Pneumonia in a child - symptoms, treatment, causes
Inflammation of the lungs or pneumonia is one of the most common acute infectious and inflammatory diseases of a person. Moreover, the concept of pneumonia does not include various allergic and vascular lung diseases, bronchitis, and also pulmonary function disorders, caused by chemical or physical factors (injuries, chemical burns).
Especially often there are pneumonia in children, the symptoms and signs of which are reliably determined only on the basis of X-ray data and a general blood test. Pneumonia among all pulmonary pathologies in young children is almost 80%. Even with the introduction of progressive technologies in medicine - the discovery of antibiotics, improved methods of diagnosis and treatment - until now this disease is among the top ten most frequent causes of death. According to statistics in various regions of our country, the incidence of pneumonia in children is, %.
When and why can a child develop pneumonia?
Lungs in the human body perform several important functions. The main function of the lungs is the gas exchange between the alveoli and the capillaries, which envelop them. Simply put, oxygen from the air in the alveolus is transported to the blood, and from the blood carbon dioxide enters the alveolus. They also regulate body temperature, regulate blood coagulability, are one of the filters in the body, contribute to the purification, removal of toxins, disintegration products arising from various traumas, infectious inflammatory processes.
And when food poisoning, a burn, a fracture, surgical interventions occur, in case of any serious injury or disease, there is a general decrease in immunity, it is easy to cope with the filtration load toxins. That is why very often after a child has suffered or is suffering from injuries or poisonings, pneumonia occurs.
The most common pathogens are pathogens - pneumococci, streptococci and staphylococci, and recently cases of lung inflammation from such pathogens as pathogenic fungi, legionella (usually after staying at airports with artificial ventilation), mycoplasma, chlamydia, which are not often mixed, associated.
Pneumonia in a child, as an independent disease that occurs after a serious, strong, prolonged hypothermia, it is extremely rare, as parents try not to allow such situations. As a rule, in most children, pneumonia occurs not as a primary disease, but as a complication after an acute respiratory viral infection or influenza, less often other diseases. Why is this happening?
Many of us believe that acute viral respiratory diseases in the last decades have become more aggressive, dangerous their complications. Perhaps this is due to the fact that both viruses and infections have become more resistant to antibiotics and antiviral drugs, so they are so hard for children and cause complications.
One of the factors contributing to the increase in the incidence of pneumonia in children in recent years has been the overall poor health in the younger generation - how many children are born with congenital pathologies, malformations, lesions of the central nervous system. Especially severe pneumonia occurs in premature or newborn babies, when the disease develops against the background of intrauterine infection with insufficiently formed, not mature respiratory system.
In congenital pneumonia, the herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, mycoplasmas are not infrequently causative agents, and with infection during labor, chlamydia, group B streptococci, opportunistic fungi, E. coli, Klebsiella, anaerobic flora, when infected with hospital infections, pneumonia begins on day 6 or 2 weeks after birth.
Naturally, pneumonia often happens in cold weather, when the organism is subjected to seasonal adjustment from heat to cold and vice versa, there are overloads for immunity, at this time there is a lack of natural vitamins in foods, temperature changes, damp, frosty, windy weather contribute to children's hypothermia and their infection.
In addition, if a child suffers from any chronic diseases - tonsillitis, adenoids in children, sinusitis, dystrophy, rickets (see. rickets in infants), cardiovascular disease, any severe chronic pathologies, such as congenital lesions central nervous system, malformations, immunodeficiency states - significantly increase the risk of developing pneumonia, weighed down its course.
The severity of the disease depends on:
- Extensibility of the process (focal, focal, draining, segmental, lobar, interstitial pneumonia).
- The child's age, the younger the baby, the narrower the airways, the less intense gas exchange in the child's body and the heavier the course of pneumonia.
- Places where and for what reason there was a pneumonia:
- community-acquired: most often have an easier flow
- hospital: more severe, because it is possible to infect bacteria resistant to antibiotics
- Aspiration: when inhaled foreign objects, mixture or milk.
- The most important role in this is played by the general health of the child, that is, his immunity.
Improper treatment of influenza and ARVI can lead to pneumonia in the child
When a child falls ill with an ordinary cold, SARS, influenza - the inflammatory process is localized only in the nasopharynx, trachea and larynx. With a weak immune response, and also if the causative agent is very active and aggressive, and the treatment in the child is carried out incorrectly, the process of reproduction of bacteria descends from the upper respiratory tract to the bronchi, then bronchitis. Further, the inflammation can affect the lung tissue, causing pneumonia.
What happens in the body of a child in a viral disease? Most adults and children in the nasopharynx always have different opportunistic microorganisms - streptococci, staphylococci, without causing harm to health, because local immunity holds them back growth.
However, any acute respiratory disease leads to their active reproduction and with the correct action of the parents during the illness of the child, immunity does not allow their intensive growth.
What should not be done during ARVI in the child, so as not to cause complications:
- You can not use antitussives. Coughing is a natural reflex that helps the body to clear the trachea, bronchi and lungs from mucus, bacteria, toxins. If for the treatment of a child, in order to reduce the intensity of dry cough, use antitussives that affect the cough center in the brain, such as Stoptosin, Broncholitin, Libexin, Paxeladin, then sputum and bacteria may accumulate in the lower respiratory tract, which ultimately leads to inflammation lungs.
