The main causes of pneumonia
Causes of pneumonia can be different, pneumonia often occurs against another viral disease.The lungs are very sensitive and vulnerable, which is why they are often exposed to infectious attacks. There are several ways to penetrate the infection, the most common is airborne. The upper respiratory tract interact most with microbes, it is through them that infection gets through.
What can be caused by pneumonia
One of the causes of pneumonia is weakened immunity, unable to resist in the fight against infection.
Among other reasons - polluted air, high activity of the pathogen itself. These factors can trigger not only pneumonia, but also other diseases of the respiratory system. The infectious process is not always localized in the upper respiratory tract, very often it penetrates downwards, because of this, bronchitis develops (the bronchial mucosa is affected). Often the inflammatory process takes place in the lung tissue, as a result, it is affected and a person begins to suffer from pneumonia.
Healthy lungs reliably protect the body from viruses, they destroy the fats and proteins that affect blood clotting. If a certain amount of harmful substances accumulates in the blood, the lungs expel them through a cough.
Lungs are a true air filter, but they can not withstand the load every time: if immunity is weakened, resistance to viruses will not be possible. In some cases, pneumonia is very easy to catch: during a seasonal exacerbation, any pathogen can cause illness. It is important to know that pneumonia is never a primary disease, it occurs against the background of another disease and most often from hypothermia.
As for microorganisms, one should know that any of them can cause pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs is a disease that can be infected at home, on the street, in public transport and in any other place. Pneumonia is caused by a wide variety of microbes.
Illnesses that provoke pneumoniaAcute pneumonia is a disease that affects children of the first year of life, a particular threat it presents to premature babies. Inflammation of the lungs can be affected by patients with rickets, heavy smokers and people who drink alcohol.
Pneumonia often overtakes people with diabetes and people who suffer from cardiovascular disorders. It is especially dangerous for people whose immune system is suppressed by drugs against cancer.
To ensure a speedy recovery, you must immediately identify the disease and begin treatment (categorically prohibited to engage in self-medication). As a result of proper therapy, a couple of weeks can be cured. If you do not treat pneumonia in a timely manner, complications may occur. In this case, the patient needs to be taken to the hospital and given intensive therapy, lasting about a month.
The flu epidemic often causes staphylococcal pneumonia. If a person falls ill with any virus disease and notices that he has a cough with phlegm, uncharacteristic for ARVI, you need to call a doctor urgently.The doctor examines the chest, in the future will need to hold an X-ray, in addition, the patient must submit a blood test and morning phlegm. With the help of a blood test it will be possible to determine the causative agent of the disease. In this way, the doctor will be able to confirm or disprove the inflammation of the lungs.
As a rule, sputum is secreted by the bronchial mucosa. It has in its composition substances that support pulmonary tissue, in addition, sputum contains special antimicrobial particles. Patients with pneumonia are troubled by colorless viscous mucous sputum, if there is an admixture of blood in it, it acquires a brown or rusty hue.
After a person overtakes a fit of coughing with an expectoration, a feeling of relief appears. That the sputum is separated intensively, it is necessary to drink a warm liquid, for example, tea, boiled water, milk. When pneumonia is not used drugs that prevent the separation of sputum.
How does pneumonia occur?Inflammation of the lungs can appear due to the fact that the patient is in a stuffy environment, in which it is difficult for him to breathe. If the air in the room is too dry, remember that there are more dust and harmful chemical particles in it. If a person has pneumonia, he needs clean and slightly cool air, should be as often as possible to ventilate the room. A favorable environment will help to sputum.
To create optimal conditions, it is necessary that the air temperature is within +18 degrees. The patient should not be easily dressed, it is desirable to hang a wet sheet on the battery, which will serve as a good air humidifier.
A dangerous component is the dust that is constantly in the apartment. In this room, the healing process is delayed, the likelihood of sputum drying is not so great. It is not recommended to put carpets in the room where the patient is, it is necessary to conduct a wet cleaning 2 times a day. It is not recommended to use chemical agents for washing floors, as they negatively affect the respiratory system.
It is worth noting that the high body temperature has a drying effect on sputum. To recover as soon as possible, it is recommended to drink 3 liters of liquid per day, fruit juices containing vitamin C (cranberry juice, rose hip juice or mountain ash) will be useful..
