipment and training, have no contraindications, and give the body a general tone.
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Chavanprash is - http://www.aur.ru/chavan.htm
Chronic bronchitis and its treatment
As a complication after an acute bronchitis is transferred, chronic bronchitis can arise - a slow inflammatory process in the bronchi, which is accompanied by frequent periods of exacerbations. This process provokes a gradual change in the mucous membrane of the bronchi, from the surface to the deeper layers, as well as pathological changes in the secretory apparatus of the bronchi.
Features of this disease
Unlike acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis manifests itself in the form of cough and sputum discharge for at least ninety days a year, with a repetition of at least two years in a row. However, sometimes such a diagnosis is made even for those who do not have a pronounced cough, but there is a spitting secretion, which they swallow as a matter of habit.
The causes of chronic bronchitis lie in the ingress of harmful substances into the respiratory tract during breathing.For example, the cause may be exposure to tobacco smoke, chemical volatile compounds such as smoke from burning coals, sulfur oxide, and so on. Frequent regular inhalation of such substances can be caused by living or working in unfavorable conditions: metallurgical shops, chemical industries, mines, etc.However, very often chronic bronchitis manifests itself in the form of consequences of acute bronchitis. In turn, acute bronchitis develops against the background of infections (adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, etc.) or respiratory infections of bacteria (pneumococci, streptococci, hemophilic rods).
In general, the types of bronchitis depend on the origin of the disease and can be classified as: viral bronchitis, allergic, fungal, bacterial, chemical. That is why it is extremely important to contact specialists for the correct diagnosis, so that the prescribed treatment is sufficiently effective.
What it is necessary to do at attributes of a bronchitis?
As a rule, if the symptomatology of the disease manifests itself, it means that there is an exacerbation. The most vivid symptoms that accompany the exacerbation of chronic bronchitis are expressed in a disruptive, ineffective cough, usually dry, but sometimes with abundant sputum secretion, shortness of breath. And if the virus disease is added to the bronchitis, then the temperature increase of the body, headache, increased sweating, etc., can be added to this list.
Another common symptom that accompanies chronic simple bronchitis is progressive dyspnea during exercise. It is caused by the fact that under the influence of harmful substances, the structure of the bronchi is gradually deformed and the process of their blockage (obstruction) occurs. In the initial stage, it is still possible to restore the normal functioning of the bronchi by carrying out the appropriate treatment, but in the late stages, especially if bronchitis is not treated, deformation becomes irreversible.Sometimes cough during exacerbation of chronic bronchitis can be accompanied by traces of blood in sputum, and although such cases are not typical for this diseases, nevertheless experts recommend immediately to seek help from a doctor to make sure that these are not manifestations of tuberculosis or lung cancer.
Since the chronic form of the disease does not develop in a single day, many patients do not even suspect that they have this particular disease. In the high-risk group, there are tobacco smokers, workers in archives and other dusty premises, and those with bacterial bronchial infection have become chronic.
The main thing is the difference between simple bronchitis and chronic bronchitis is the irreversibility of the changes that occur with the bronchi as a result of the latter.
After all, if inflammation and impairment of bronchial function in ordinary bronchitis occurs immediately after recovery, then in the case chronic - changes affect deeper levels, and the restoration of bronchi in the old form is no longer possible.
Consequences of the disease
If chronic bronchitis is not treated, over time it can pass into a more complex and dangerous disease - Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Most often, the stages of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis occur during the off-season, against a background of low air temperature and a decrease in the level of immunity. It can be both spring time, and autumn season.In the initial stage, the symptoms of the disease are so insignificant (easy dry cough, irritation in the throat, etc.) that the patient can not pay attention to such manifestations, believing them to be the result of a mild form of cold. At the same time a person's working capacity is not violated, and he can lead a normal life.
For children, the situation with chronic bronchitis looks somewhat different. First of all, for children under the age of three, the diagnosis of the chronic course of the disease in principle can not be delivered, even if they are ill more than three months per year for two consecutive years. Up to three years, children may be exposed to bronchitis for more than six months, but even with hospital treatment, the diagnosis will most likely include a type of recurrent or acute type of bronchitis. This practice is due to the fact that after three years all the inflammatory processes in the bronchi themselves disappear. If this does not happen, then the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis can be confirmed.