- It is not possible to conduct any preventive therapy with antibiotics for colds, with a viral infection (see. antibiotics for colds). Against the virus, antibiotics are powerless, and with opportunistic bacteria immunity should cope, and only when complications arise according to the doctor's appointment is shown their use.
- The same applies to the use of various nasal vasoconstrictors, their use contributes to a faster penetration of the virus into the lower respiratory tract; therefore, galazoline, naphthysine, sanorin should not be used in case of a viral infection safely.
- Abundant drink - one of the most effective methods of removing intoxication, dilution of sputum and rapid cleansing respiratory tract is an abundant drink, even if the child refuses to drink, parents should be very persistent. If you do not insist that the child drink enough fluids, in addition, the room will have dry air - this will help to dry the mucosa, which can lead to a longer course of the disease or complication - bronchitis or pneumonia.
- Permanent ventilation, lack of carpets and carpeting, daily wet cleaning of the room in which the child is, Humidification and air purification with the help of a humidifier and an air cleaner will help to cope faster with the virus and prevent development pneumonia. As clean, cool, moist air helps to dissolve sputum, quickly remove toxins with sweat, cough, wet breath, which allows the child to recover faster.
Acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis - differences from pneumonia
With SARS usually the following symptoms:
- High temperature in the first 2-3 days of the disease (see Fig. antipyretics for children)
- Headache, chills, intoxication, weakness
- Qatar upper respiratory tract, runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat (it does not always happen).
In acute bronchitis with Orvy, the following symptoms may occur:
- Minor increase in body temperature, usually up to 38C.
- First the cough is dry, then it becomes wet, there is no shortness of breath, unlike pneumonia.
- Breathing becomes hard, on different sides there are variously scattered rales that change or disappear after coughing.
- On the roentgenogram, the intensification of the pulmonary pattern is determined, the structure of the roots of the lungs decreases.
- There are no local changes in the lungs.
Bronchiolitis occurs most often in children up to a year:
- The difference between bronchiolitis and pneumonia can be determined only by X-ray examination, based on the absence of local changes in the lungs. According to the clinical picture, the acute symptoms of intoxication and the increase in respiratory insufficiency, the appearance of dyspnoea - very much resemble pneumonia.
- In bronchiolitis, the breathing in a child is weakened, shortness of breath with the help of an auxiliary musculature, nasolabial the triangle becomes a bluish hue, a common cyanosis is possible, a pronounced pulmonary-cardiac failure. When listening to a boxed sound is detected, the mass of scattered small bubbling rales.
Signs of pneumonia in the child
With a high activity of the causative agent of the infection, or with a weak immune response of the body to it, when even the most effective preventive medical measures do not stop inflammatory process and the child's condition worsens, parents can for some symptoms guess that the child needs more serious treatment and urgent examination doctor. In this case, in no case should not begin treatment by any popular method. If it really is pneumonia, it will not only not help, but the condition may worsen and time for adequate examination and treatment will be missed.
Symptoms of pneumonia in a child 2 - 3 years and older
How to identify attentive parents with a cold or viral illness that it is necessary to urgently call a doctor and suspect a pneumonia in the child? Symptoms that require an X-ray diagnosis:
- After Orvi, influenza within 3-5 days there is no improvement or after a slight improvement again there is a temperature jump and increased intoxication, coughing.
- Lack of appetite, sluggishness of the child, sleep disturbance, capriciousness persist within a week after the onset of the illness.
- The main symptom of the disease remains a strong cough.
- The body temperature is not high, but the baby has shortness of breath. In this case, the number of breaths per minute in a child increases, the rate of breaths per minute in children aged 1-3 years 25-30 breaths, children 4-6 years - a rate of 25 breaths per minute, if the child is in a relaxed calm condition. With pneumonia, the number of breaths becomes larger than these figures.
- With the other symptoms of a viral infection - cough, temperature, cold, severe pallor of the skin is observed.
- If the temperature is high for more than 4 days and antipyretic agents such as Paracetamol, Efferalgan, Panadol, Tylenol are not effective.
Symptoms of pneumonia in infants, children under one year of age
The onset of the disease can be noticed by the mom by changing the behavior of the baby. If the child constantly wants to sleep, become sluggish, apathetic or vice versa, a lot of naughty, crying, refuses to eat, while the temperature may slightly increase - mom should urgently turn to pediatrician.
In the first year of life, pneumonia in a child, a symptom which is considered to be high, not knocked down temperature, is different in that at this age it is not high, does not reach 3, or even 3, -3,. The temperature is not an indication of the severity of the state.
The first symptoms of pneumonia in an infant
This causeless anxiety, lethargy, decreased appetite, the baby refuses from the breast, the sleep becomes restless, short, there is a loose stool, there may be vomiting or regurgitation, a runny nose and a paroxysmal cough that worsens during crying or feeding child.
Pain in the chest with breathing and coughing.