There are several diseases in which it is possible to get pneumonia. If a person has heart disease and problems with the endocrine system, he is more susceptible to illness. A common cause of pneumonia is smoking. People who are passive smokers are also susceptible to the disease. The development of pneumonia directly depends on the characteristics of the body and lifestyle. If a person moves little, the lungs do not work at full strength, thus, in some areas mucus accumulates, this substance is a good medium for the life of microbes.
Varieties, causes and treatment of pneumonia
Among adults and children, a disease such as pneumonia is common. All the organs and tissues of man constantly need oxygen. Lungs are a paired organ. Their main function is the gas exchange between the blood and the environment. The lungs are located in the chest cavity. Outside, they are surrounded by a dense, thin shell (pleura). Each lung consists of segments, segments and lobules. In the right lung allocate 3 shares, and in the left only 2.Each share consists of several segments. The latter are divided into segments. With inflammation, the function of the lungs is disrupted, which manifests itself in the form of a cough, difficulty breathing. A segment, several lobules or a whole body fraction may be involved in the process. Often there is total inflammation. What are the etiology, the clinic and the treatment of pneumonia?
Features of pneumoniaNot everyone knows what pneumonia is. Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung, mainly infectious in nature, in which interstitial tissue and alveoli are affected. In most cases, this pathology occurs in an acute form with severe symptoms of intoxication. The acute form of the disease occurs in both children and adults. Pneumonia in adults is a fairly frequent pathology. The incidence is 10-14 cases per 1000 people.The risk group includes children and the elderly (over 50).This lung disease poses a danger to life and health in the absence of treatment.
With pneumonia, the likelihood of complications (respiratory failure, pleurisy, abscesses) and death is high. Sometimes pneumonia occurs almost asymptomatically. The disease can be identified only after X-ray examination. This pulmonary pathology has recently been developing more and more often in persons from disadvantaged families, people serving sentences in places of deprivation of liberty, children living in orphanages. Very often, pneumonia develops after surgery or when the person is in the bed for a long time. In the latter case, congestive pneumonia develops.
Types of pneumonia
There are different types of pneumonia. It is infectious and non-infectious, nosocomial or community-acquired. Depending on the magnitude of the inflammation focus, the following forms of pneumonia are distinguished:
The causes of the disease are different. Given the etiology, all infectious pneumonia are divided into:
The first group includes the so-called Friedlander pneumonia. The causative agent of the disease in this case is the Klebsiella. Of the group of viral infections, adenovirus pneumonia is most common. Inflammation of the lung tissue is complicated and uncomplicated. According to the severity of clinical symptoms distinguish acute, acute prolonged and chronic inflammation. One lung or both can be affected. The bilateral inflammatory process proceeds most severely. Pathomorphological signs of pneumonia are divided into focal, segmental and parenchymal.
Inflammation can be primary, secondary, post traumatic, postoperative. Separately isolated toxic pneumonia and aspiration. The primary form of inflammation develops most often against the background of hypothermia. As for the secondary form, the cause is other severe somatic diseases (HIV infection, cancer). When inflammation in the tissues can accumulate various cellular elements. Eosinophilic pneumonia often develops. With it, many eosinophils are found in the alveoli. Pneumonia is serous, serous-haemorrhagic.
Etiological factorsThe development of pneumonia lobar or any other can be due to various factors. If there is an infectious inflammation, the pathogens can be: bacteria (pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci, hemophilic rod, clostridium, legionella, E. coli), mycoplasmas, viruses (influenza virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus), fungi. In the latter case, candidiasis pneumonia develops. The most frequent pathogens are pneumococci. They are found in more than half of the patients. Infection in this situation occurs mainly aerosol mechanism (airborne and airborne dust). This happens when you are in contact with a sick person. As for nosocomial pneumonia, the cause of infection can become medical personnel. It is often diagnosed as a freelander pneumonia. It accounts for between 3 and 8% of all patients.
Inflammation of non-infectious etiology can develop under the following circumstances:
- on the background of stagnation in a small circle of blood circulation with strict bed rest;
- after closed or open chest injuries;
- with bronchitis.
Allergic pneumonia can be the result of inhalation of various chemicals, dust, microorganisms. Known pathology, called the disease of the farmer. It is typical for people engaged in agriculture. The main cause of the disease is the inhalation of microscopic moldy fungi contained in the hay. Currently, this disease is rare. Infants can develop lipoid pneumonia. It is also called oily. It develops when fluid enters the lungs through the nasopharynx and trachea. This happens during feeding. In older children, this condition can be associated with the uncontrolled use of oil-based nasal drops..