Causes of the disease in children and adults
Despite the fact that in adults the causes of chronic bronchitis consist in the regular inhalation of tobacco smoke and harmful substances, in children, the main cause of the disease can safely be called an infection. Since the mechanism of protection of immunity in children is not yet fully formed, and they have to contact them with a large number of different aggressive pathogens - the result is visible corresponding. Infection, getting into children's bronchi, is not completely neutralized by the immune system, because of which it partially remains in the lymph nodes or the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.And then, at the first supercooling or inhalation of cold air, there is a repeated exacerbation of the disease.
Sometimes chronic bronchitis is diagnosed in the child due to increased reactivity of the bronchi, which produces excessive amounts of mucus.
Since the cough reflex in young children is reduced compared to adults, sputum excretion becomes problematic, which aggravates the situation.
Features of treatment
Timely and effective treatment of acute bronchitis can prevent the development of its chronic form.
Since, most often, this disease is accompanied by an acute respiratory viral infection, the treatment regimen does not provide for only general care and a decrease in temperature (if it is above 37.5 degrees), but also cough treatment, and stimulation of bronchial function.
Antibiotics prescribe only if the cause of bronchitis is a bacterial infection. This can be determined by re-raising the temperature five to seven days after the onset of the illness, and also by separating a large amount of phlegm and worsening the overall well-being of the patient. Many experts believe that an unreasonable intake of antibiotics can do more harm than completely refusing to take these drugs.
In the treatment of chronic bronchitis, the main task is to eliminate the inflammatory process in the bronchi, and even improve their patency and increase the level of immunity.
After conducting a study of microflora in sputum, the doctor prescribes antimicrobials. In addition, as a rule, the reception of bronchodilators, for example, Atrovent, Salbutamol, Theophyllin, etc., is indicated.In addition to this, specialists are prescribed expectorants, the choice of which is quite extensive for today. There are two groups of expectorants, one of which liquefies phlegm, and the second accelerates the excretion of sputum from the bronchi and facilitates cough.
Of the known to date - it can be lazolvan, acet, bromhexine, etc. From bronchodilator preparations (helping to expand the lumen of the respiratory tract) one can distinguish between euphyllin, fluticasone, symbicort, berodual, and others.
Also the patient is shown to drink a lot of liquid, do inhalations with expectorant and anti-inflammatory compounds, additionally take vitamins and immunomodulating medications. Sometimes a positive effect is given by a massage in the chest area and performing breathing exercises.
To finally get rid of chronic bronchitis, it is not enough to take a course of medications. It is also important to use natural methods of treatment, such as, for example, halotherapy. This method involves visiting salt caves with healing purposes, where you can conduct a series of sessions to inhale clean air, saturated with mineral components, speeding up the healing process. Even severe, neglected forms of chronic bronchitis are much easier if you take two courses of treatment every year, three to four weeks per course.
Of the folk remedies, natural honey, and also various vegetable decoctions and infusions (including in the form of inhalations) are considered useful. So, for example, one of the formulations is prepared on the basis of fresh plantain juice in the amount of 0.5 liters and the same amount of honey. This mixture should be cooked on low heat for about twenty minutes, cool and take at least three meals a day before eating one tablespoon.
It is best not to focus only on one type of treatment, but apply them in a comprehensive manner. Moreover, the treatment of chronic bronchitis can be a rather lengthy process. The main thing in this case, do not stop and clearly understand that only bringing the treatment to the end, you can not be afraid of the development of complications, and achieve restoration of respiratory system in full.
With the aim of eliminating the possibility of recurrence of chronic bronchitis, the disease is prevented, which includes the elimination of factors that negatively affect the respiratory system.
This can be a refusal to smoke, or a change in the ecological situation, a change of place of work, if previously it was unfavorable for a person. In addition, sports exercises, swimming and lack of stress are recommended. If these recommendations are observed, there is every chance to forget about what chronic bronchitis is for a long time.