Sputum - with a damp cough, purulent or mucopurulent sputum (yellow or green) is secreted.
Shortness of breath or an increase in the number of respiratory movements in young children is a clear sign of pneumonia in a child. Dyspnoea in babies can be accompanied by nodding to the breath, as well as the baby blows his cheeks and extends his lips, sometimes there are foamy discharge from the mouth and nose. The symptom of pneumonia is considered to be the excess of the number of breaths per minute:
- In children up to 2 months - the norm is up to 50 breaths per minute, more than 60 is considered a high frequency.
- In children, after 2 months to a year, the norm is 25-40 breaths, if 50 or more, this is an excess of the norm.
- In children older than one year, the number of breaths more than 40 is considered a shortness of breath.
The skin relief during breathing changes. Attentive parents can also notice the retraction of the skin during breathing, more often on one side of the patient's lung. To notice this, it is necessary to undress the baby and observe the skin between the ribs, it retracts when breathing.
With extensive lesions, there may be a lag of one side of the lung with deep breathing. Sometimes you can notice periodic stopping of breathing, disturbance of rhythm, depth, breathing frequency and the child's desire to lie on one side.
Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle
This is the most important symptom of pneumonia, when the blue skin appears between the lips and the spout of the baby. Especially this sign is pronounced when the child sucks the breast. With severe respiratory failure, a slight blueing can be not only on the face, but also on the body.
Chlamydia, mycoplasmal pneumonia in children
Among the pneumonias, the causative agents of which are not banal bacteria, but various atypical representatives secrete mycoplasmal and chlamydial pneumonia. In children, the symptoms of such pneumonia are slightly different from the course of the usual pneumonia. Sometimes they are characterized by a hidden sluggish current. Symptoms of SARS in a child can be as follows:
- The onset of the disease is characterized by a sharp rise in body temperature to 3, C, then a stable subfebrile temperature of -3, -3 is formed, or even a temperature normalization occurs.
- It is also possible the onset of the disease with the usual signs of ARVI - sneezing, choking in the throat, a bad cold.
- Persistent dry debilitating cough, shortness of breath may not be permanent. Such a cough usually occurs with acute bronchitis, and not pneumonia, which complicates the diagnosis.
- When listening to a doctor, scanty data are usually presented: rare variegated rattles, pulmonary percussion sound. Therefore, according to the nature of wheezing, it is difficult for a doctor to determine atypical pneumonia, since there are no traditional signs, which greatly complicates the diagnosis.
- In the analysis of blood in atypical pneumonia there may be no significant changes. But usually there is increased ESR, neutrophilic leukocytosis, a combination with anemia, leukopenia, eosinophilia.
- On the x-ray of the chest reveals a pronounced enhancement of the pulmonary pattern, non-uniform focal infiltration of the pulmonary fields.
- Both chlamydia and mycoplasma have a feature that exists for a long time in the epithelial cells of the bronchi and lungs, therefore, pneumonia usually has a prolonged recurrent character.
- Treatment of atypical pneumonia in the child is carried out by macrolides (azithromycin, josamycin, clarithromycin), because the pathogens to them are most sensitive (to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, too, but they are children contraindicated).
Indications for hospitalization
The decision on where to treat a child with pneumonia - in a hospital or at home, the doctor takes, while he takes into account several factors:
- The severity of the condition and the presence of complications - respiratory failure, pleurisy, acute disorders of consciousness, heart failure, falls AD, lung abscess, pleural empyema, infectious-toxic shock, sepsis.
- The defeat of several lobes of the lung. Treatment of focal pneumonia in the child at home is entirely possible, but with croupous pneumonia treatment is best done in a hospital.
- Social indications are poor living conditions, inability to perform care and doctor's prescriptions.
- Age of the child - if the infant is sick, this is the reason for hospitalization, because the pneumonia of the baby is a serious threat to life. If pneumonia develops in a child under 3 years of age, treatment depends on the severity of the condition and most often doctors insist on hospitalization. Older children can be treated at home provided that the pneumonia is not severe.
- General health - in the presence of chronic diseases, weakened overall health of the child, regardless of age, the doctor may insist on hospitalization.
Treatment of pneumonia in children
How to treat pneumonia in children? The basis of therapy for pneumonia is antibiotics. At a time when there were no antibiotics in the arsenal of doctors with bronchitis and pneumonia, a very frequent cause of death of adults and children there was pneumonia, therefore, in no case should one refuse to use them, no folk remedies for pneumonia are effective. From the parents it is required to strictly follow all the doctor's recommendations, the proper care of the child, the observance of the drinking regime, nutrition:
- Reception of antibiotics must be carried out strictly in time, if the appointment of the drug 2 times per day, this means that there should be a break of 12 hours between meals, if 3 times a day, then a break of 8 hours (cm. 11 rules how to take antibiotics correctly). Antibiotics are prescribed - penicillins, cephalosporins for 7 days, macrolides (azithromycin, josamycin, clarithromycin) - 5 days. The effectiveness of the drug is estimated within 72 hours - an improvement in appetite, a decrease in temperature, dyspnea.