Perhaps the development of radiation pneumonia. It is formed after exposure to the human body of large doses of ionizing radiation. This is possible with radiation accidents, as well as after treatment of malignant tumors with the use of ionizing radiation. The likelihood that paracancrotic pneumonia develops is high if a person has a lung tumor. Sepsis (acute bacterial infection of the blood with the development of an inflammatory reaction in all organs) is responsible for the development of septic pneumonia. In this case, the percentage of death is high.
Increased riskMuch depends on the presence of risk factors for the development of small-focal pneumonia or any other form of it. The main risk factors include:
- decreased immunity;
- presence of chronic pathology of the oropharynx or nasopharynx (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis);
- lack of vitamins;
- endocrine pathology;
- abuse of alcoholic beverages.
In children the development of focal pneumonia and inflammation of another form can be facilitated by the following circumstances: hypoxia during the period intrauterine life, prematurity, hypotrophy, the presence of cystic fibrosis, congenital immunodeficiency states, malformations development. The risk factors for inflammation in adults include prolonged lying, lying down, addiction, heart failure.
Clinical manifestationsSigns of pneumonia are different. Pneumonia, taking place in an acute form, can manifest itself in the following symptoms:
- productive cough;
- pain in the chest;
- shortness of breath;
For asymptomatic pneumonia, a latent flow is characteristic. Patients may be disturbed by malaise, excessive sweating, weakness. The temperature may remain within normal limits. The development of transient pneumonia is often a complication of the flu. In this situation, the disease proceeds lightning fast. In the absence of proper treatment, the death of a sick person is possible.
Infectious form of inflammation often occurs with severe symptoms of intoxication. Legionellosis pneumonia and all other atypical forms of the disease proceed more calmly. For them, typically a gradual onset, a headache, muscle pain, a sore throat, a dry cough. Each form of inflammation has its own characteristics. For example, the main manifestations of focal pneumonia are: high fever, chills, weakness, malaise, headache, increased sweating. With large foci, the appearance of cyanosis and dyspnea. When you cough, there is pain. The disease in most cases lasts 1-2 weeks..
The lobular (croupous) pneumonia develops suddenly. Patients are concerned about the rise in temperature, weakness, productive cough, shortness of breath. A typical manifestation of croupous pneumonia is chest pain. It can be strengthened by inhaling and tilting the trunk. In the development of croupous inflammation, four stages are distinguished: the stage of tidal flow, red curing, gray curing and resolution. This disease affects adults more often than children.
Diagnostic measuresIf you suspect a pneumonia, you should definitely visit a doctor (therapist). For the statement of the exact diagnosis it is necessary:
- conduct a general and biochemical blood test;
- listen to the lungs;
- to conduct a medical examination;
- interview the patient;
- measure body temperature, pressure, pulse, respiratory rate;
- conduct an x-ray study;
- to conduct an electrocardiogram and an ultrasound of the heart.
In the course of a physical examination, one can detect blunting of percussion sound, hard breathing, wheezing, crepitus. A dull sound with percussion is revealed when the fibrous tissue replaces the parenchyma of the lungs. Important symptoms in the diagnosis are the symptoms of the disease. In the general analysis of blood, non-specific signs of the inflammatory process are found.
The final diagnosis is made on the basis of X-ray study. It is carried out at the beginning of the disease and after treatment to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. X-ray photography allows you to exclude another pathology (pulmonary tuberculosis, cancer). If a person has infectious pneumonia, it is required to establish a pathogen. For this, sputum can be examined.
What to do with pneumonia and pneumonia?
Treatment depends on the form of the disease. Treatment of infectious inflammation of the lung tissue involves the use of antibiotics, expectorants, mucolytics, physiotherapy, exercise therapy, copious drinking, inhalation.Treatment is appointed by the doctor. To treat pneumonia in the home is unacceptable, since complications are possible. If there is bacterial serous or hemorrhagic pneumonia, treatment involves the destruction of the pathogen. Drugs of choice are macrolides ("Azithromycin "Sumamed"), penicillins ("Amoxiclav"), cephalosporins ("Cefazolin"). They are indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.
If a person falls ill within the walls of a medical institution, then penicillins, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and carbapenems are preferred. To improve the clearance of sputum and its dilution, apply "ACTS "Lazolvan". These medications are indicated for coughing with phlegm. At a high temperature (above 3 ° C), antipyretic agents can be used. With pneumonia without symptoms, symptomatic therapy is not performed. In the case of an allergic nature of inflammation, a doctor may prescribe antihistamines.
