Symptoms of pneumonia in adults
Pneumonia is an infectious disease. It remains one of the most common in the world. It is the leader among nosocomial infections leading to death. It is important to know the symptoms of pneumonia in adults in order to take timely action. Treatment of pneumonia and the prognosis of the development of the disease depends on the nature of the infection, age and general condition of the patient.
What is pneumonia and how dangerous it is
Inflammation of the lungs in an acute form is called pneumonia. It is caused by infections that can be transmitted in various ways, affecting the lung tissue. In the list of diseases that caused death, she is in fifth place, and medicine does not always help. Lethal outcome among adults from pneumonia is 10-33%. Intrahospital and atypical form of the disease takes even more lives - the risk of dying increases to 50%. In elderly people, people with weakened immunity, the prognosis of pneumonia is often disappointing.
From usual pneumonia, 1-3% of young patients who do not have diseases that die, can die. Among elderly patients, the mortality rate is up to 40-50%. Causes of death from pneumonia:
- Concomitant diseases, such as cardiac pathologies, existing respiratory diseases (such as bronchitis), diabetes mellitus, problems in the genitourinary system;
- bad habits (smoking, especially lengthy experience, drug addiction, alcoholism);
- dysfunctional living conditions;
- weakened immunity.
A special risk of inflammation of the lungs is for pregnant women. The disease itself is heavy due to dangerous pathologies. For a woman who carries a child, she is doubly dangerous - for the future mother and fetus. In early terms, pneumonia is threatened by an embryo, the tissues and organs of which are not yet formed. In the last trimester for a child, pneumonia is less dangerous than for a mother. Prevention is simple: strengthening the immune system of the mother.
The first signs of pneumonia
Symptoms of pneumonia in adults depend on the type of infection that caused the disease. There are several types of pneumonia, and each has its own clinical picture. The provoking factor for the onset of pneumonia is hypothermia affecting the upper respiratory tract. In the elderly, it often goes into a pathological form. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults are several: they are divided into varieties of insidious disease. The common form of pneumonia is viral, occurs in half the cases. Other reasons:
A disease that occurs without symptoms characteristic of pneumonia is called atypical. The latent inflammation of the lungs is dangerous because it is delayed for its treatment, when many complications appear. Pulmonary manifestations fade into the background, the patient is more concerned about general intoxication. The X-ray does not show changes in the airway. Signs of atypical inflammation:
- dry cough;
- sore throat;
- muscle pain;
Aseptic atypical pneumonia is caused by Legionella, viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, therefore, it is treated with antimicrobials. After infection, the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in a period of 2 to 10 days. Changes in the lungs begin later than with a typical pneumonia. The temperature rises, the patient starts to suffocate, he does not have enough air. A large percentage of patients can be cured at home, but sometimes the ailment is difficult. The mortality from this type of disease is 3-5%, the cause is cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
This type of disease is caused by several viruses. In the first place - the flu. At the onset of pneumonia, triggered by the influenza virus, malaise is noticeable during 3-5 days. Then the condition worsens, shortness of breath starts, chest pains appear. Pneumonia is treated with rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir. Viral pneumonia is caused by cytomegalovirus.
Serious complication of viral pneumonia is SARS, respiratory syndrome. It is caused by the viruses of Paramyxoviridae (they are also the cause of measles and mumps). The syndrome poses a great danger. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults with viral pneumonia are:
- very high temperature accompanied by chills;
- dry cough (unproductive);
- headache and muscle pain;
- fatigue without reason.
The cause of pneumonia in this case are bacteria: pneumococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus. Bacterial pneumonia begins with a sharp temperature jump to a mark of 41 degrees. It lasts up to 3 days, and this symptom is considered a clear sign of bacterial infection. If the temperature then falls, then rises - this is a viral picture. Pneumococcal pneumonia is accompanied by the escape of "rusty" sputum, cardiac contractions become more frequent (tachycardia), breathing becomes more difficult. Treat the disease with antibiotics.
The most dangerous variant of pulmonary inflammation is fungal infection. It is due to the fact that fungal pneumonia is not manifested at first, and people do not know that they are sick. The disease is diagnosed late. The onset of the process of inflammation of the lung tissue is like atypical pneumonia, but with the exacerbation of symptoms, the nature of lung damage changes, cavities are formed. A frequent causative agent of such pneumonia is Candida albicans, a fungus. Initially, the patient has catarrhal symptoms: fever, cough, fatigue and shortness of breath. Then, when pussy is pus, then the correct diagnosis is made.