- Antipyretics are used if the temperature is above 39C, in infants above 38C. Initially, antibiotic treatment of antipyretics is not prescribed, as the evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy is difficult. It should be remembered that during a high temperature in the body, the maximum amount antibodies against the causative agent of the disease, so if the child can tolerate the temperature of 38C, it is better not to knock down. So the body quickly cope with the microbe that caused pneumonia in the baby. If the child had at least one episode of febrile seizures, the temperature should be knocked down already at 3, C.
- Nutrition of the child with pneumonia - lack of appetite in children during illness is considered natural and the child's refusal from food intake due to increased strain on the liver when fighting infection, so you can not force a child to feed. If possible, prepare light food for the patient, exclude any ready-made chemicals, fried and fatty, try to feed child simple, easily assimilated food - cereals, soups on a weak broth, steam cutlets from low-fat meat, boiled potatoes, various vegetables, fruit.
- Oral hydration - in water, natural freshly diluted juices - carrot, apple, weakly boiled tea with raspberries, rose hips infusion, water-electrolyte solutions (Regidron and etc).
- Airing, daily wet cleaning, use of air humidifiers - ease the condition of the baby, and the love and care of parents works wonders.
- No restorative (synthetic vitamins), antihistamines, immunomodulating agents are not used, as often lead to side effects and do not improve the course and outcome of pneumonia.
Reception of antibiotics for pneumonia in a child (uncomplicated) usually does not exceed 7 days (macrolides 5 days), and if bed rest is observed, perform all the doctor's recommendations, in the absence of complications, the child quickly recovers, but for a month there will still be residual effects in the form of a cough, slight weakness. With atypical pneumonia, treatment can be delayed.
In the treatment of antibiotics in the body, the intestinal microflora is broken, so the doctor prescribes probiotics - RioFlora Immuno, Acipol, Bifiform, Bifidumbacterin, Normobakt, Lactobacterin. Analogues of Linex - a list of all probiotics). To remove toxins after the end of therapy, the doctor can prescribe sorbents, such as Polysorb, Enterosgel, Filtrum.
With the effectiveness of treatment for general regimen and walks, it is possible to transfer the child from the 6th to the 10th day of the disease, the hardening to resume after 2-3 weeks. With a mild pneumonia, large physical exertion (sport) is allowed after 6 weeks, with complicated after 12 weeks.
Inflammation of the child in the symptoms and treatment | How to treat pneumonia in children
One of the most dangerous diseases for babies is pneumonia or pneumonia in a child. A few decades ago it was believed that it was almost impossible to save a child under the age of one year. Modern medicines significantly improved the survival rate of children. Nevertheless, if the manifestations of pneumonia were detected in a timely manner, this has a much more favorable prognosis than the disease found at a late stage.
Symptoms of developing pneumonia in a child
As already mentioned above, not only health, but also the child's life depends on the early diagnosis. Important role in the diagnosis of inflammation of the lungs are played by parents, because they should note the deterioration of the child's well-being.
The disease is very rapidly developing and, therefore, the level of oxygen that enters the blood and disease, and often leads to death or disability, is reduced. Therefore, if you notice the first signs of the disease, immediately go to the doctor to conduct a qualitative diagnosis of the disease and begin the right treatment. Every person just needs to know how to identify the symptoms of ailment.
The first manifestations of pneumonia in children
Determining the first symptoms of the disease is not easy. The child is not able to assess his condition and the degree of pain syndrome, unlike an adult. When collecting laboratory tests to determine the diagnosis, the child is difficult to identify the beginning of pathogenesis. It is very difficult to establish - the child felt recently a malaise, a headache, weakness, chills.
The first signs of inflammation boil down to the fact that:
1. with a cold disease after 3-5 days, the temperature begins to rise,
2. there is a cough,
3. child cranky, sluggish,
4. he has rapid, shallow breathing.
5. In the process of breathing, one half of the chest is significantly behind.
6. The child does not eat well, sleeps practically only on one side, often sweats.
All of the above symptoms should alert the parents, and urgently seek medical attention. In young children, if the treatment is not performed on time, pneumonia can end in tragedy for the family. Only a correctly diagnosed diagnosis can guarantee a quick recovery and prevent possible complications after pneumonia.
Clinical symptoms of pulmonary inflammation in children
Anxiety signs of pneumonia are:
1. Temperature increase
2. Refusal of the child from food. This is especially true of breastfeeding.
3. Capriciousness, bad sleep.
4. Coughing and wheezing when breathing.
Unfortunately, inflammation does not always have such obvious symptoms. Very often the only sign of the disease is the increased capriciousness of the child and rapid breathing - more than sixty breaths per minute for a child of up to 2 months and more than fifty, for a baby from 3 months to of the year. With the development of the disease begins to manifest a lack of oxygen, which primarily affects the color of the face - nasolabial triangle and the skin under the eyes acquire a characteristic bluish tint, and the skin of the body becomes sodgy colors. In no case should one engage in self-medication and use non-concerted with the pediatrician folk means, since the inflammation, the symptoms of which intensify over time, is extremely unfavorable forecast.