In order to normalize breathing and eliminate shortness of breath, inhalations are prescribed. For this purpose, bronchodilators can be used. In severe cases, glucocorticoids are used. For a speedy recovery the patient is required to comply with bed rest, take vitamins, fully eat. During the recovery phase, treatment involves physiotherapy (UHF therapy, electrophoresis, massage). In severe pneumonia, infusion therapy may be performed in infants..
Thus, pneumonia is a formidable disease, which is fraught with serious complications. The treatment of the disease is based on the use of antimicrobial agents.
Chronic pneumonia: symptoms, treatmentIn this article, we will consider what is chronic inflammation of the lungs? How to understand that you have started the inflammatory process of the upper respiratory tract - symptoms, treatment. And also, consider the main causes of pneumonia.
Pneumonia is ...
Inflammatory process, taking place in the lungs is defined as pneumonia. This is indeed a very serious and serious disease in its current, which has recently Even in spite of modern medicines and achievements in sphere of medicine.
A few decades ago, pneumonia was considered a disease that was not practical to cure. Out of 100 patients with pulmonary pneumonia, a lethal outcome was observed in 90 people. Even today, if a person does not turn in time to a medical institution, pneumonia can be a huge threat to human life and health.
Once a patient is diagnosed with pneumonia, he is most likely to be sent to undergo hospital treatment. Only in this way, it will be possible to prevent absolutely all the consequences of this disease.
Causes of pneumonia
Consider the main causes of pneumonia.
The first, which relates to the causes of the inflammatory process in the lungs, is the penetration into the the organism of pathogenic viruses, bacteria - in the form of staphylococci, streptococci, as well as pneumococci and mycoplasma. Also, if a person recently got sick with the flu, then it could give complications to the immune system and as a result - there was another, more serious inflammatory process - pneumonia.
In 80% of clinical cases of pneumonia begins against the background of a prolonged cold, flu, as well as a number of inflammatory processes in the body. It is not excluded that after infection of the body, the inflammation will affect the lung tissue, and after that it will spread throughout the body, worsening the general well-being of the person.
Most often pneumonia affects those patients who have significantly reduced immunity. Very acutely suffer any colds of those patients who have a history of burns mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, poisoning with toxic substances that provoke defeat of the lungs. Also, long-term smoking experience provokes the emergence of complications in pneumonia and even the most common cold.
How to understand that you have pneumonia?
How can you understand that you have pneumonia? What symptoms should I say about this in the first place?
Initially, it should be noted that the inflammation of the lungs takes place in the acute stage, and in the chronic. Therefore, depending on the form in which the inflammatory process will take place, treatment depends also.
Initially, pneumonia begins with the defeat of the integrity of the lungs by pneumococcal bacteria. And, it is not necessary that before an inflammation of the lungs you will have some catarrhal disease. Pneumonia can begin on its own, without such obvious symptoms as: fever, cough, malaise, chills.
So, the common symptoms of pneumonia are as follows:
- The body temperature rises quite rapidly - approximately to 38 degrees and above;
- Severe pain in the ribs (as right, on the one hand - with the left / right);
- Pain during inspiration, even shallow;
- An agonizing tearing cough;
- Dyspnea, which develops quite rapidly;
- Cough is dry and painful.
Initially, the cough arises periodically, that is, it then appears, then disappears. But, the more the disease progresses, the stronger the cough.
If we talk about the first days of the inflammatory process of the lungs, then at the initial stage of the disease the cough is not so strong.
Appearance of a patient with pneumonia
To understand that a person was ill even by his appearance. The face of a patient with pneumonia acquires an unnatural bright red color, and can also be covered with large spots. The lips become blue and the nostrils begin to swell.
It is not excluded that the patient can lose consciousness, enter into a state of delirium.
After about 2-3 days, the cough is no longer dry, but wet with veins of blood, pus.
The pain syndrome in a person in the lungs is directly related to the fact that nerve fibers penetrate the pleura and are trapped during the breathing process. A person with healthy lungs does not.
For disrupting the work of the upper respiratory tract and a progressive inflammatory process, disruption of the cardiovascular system is necessary, that is, the patient feels an attack of tachycardia.