Symptoms of moderate to severe pneumonia in children
Such forms of inflammation predominate in newborns and infants);
1. often at the beginning of the disease there are symptoms of ARI: an increase in body temperature (may be small), coughing, stuffiness nose, hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the throat, pain in the throat (if the child can independently complain of pain), conjunctivitis;
2. in a few days, the symptoms of acute respiratory infection may diminish or completely disappear, with subsequent deterioration in the child;
3. characterized by anxiety, severe symptoms of intoxication (high fever, weakness, lethargy, pale skin, cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, older children may complain of pain in the muscles and joints, headache pain);
4. cough (at first dry, then - productive);
5. shortness of breath with swelling of the wings of the nose, shallow breathing.
To diagnose the disease, the clinical picture, laboratory tests and lung radiography are used. The basis of treatment is the use of antibacterial drugs. With timely treatment of pneumonia, the prognosis for the child is favorable, the symptoms quickly stop. In case of untimely started therapy, the risk of complications increases.
To dispel doubts, whether the child has pneumonia or not, take a blood test and phlegm, go through fluoroscopy. If the diagnosis is confirmed, in no case do self-medication, since there are known cases with a fatal outcome.
How to treat traditional methods of pneumonia in children?
The disease requires much more thorough treatment than a similar disease in an adult. In the success of treatment, early diagnostics plays an important role. That is why, when the first symptoms of inflammation in the baby, you need to urgently go to the doctor.
Treatment is always carried out in a hospital, under the supervision of specialists whose main task is to stop the development of infection as soon as possible. To do this, use antibiotics, the dosage of which is selected strictly individually, depending on the child's age, weight and complexity of the disease. Often children's pneumonia is complicated by edema of already narrow breathing passages, which causes difficulties in breathing. In order to prevent oxygen starvation during pneumonia, a variety of sprays are used to help reduce swelling. Children under one year, in such cases, are placed in the nasal passages oxygen tubes.
After discharge, children who have had pneumonia, undergo a long period of rehabilitation, which consists of massages, physiotherapy and physiotherapy. Some children, for the prevention of the occurrence of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia, are shown sanatorium treatment and procedures for strengthening immunity.
Medicamentous therapy for pneumonia in a child?
In the treatment of all kinds of pneumonia, antibiotics are used. At present, unfortunately, inflammation can not be cured by penicillin alone, since bacteria and viruses have become resistant to this drug. Often used in the treatment of antibiotics second and third orders - Amoxicillin, Levofloxacin, Cephalosporin, Clavulanate and Sulfamethoxazole. When pneumonia develops slowly, it is recommended to consume sulfur-containing antibiotics.
In the treatment of pneumonia caused by rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses and influenza, often antibiotics do not give the proper effect, which leads to the addition of antiviral drugs in the course treatment.
In fungal forms of pneumonia, it is mandatory to use drugs that have an effect locally on each fungus. Also, you need to know that it is necessary to follow a diet. To cope with the disease several times faster, it is possible to supplement medicament therapy with folk remedies.
Treatment of pneumonia passes through many stages. The use of antibiotics and antiviral drugs. If the inflammation of the lungs is fungal in nature, in such cases, drugs are applied that affect each kind of fungus. Naturally, you should not refuse from the folk remedies that can strengthen the immune system, energize the body with vitamins.
With regard to the complications of the disease, it should be noted that they can occur when the diagnosis is incorrect and treated. Since each form of the virus requires a specific set of medicines for treatment. One form of complication may be damage to the nervous system or even lung cancer.
Principles of Home Treatment of Pulmonary Inflammations in Children
To cure ailment in the home, it is necessary to adhere to such rules.
- Do not self-medicate, but rather seek qualified help from a doctor.
- Bed rest.
- Drink plenty of fluids in the form of teas. Medicinal infusions or milk with a little addition of soda.
- Drinking horseradish tincture.
- An unconventional method of treating inflammation of the lungs suggests eating quail eggs a day (adults 506 eggs, children not more than three).
- By the way, with pneumonia, a certain type of diet is prescribed (? 15).
Do not forget that the child's inflammatory processes can be more painful, so it is necessary to monitor all methods for preventing pneumonia in advance. After the illness, the children require special attention of the children's pulmonologist and pediatrician.
Causes of pulmonary inflammation in children and prevention of disease
The disease is caused mainly by pathogens, these microbes are in the mouth and mouth healthy child, but it is worth the child getting sick, how they become active and begins inflammatory process. The disease mainly arises from overcooling or systematic overheating.
At the child the inflammation proceeds much more quickly and more difficultly, than at the adult person. The cause of the disease is hypothermia, insufficient care for the baby, poor living conditions, which contribute to the development of bacteria.
Features of the structure of the children's nasopharynx - short air channels, narrow nasal passages, loose bronchi and poorly developed lungs, contribute to the lightning development of the disease. Especially dangerous is the latent or outpatient form of pneumonia, which for a long time does not manifest itself in any way, or disguises itself under the usual ARI.