Within 14 days, the patient retains absolutely all signs of pneumonia. Further, the disease either recedes (in the presence of appropriate treatment) or goes into a more severe stage.
Complications of the inflammatory process of the lungs are in the abscess of the lung, and also that the disease can quickly enough go into a chronic form and bother the person every time he gets cold and starts developing colds disease.
Focal inflammation of the lungs
If a patient begins to have inflammation of one of the areas of the lung, then the symptomatology really develops extremely quickly.
The first thing that worries a patient is the temperature rise to 39, 40 degrees. Next, a wet cough begins, there is a weakness in the body, characterized by malaise throughout the body.
Initially, the inflammatory process proceeds without accumulation and excretion of pus.
If the time to proceed to treatment, it is high chances to avoid further inflammation of the lung tissue.
Treatment of pneumonia
In whatever form the inflammatory process proceeds, the patient needs emergency hospitalization and appropriate treatment under the supervision of physicians.
The first thing that is prescribed for treatment is antibacterial drugs and a number of antibiotics.
High efficiency was shown by treatment with such agents as: amoxicillin, clavulanate, and also levofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole.
For the most effective and fuller treatment, a patient needs to take a lung X-ray and also take a blood test.
Self-medication of the inflammatory process of the lungs can result in a fatal outcome. Do not risk your life and health!
Signs of bacterial pneumonia in an adult
- Bacterial pneumonia
- Viral pneumonia
The disease of pneumonia or pneumonia is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms.
This inflammation causes fluid to flow into the infected part of the lungs, affecting one or both of the lungs.
Inflow of blood to the infected part of the lung (or lungs) decreases, which means that the oxygen level in the blood can decrease.
This decline is likely to occur in the elderly or malnourished people. During illness, the body tries to maintain blood flow to vital organs and reduce blood flow to other parts of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract.
Causes of pneumonia in adults:
- Bacterial pneumonia: this type of pneumonia usually begins after a flu, cold, or upper respiratory tract infection. Decreased immunity allows bacteria to multiply in the lungs, causing disease. There are many different bacteria that can cause inflammation of the lung tissue. The most common pathogen is pneumococcus. Microorganisms can spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes or touches objects with unwashed hands. Bacterial pneumonia can be a more serious disease than viral pneumonia.
- Viral pneumonia. A variety of different viruses can cause viral pneumonia. Among them: influenza, chicken pox and respiratory syncytial virus. Viruses can be transmitted between people through coughing, sneezing or touching something that has been in contact with the liquid of the infected person.
- Fungal pneumonia. It is most often caused by fungi from the environment.
- Pneumonia of mycoplasma. Mycoplasma organisms invisible to the eye easily spread, especially in places of large concentrations of people (such as offices or schools). This type of pneumonia, as a rule, quickly passes.
- Pneumocystis pneumonia. Caused by a yeast-like fungus, which is usually found in the lungs, without creating problems for the "master but can grow and lead to pneumonia in people whose immune system is weak (eg, due to AIDS, organ transplant, cancer, or chemotherapy).
- Aspiration pneumonia. Occurs when the contents of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx are inhaled into the respiratory tract.
- Legionnaires' disease. It is caused by a bacterium legionella, which lives in water. Disease Legionnaires can spread through contaminated plumbing, shower or air conditioning.
Signs of pneumonia in an adult with bacterial pneumonia
Doctors often divide bacterial pneumonia into a typical and atypical, based on the signs and symptoms of the disease.
A typical pneumonia occurs very quickly.
- Typical pneumonia usually leads to severe fever and chills.
- At the patient at cough sputum of yellow or brown color is allocated.
- There can be a pain in the chest, which, as a rule, increases with deep breathing or coughing. The chest can hurt when it is touched or pressed. Chest pain can be a sign of other serious illnesses, so do not try to diagnose inflammation of your lungs yourself.
- A typical pneumonia can cause dyspnea, especially if a person has any chronic lung disease, such as asthma or emphysema.
- Elderly people may suffer from confusion or mental impairment during pneumonia or other infections.
Atypical pneumonia begins gradually.
- Sometimes another illness begins several days or weeks before pneumonia.
- Fever is usually weak, and chills are less likely than in the case of typical pneumonia.
- The patient can complain to the doctor about a headache, body aches, and joint pain.
- Cough can be dry or with it a small amount of sputum is released.v
- Chest pain is often absent.
- There may be abdominal pain.