According to statistics, the greatest number of children's pneumonia is recorded in the cold season. That is why it is necessary to carefully monitor the fact that the child was dressed "in the weather." During epidemics it is not recommended to visit public places, theaters, circuses, and if there is need for contact with a large number of people, you need to use a three-layer cotton-gauze the bandage.
Risk factors for pneumonia in children
Pneumonia in children most often occurs against the background of influenza, parainfluenza or other acute respiratory viral infections. Therefore, the incidence of pneumonia in children increases dramatically in the cold season. Often the source of infection is a close person - a member of the family who has pneumonia. In children, the risk factors and symptoms of the disease have their own specificity compared with pneumonia in adults. This article is devoted to this article.
The risk factors for the development of the disease include unsatisfactory social and living conditions, a violation of diet and chronic diseases. Other factors may differ depending on the age of the child.
Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in newborns:
1. birth trauma;
2. intrauterine hypoxia, fetal asphyxia;
3. congenital malformations (especially of the heart, lungs, immune system);
4. pneumopathy in a child;
5. cystic fibrosis;
6. congenital and acquired immunodeficiency conditions in the child;
7. hypotoria, prematurity, morpho-functional immaturity;
8. allergic conditions;
8. hypovitaminosis, micronutrient deficiencies.
Risk factors for the development of inflammation in school-age children:
1. foci of chronic inflammation in the nasopharynx (chronic tonsillitis, adenoids, pharyngitis, laryngitis);
2. frequent recurrent bronchitis in a child;
3. acquired heart defects;
4. cystic fibrosis;
5. immunodeficiency states;
6. condition after surgery;
7. Smoking and chronic bronchitis (in adolescence).
How to prevent pneumonia in a child?
For the prevention of the disease vaccinations are applied, which is done to children from 2 months of age. Also for the treatment of folk remedies and methods such as phytopreparations, physiotherapy, laser therapy, acupuncture.
In order to reduce the likelihood of the disease, the following recommendations should be followed:
1. Carefully monitor the child's well-being. At occurrence of the slightest ailments, immediately to address to the expert.
2. To observe the hygiene of the body and mouth of the child, to regularly conduct a wet cleaning of the room in which it is located.
3. Several times a day completely refresh the air in the room. To do this, open the window for at least 10 minutes. It is worth remembering that airing is necessary at any time of the year.
4. Completely exclude the child's contact with a person who has symptoms of ARI or ARVI - cough, runny nose. During epidemics, avoid visiting places of mass gathering.
Signs of pneumonia in the childVery often children's colds can be complicated by pneumonia. This is a very serious disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat, pneumonia can be different, they depend on which zone of inflammation is covered. The most common form of pneumonia affects children who have not yet reached the age of three, they are atypical flow, because children can not cough up phlegm and do not say in which area they feel pain. In young children, pneumonia is almost not audible, because children are restless, cry. It is very important to identify this disease in advance so that there are no serious complications.
Causes of pneumonia in children
Most often pneumonia occurs due to microbes - pneumococci. In children under 3 years old, pneumonia can cause staphylococcus, very rarely a chlamydial or microplasma pathogen, as well as pneumonia in children occurs due to several microbes.
Very rarely, children have pneumonia on their own, most often it is the result of a viral infection or a complication after the flu. This is due to the fact that the cold reduces immunity in the respiratory tract and immunity ceases to fight. Due to the fact that viruses affect the mucous membranes in the airways, microbes that are in the upper and lower the respiratory tract is not completely destroyed, begins to multiply more, and forms a microbial process and inflammation lungs.
Often, pneumonia runs the risk of getting sick of children who are very tired and overcooled when they have frozen their legs. The cold becomes complicated when the baby is surrounded by pneumococci and other microbes, both children and adults can bear them. Also, pneumonia develops if germs or other infectious foci, kidney or intestinal, have been introduced into the bloodstream. When lung tissue is dominated by heat and humidity, microbes rapidly multiply, and pneumonia develops.
Danger of pneumonia for children
For infants, this is a deadly disease, when microbes begin to enter the lungs, they begin to destroy tissues, and there may be swelling and inflammation. Thus, the permeability of the lungs to oxygen is violated, that is, the baby begins to suffocate, with This is a noticeable violation in the metabolism, from the tissues are removed carbon dioxide, and they are no longer supplied oxygen.
When there is inflammation, a lot of toxins start to appear, because of this in the child in the body there is intoxication and disrupted the general health, this further worsens well-being patient. It is important to consider how much tissue in the lung is affected, it depends on it, how serious the disease is.
Types of pneumonia in children
1. Focal pneumonia occurs when a small area of the lung becomes inflamed.
2. Segmental pneumonia occurs when only a certain segment of the lung is inflamed, this lesion is more extensive than the previous one.
3. Fracture pneumonia is considered a very severe form, because breathing is disturbed, due to the fact that a large section of the lung tissue can fall out.
4. Very dangerous for the child is total pneumonia, it affects the entire lung, it can be of two types - one-sided and two-sided. This is a serious disease.