- There is a feeling of fatigue or weakness.
Bacterial pneumonia, like the virus, is contagious.
When to seek medical help?
- If the patient has a fever and cough with yellow, green or brown sputum, he should visit a doctor.
When to call an ambulance for pneumonia?
- If the patient has shortness of breath. This sign of lung inflammation in an adult as a breathlessness is not just a feeling that a person can not take a full breath. Shortness of breath means that the patient can not dial into the lungs enough air to meet the needs of the body. This is a potentially serious symptom and he always requires a visit to the emergency room.
- If the temperature rises above 39 ° C or falls below 35 ° C.
- If the pulse is equal to or greater than 125 beats per minute at rest.
- If the respiratory rate is more than 30 breaths per minute at rest.
- If a systolic blood pressure drop below 90 mm Hg occurred, resulting in dizziness, blockage, or fainting.
- If there is pain in the chest or confusion.
Risk factors for the development of pneumonia:
- a chronic health problem, such as diabetes;
- alcoholism or drug addiction;
- cardiac ischemia;
- a weak immune system, for example, due to the use of steroids or the use of drugs to suppress immunity (people with transplanted organs take such drugs);
- sick or damaged lungs due to asthma or emphysema;
- very young or very old age (over 65 years);
- life in a nursing home;
- problems with vomiting reflex (frequent suffocation or difficulty swallowing);
- a surgery to remove the spleen.
Complications that may occur from pneumonia include:
- Bacteremia: the infection penetrates into the bloodstream and can spread to various organs.
- Pleurisy and empyema: with pleurisy occurs an inflammation of the membrane, which covers the lungs (pleura). The empyema occurs when the fluid in the lungs that causes inflammation becomes infected.
- Lung abscess: cavities (or one cavity) filled with pus may appear in the infected area of the lungs.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome: when the lungs are severely damaged due to pneumonia, respiratory arrest may occur.
The first signs of viral pneumonia in adults: how to recognize viral inflammation
Viral pneumonia usually occurs in young children and the elderly. This is because the body of a young or elderly person is harder to fight the virus than an adult human body with a strong immune system.
In healthy adults, pneumonia usually proceeds easily. In contrast, elderly people and those with weakened immunity often develop severe viral pneumonia. Patients aged 65 years and over are at risk of dying from viral pneumonia, as well as from influenza not complicated by pneumonia.Viral pneumonia is most often caused by one of several viruses:
- Paragrippus. Parainfluenza virus is the second most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and pneumonia and bronchitis in children under 6 months of age.
- Respiratory syncytial virus. This is the most common cause of lower respiratory infection in infants and children, and the second most common viral cause of pneumonia in adults. The first is influenza viruses.
Swine influenza (H1N1) was associated with an outbreak of pneumonia in 2009. The first reports came from Mexico, where there was a very high mortality from this disease. Many cases were also recorded in the US Nevertheless, early detection and treatment helped to significantly reduce the death rate from viral pneumonia.
Serious viral pneumonia is most likely to occur in:
- Premature babies.
- Children with heart and lung diseases.
- People infected with HIV.
- People undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or taking drugs that weaken the immune system.
- People who underwent organ transplantation.
The first signs of pneumonia in adults with viral infection
Symptoms and signs of viral pneumonia often develop slowly and at first seem harmless, whereas when Bacterial pneumonia develops very quickly and patients seek medical attention within a few days.
The most common signs are:
- Subfebrile temperature (less than 38.8 ° C).
- Cough with a little mucus.
- Muscle pain.
- Blue nails (due to lack of oxygen in the blood).
- Nausea and vomiting.
During a physical examination, the following signs of pneumonia can be observed in a patient:
- Tachypnea (rapid breathing).
- Tachycardia or bradycardia.
- The wheezing in the lungs.
- Breast or intercostal retraction (internal muscle movements between the ribs).
- Decreased breathing sounds.
- Cyanosis (blue skin).
- Rashes on the skin.
- Acute respiratory distress (a dangerous violation of pulmonary function, respiratory failure).
When to seek medical help?
You should see your doctor if any of the following symptoms appear:
- Persistent cough.
- Dyspnoea in motion, or at rest.
- Severe chest pain.
- Severe weakness.
- Coughing with blood.
- Vomiting is so strong or frequent that dehydration has occurred.
- Impossibility to eat and drink fluids.
How to recognize pneumonia in adultsPhysical examination is necessary for the diagnosis of pneumonia. It can also help to determine how serious the disease is, and what can be its cause.