Pneumonia is characterized by the fact that the metabolism is disturbed, because the inflammation of the lung begins to affect all the systems of the body. Microbes at the same time secrete toxins, can affect the nerve tissue, while the mind is depressed and the person is overexcited. There may be hypoxia, because of this, blood circulation increases, while a person feels strong load on the cardiovascular system, because of this very much losing weight and he appears neurasthenia. It is very important to recognize the symptoms of pneumonia in time and start treatment on time, if it is not treated in time it can have serious and deplorable consequences for the child.
How is pneumonia manifested in children of different species?
Pneumonia depends on which area of inflammation, if it is large and active, means the disease will be severe. Most often pneumonia in children is treated well.
Bronchopneumonia or focal pneumonia is a complication of ARVI, it can begin with the common cold, runny nose, cough and drowsiness, then the infection goes very deep. The virus begins to affect the bronchi, then the lung tissue, microbes join it and the disease worsens.
Signs of pneumonia in children
1. Sharp deterioration in the health of the baby.
2. The appearance of a very dry or wet cough that is deep.
3. There may be shortness of breath when sucking, crying and exercising, and even in a dream.
4. In the breath begin to participate thoracic cellular muscles.
5. The temperature rises from 38 to 39 degrees, and almost does not go astray.
6. If the baby has problems with immunity, there may be no fever and body temperature on the contrary decreases.
7. The body temperature with pneumonia lasts for several days, even after the active treatment has begun.
8. The baby is pale when examined, blue may appear around the mouth and nose.
9. The child is restless, does not eat well and sleeps a lot.
10. When listening to the bronchi can be observed hard breathing, this indicates the inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
11. Over the lungs small rattles are heard, they are damp, they do not disappear after the baby coughs.
12. In the heart there may be tachycardia, vomiting and nausea, stomach aches, a loose stool appears, because of this, intestinal infection also joins.
13. With pneumonia, the liver is enlarged.
14. The child comes in serious condition.
So, it is very important to diagnose the lung disease of a child in time and begin timely treatment, so you can get rid of complications and help the child cope with the disease. Diagnosis of the disease can be with the help of an X-ray, in the picture visible darkened areas of the lung, this indicates inflammation and tissue tightening. A general blood test has an increased amount of white blood cells, which also indicates an inflammatory process.
Pneumonia in children, its causes, symptoms and treatment principles
Pneumonia is an acute inflammatory infectious disease that affects the lower parts of the respiratory tract - the lungs themselves. Pneumonia in children under 6 years of age often develops as a result of a viral infection, complicated by the attachment of bacterial flora, after angina, bronchitis and other colds.
In childhood, especially in children younger than 1 year old, this disease can be severe enough and even cause respiratory failure or severe intoxication of the body, so even a suspicion of this disease should be the reason for seeking medical help and for diagnostics.
Etiology and pathogenesis
Inflammation of the lungs or pneumonia in children usually develops as a result of the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the lower respiratory tract from the upper ones. Weakened by the illness of the child's body can not cope with the causative agent of the disease and then the inflammatory process begins in the alveoli and small bronchioles. Bacteria that enter the lungs actively multiply and release toxins that cause intoxication body - increased body temperature, headache, general deterioration and other similar symptoms.
Then the alveoli gradually fill with mucus, pus and other inflammatory fluids that appear as a result of vital activity microorganisms, because of this, normal gas exchange in the lungs is disrupted, respiratory failure develops, and the following appear symptoms of the disease - a strong cough, shortness of breath, blunting percussion sound, wheezing in the lungs and the emergence of foci of inflammation in chest radiograph.
The patient's condition is in direct proportion to the size of the affected area - with focal lesions of severe respiratory failure not there is a cough and a slight shortness of breath and the patient's condition is satisfactory and the disease is easily cured by admission antibiotics. If the whole or whole of the lung is affected by inflammation, the clinical picture of the disease completely changes, the condition of the sick child can be very difficult, up to a menacing life.
In most cases, pneumonia develops as a complication after the flu, bronchitis, sore throat or cold. The causative agents of the disease in children are often bacteria, less often viruses or other microorganisms - fungi or protozoa. Since it is necessary to start treatment, as soon as a suspicion of a disease appears, it is very important to at least approximately determine the pathogen - this determines the success of the therapy in the treatment of the child.
The causes of the development of the disease in children can be different - from massive infectious infection to hypothermia, which caused a drop in immunity. Diagnosis of the disease should include the determination of the type of pathogen, but since this takes a long time, the treatment starts with the empirical application of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
1. Most often pneumonia in children develop at the age of 6 months to 6 years - the causative agents of the disease in this case in children in 50% of cases is pneumococcus, about 10% - a hemophilic rod, less often - other pathogens - staphylococcus, mycoplasma, chlamydia or mushrooms.
2. In 7-15 years, children from pneumonia suffer much less often, pneumococcal causes about 30% of infections, less often - the causative agent is streptococcus, and more than 50% of all diseases cause atypical pathogens - mycoplasma, chlamydia.
3. Pneumonia in newborn infants and children up to 6 months of age - at this age from pneumonia preterm infants, children with developmental defects of the respiratory system, or those born with immunodeficiency. The causes of the development of the disease at this age are insufficiently formed respiratory organs, weakened organism and problems in the work of the immune system.