The doctor will listen to the heart, lungs and chest of the patient through a stethoscope.
It will also consider vital signs such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate.
Information collected during a physical examination can help a doctor determine if pneumonia is mild or severe.
- A chest X-ray may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of "pneumonia". Many people with mild pneumonia symptoms are prescribed effective treatment without radiography. Nevertheless, patients with moderate and severe pneumonia often receive a chest x-ray to determine the extent of the disease and identify complications of the disease, such as pus in the lungs.
- Laboratory tests are sometimes required to diagnose pneumonia. Laboratory tests can help a doctor find out what caused pneumonia and how the patient's body tolerates the disease.
- The most common laboratory tests include: measuring the number and type of white blood cells in the blood, and using a sputum sample to help identify possible pathogens of the infection. People with difficulty breathing can undergo pulse oximetry (a test that allows you to assess the oxygen saturation and heart rate).
The patient should inform the doctor about any illnesses that he has, including abnormal vomiting reflex, alcohol or intravenous drug use, smoking and recent hospital. You also need to tell the doctor about a recent episode of a viral infection or flu-like symptoms.
What should I do with the first signs of pneumonia in adults?
- Do not smoke and do not allow others to smoke near the patient. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can lead to lung damage. Talk with your doctor before using electronic cigarettes and other drugs to help stop smoking.
- Have more rest.
- Use a household air humidifier. The patient is able to clear more sputum, if breathing with moist air.
- Drink fluids to help prevent dehydration when vomiting. In addition, the liquid helps to thinning the mucus, so it leaves the body more easily.
- Deep breathing and coughing. Deep breathing helps open the airways to the lungs. Cough helps to "drive out" mucus from the lungs. You need to take a deep breath and hold your breath for as long as you can. Then exhale the air and cough hard. Do 10 deep breaths in a row every hour from the moment you wake up.
What is the temperature with pneumonia and the main reasons for its appearance
Pneumonia, or pneumonia, is a dangerous ailment that, in the absence of appropriate treatment, can result in a serious complication and even death.
Therefore, it is so important to learn in time to recognize the main symptoms of the disease, especially changes in the temperature regime.
The degree of fever depends on the type of pathogen, the severity, the prevalence of the inflammatory process, what proportion of the lungs are affected, and the effectiveness of the treatment chosen by the physician. Classical pneumonia caused by pneumococcus, characterized by an increase in temperature to 39-40 ° C. The disease begins suddenly, with severe chills, chest pain, which is worse when coughing.
- What temperature during pneumonia indicates the onset of the disease?
- How does this feature change during its development?
- Can hyperthermia persist after recovery?
In addition, the development of pathology is indicated by other signs of intoxication:
- headache and joint pain;
- sometimes the patient can not get out of bed without help;
- general weakness;
- confusion of consciousness;
- labored breathing.
The duration of hyperthermia depends on the state of the patient's immune system and the effectiveness of the treatment chosen by the physician. The body temperature, which has reached a maximum degree within several hours, stays at this level for several days, starts to decrease in two ways:
- critical - in a sharp 12 to 24 hours;
- lytic - gradually for 2 - 3 days.
Against the background of the normalization of the temperature regime, other symptoms of the disease also disappear.
There are different types of hyperthermia in secondary infectious pneumonia, the cause of which, as a rule, are:
- Diseases caused by the virus (colds, acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections, including influenza).
- Chronic diseases of ENT organs and bronchi, caused by a bacterium (including the genus Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, etc.) or protozoa (chlamydia, proteus).
- Diseases requiring prolonged bed rest (heart attacks, strokes, postoperative condition).
Three groups of patients can be conventionally identified.
Some patients experience fever within 38-39 ° C, in addition, there is excretion of sputum when coughing, zalozhennost in the chest, there are phenomena caused by intoxication.
In other patients, the high temperature is maintained at 38-3 ° C, this is typical in the case of a combination of pneumonia with acute bronchitis or exacerbation of chronic. A distinctive symptom of this type of disease is the obstruction of the airway. In addition, there is a dry agonizing cough, a violation of the respiratory process, an increase in the number of heartbeats.
In other cases, pneumonia occurs in an erased form with a subfebrile temperature, weakness, ineffable cough. Such a course is most characteristic of the atypical form of the disease.
Is it necessary to reduce the temperature? What methods for this use?