Signs of pneumoniaThe first signs of the disease appear usually a few days after the onset of a viral infection or a cold. Acute pneumonia in children is broken fast enough, the deterioration of the condition can develop within a few hours and therefore even a suspicion of pneumonia should be the reason for contacting a doctor.
Acute pneumonia is manifested by the following symptoms:
- A rise in body temperature is a symptom of pneumonia with a sharp increase in body temperature to 39-41 degrees and this temperature does not fall for several days, unlike acute respiratory disease and colds.
- Deterioration of the general condition of the patient is a symptom of the disease pneumonia is characterized by a sharp weakness, fatigue, refusal to eat, there is increased sweating, pallor of the skin or cyanosis nasolabial triangle.
- Cough - one of the most characteristic signs of the disease - cough can be dry or wet, with the separation of purulent sputum. Coughing attacks greatly deplete the patient, especially at night. Cough with pneumonia is permanent, painful, less often the cough can be paroxysmal or even with blood streaks in the sputum.
- Shortness of breath and respiratory failure - increased respiration, lack of air, pale skin - all these are characteristic symptoms of pneumonia.
- When breathing in the child, one can notice the retraction of the intercostal spaces or the lag of one half of the thorax from the other.
Clinical picture of the disease in children under 1 year old
In newborns and children under 1 year old, the symptoms of pneumonia may be very different from the usual ones and it is not so easy to recognize the disease. In young children, the characteristic signs of pneumonia are cough, an increase in body temperature may be absent or mild.
At this age, the changes in the state of the nervous system and the general deterioration of the child's condition come to the fore - it becomes sluggish, capricious, refuses food and constantly cries. Gradually, signs of respiratory insufficiency are getting worse - shortness of breath, cyanotic nasolabial triangle, quickening of breathing, coughing and entraining of intercostal spaces.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease includes examining the sick child, collecting anamnesis, percussion and auscultation of the chest, and for confirmation of the diagnosis is X-ray examination of the lungs, sputum and mucus analysis and examination of respiratory function in child. Diagnosis of pneumonia is not particularly difficult - the characteristic clinical symptoms and X-ray examination allows you to quickly diagnose. If the diagnosis is impossible - the diagnosis is made based on the clinical picture, percussion and auscultation.
Treatment of pneumoniaTo start to treat a pneumonia it is necessary at the first signs of disease. Where the treatment will be performed - in a hospital or at home, is determined by the doctor and depends on the following conditions:
- age of the child - all children of the first year of life with pneumonia are subject to compulsory admission;
- severity of the child's condition;
- presence or absence of concomitant diseases.
Treatment of pneumonia in children includes: proper child care, proper nutrition and drinking regimen, taking antibiotics and inhalation with medications to cough.
Care for a sick child
After the diagnosis of the disease was carried out, the child should be assigned bed rest and organize proper nutrition. The diet for pneumonia should include a sufficient amount of fresh vegetables and fruits, lean meat, cereals and dairy products. Nutrition during illness should be easy and, at the same time, rich and rich in vitamins and nutrients.
In addition, it is very important to adhere to the drinking regime - this will avoid dehydration and improve the condition of the sick child. For children over 2 years old - the norm of the drunk liquid is 2, -25 liters per day, it is best to give the sick child the juices, fruit drinks, compotes, warm milk or still mineral water. Warm alkaline drink is a good way to soften and relieve cough and reduce body temperature.
- Antibiotics - the appointment of a course of antibiotics - the gold standard for the treatment of pneumonia. For mild and moderate forms of the disease, antibiotics are given orally, in more severe forms, as injections. Most commonly used are the following antibiotics: penicillins (ampicillin, ammox, amoxiclav), cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefuroxine, cephalexin), macrolides (aziromycin, erythromycin). When carrying out antibiotic therapy, it is necessary to prescribe pro and prebiotics for the prevention of dysbacteriosis (linex, hilakforte, bifidum bacterin, lactobacterin). If after the start of antibiotics, within 24-48 hours there was no improvement, it is required to change the way of administration of drugs or to change the group of antibiotic. Depending on the severity of the disease, the course of treatment is from 5-7 to 10-14 days.
- To get rid of cough and restore normal airway patency appoint inhalation and taking mucolytics and expectorants. Inhalations with antiseptic solutions or bronchodilators are prescribed in the early days of the illness, such inhalations facilitate breathing, help liquefy and facilitate the excretion of phlegm. In addition, inhalations are prescribed during the recovery period - to completely free the respiratory tract from microorganisms and faster regeneration of the mucous membrane. Cough with pneumonia can still a few weeks after recovery to torment the patient and then inhalations with medications will be the best way to get rid of it.
- After the state of the sick child improves, he is given a general restorative treatment - appoint vitamins, immunostimulants, physiotherapy, therapeutic massage and respiratory gymnastics. This helps to get rid of cough and stagnant phenomena in the lungs.
Prevention of pneumonia in young children includes timely treatment of all colds and foci of infection, increasing the overall immunity of the child - intake of vitamins, nutrition with sufficient vitamins and nutrients, hardening, physiotherapy, outdoor exercise and sufficient physical activity.