It is definitely impossible to answer these questions, everything depends on the level of hyperthermia and age of the patient. The main feature of therapy for pneumonia is the mandatory use of an antibiotic. If the pathogen is not destroyed, a decrease in temperature with the help of symptomatic medicines will be temporary.
Antimicrobial agents must necessarily appoint a doctor, taking into account the sensitivity to them of a particular microorganism, the severity of the disease, the individual characteristics of the patient.It is strictly forbidden to engage in self-medication in this case.
Since an increase in temperature is a protective reaction of the organism directed to the destruction of the infection, it is advisable not to take any measures to reduce it, if in children it does not exceed 38 ° C, and in adults 3, -39 FROM.
An exception is the pathological course of fever, accompanied by the following conditions:
- disturbances in metabolic processes;
- disorders of microcirculation;
- cardiac, renal or hepatic insufficiency;
- severe course of pneumonia;
- presence of concomitant cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders;
- threat of development of febrile seizures in a child under 5 years.
There is a large selection of antipyretics (antipyretic drugs), issued in the form of effervescent and conventional tablets, capsules, syrups, suspensions, suppositories and injections. The choice of medication should be carried out depending on the patient's age, giving preference to effective and safe means.
With an increase in temperature in infants, especially the first 2 months of life, do not engage in self-medication. It is urgent to seek professional help.
The drugs of choice recommended by WHO for use for relief of hyperthermia syndrome and allowed for OTC leave includeParacetamol (trade names - Panadol, Piaron, Efferalgan) and Ibuprofen (trade names - Nurofen, Ibufen, Imet). In addition to lowering the temperature, Paracetamol and Ibuprofen reduce inflammation and remove pain.
If, for some reason, it is impossible to use the above drugs, for example, if the patient has allergies or they do not have the necessary effect, then in this case it is necessary to consult the doctor for correction therapy.
Perhaps the appointment of Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin), Mitamizol sodium (Analgin), other antipyretics or NSAIDs.
There are alternative ways to combat moderate hyperthermia.Their use is especially important in young children, pregnant women and people suffering from liver and stomach diseases.Such methods include:
- Stimulation of sweating and diuresis with the help of warm abundant drink (compotes, fruit drinks, herbal teas). This helps to cleanse the body of toxins and accordingly reduce all manifestations of intoxication.
- Wiping of feet, temples, knee and elbow joints of the patient with alcohol or acetic solution. For cooking, which should take in equal parts vinegar or vodka and water.
- Applying compresses to the forehead of the patient from cold water gauze or cabbage leaf. After heating, the compress should be regularly changed.
When pneumonia is often observed a long subfebrile condition, even after recovery. Such a condition does not require treatment, but may indicate a chronic process.
In order not to miss the relapse of the disease, it is recommended that a month after the end of the inflammation, examine the lung tissue for the presence of foci of infection with the help of a chest X-ray.
Can pneumonia occur without fever: clinical picture
Often the question arises as to whether inflammation of the lungs can occur without temperature? Such asymptomatic pneumonia is much less common than the disease with hyperthermia. Diagnosis of the disease is significantly complicated because of the absence of characteristic symptoms.
If children usually complain of weakness, then the adult patient does not feel sick at all, because the main signs of pneumonia are absent. In such cases, the patient seeks help only after the transition of the disease to a severe stage with the defeat of a large segment of the lungs. The presence of such an atypical course of the disease (lack of temperature) indicates a weakened immunity.
A hidden form of pneumonia can occur:
- in persons taking antitussive drugs;
- against the background of the presence of chronic foci of infection;
- as a result of irrational use of antibiotics.
The clinical picture of pneumonia without temperature is characterized by the following symptoms:
- pale shade of the skin of the patient's face, the presence of fever blush or red spots on the cheeks;
- signs of the defeat of the respiratory system (weak whistling during breathing, shortness of breath at the slightest load, difficulty breathing, rapid pulse);
- various degrees of motor activity of the right and left sides of the chest;
- increased fatigue, sweating, thirst.
To reveal such pneumonia it is possible by means of roentgenography which is made in two projections and other instrumental methods of diagnostics.
The absence of fever is often accepted by the patient as a sign of the lightness of the inflammatory process, but does not make the disease less dangerous. Without proper treatment, such pneumonia can lead to serious complications and death. The basis of therapy is antibacterial drugs prescribed by a doctor, in the form of tablets, syrup or injections..