The main symptoms of pneumonia in an adult
The cold, the flu, should not last more than 7 days, if in 4-7 days after the onset of an acute respiratory infection the condition of the patient worsened, this signal starts in the lower respiratory tract of a dangerous inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults include pallor and dyspnea. If they have a cold, they are accompanied by weakness, sweating, decreased appetite - this is typical for intoxication in the beginning of pneumonia.
Temperature with pneumonia
Attypical pneumonia, body temperature is not always greater than 37.5. In the usual cases, a sharp increase to 40 degrees is typical. With pneumonia, antipyretic drugs do not work. If you can not bring down the temperature - it's a sign of pneumonia. The temperature begins to drop when antibiotics work. It is dangerous if the disease runs without temperature: the patients sometimes do not take measures until the condition worsens. How much the temperature lasts depends on the pathogen: a fungus, a bacterium or a virus.
What a cough with pneumonia
At the beginning of the disease, a cough is dry, this is called unproductive. He becomes obtrusive, constant, exhausting. Inflammation develops - this symptom also changes. The sputum departs, the color of which depends on the nature of the infection: yellow-green, purulent, "rusty." Nasal cough, which does not pass for 7-10 days, is a clear sign of the inflammatory process in the lungs.
The doctor can recognize the symptoms of the disease, assessing the patient's jittery response. The patient says words where there are several "p" sounds, and the doctor puts his hands on his chest, and determines the voice trembling. With pneumonia, part of the lung, or it is whole, becomes denser. This will be noticed by the medical doctor who conducts the diagnostics, by the fact that the voice tremor is amplified.
Diagnosis of the disease
If there is a suspicion of an inflammatory process in the lungs, a comprehensive diagnosis is performed. Sometimes already at the primary admission the doctor can determine the disease by conducting an auscultation, that is, having listened to the chest with a phonendoscope. But the main method of diagnosis in an adult is an X-ray. Necessarily the patient will take blood for general and biochemical analysis. If the patient is in the hospital, examine the culture of sputum, urine, check blood for antibodies to viruses.
Types of pneumonia
The mild forms of pneumonia, found in the initial stage, are treated at home. Remember that even mild pneumonia will complicate with improper care. It is necessary to adhere to the doctor's recommendations how to treat pneumonia in the home:
- antipyretic drugs, anti-inflammatory;
- an abundant drink is prescribed;
- an important component of the treatment is a diet: the body is poisoned by toxins, light foods, more fluids are required.
How to treat pneumonia, how long the process will last depends on the severity and variety of the disease. Infection is sometimes found in the lung tissue for years, leading to a chronic illness. Fibers and connective tissues are damaged, they press on the pulmonary vesicles, which leads to hardening of the lungs, pneumosclerosis. The patient feels discomfort, constantly coughs. It is a slow, prolonged illness, which gradually leads to complications.
Conventional pneumonia is divided into mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe in severity, it depends on how the disease proceeds. Severe acute forms include pleuropneumonia, when one or more of the lungs are inflamed. There is pneumonia in the localization:
- Focal (concentrated in the focus of inflammation);
- segmental or polysegmentary, depending on whether one or more segments are located;
- share - does not exceed one share;
- total - covers all the lungs.
One-sided and two-sided
The inflammatory process is concentrated either on one side or it is bilateral. Unilateral pneumonia is divided into two types:
- Right-sided - occurs more often, the right bronchus is wider than the left and shorter than it, the infection penetrates there freer.
- Left-sided - develops less often, with it there are stagnant processes in the lung.
Two-sided covers both lungs: all lung tissue becomes inflamed, and the disease is provoked by bacteria (pneumococcus, hemophilic rod). Against the background of one infection, other harmful microorganisms are multiplied, mixed-infection develops. In the fight against a person enter several pathogens, to select antibacterial drugs for treatment is difficult.
The focus of inflammation, located along the root of the lung, is difficult to diagnose. Such cases are called basal pneumonia. In the diagnosis of computed tomography. The doctor should exclude tuberculosis and lung cancer, the focus of inflammation is similar to a picture on a tumor. Tuberculin tests are carried out. If you mistakenly prescribe drugs against tuberculosis, but they do not give an effect - this is considered a diagnostic sign.
Bronchial pneumonia characterizes the lesion of small branches of the bronchial tree of the patient. Bronchopneumonia refers to focal. The process of recovery will take a long time. Sometimes the disease is secondary, develops against the background of bronchitis. A person tries to cure bronchitis, that is prolonged, the condition worsens, weakness appears, temperature jumps. The cough that accompanies bronchitis intensifies, unpleasant purulent sputum is separated, at times - with veins of blood.
Important symptoms of this disease: shortness of breath, increased heart rate to 110 strokes for a minute, chest pain. To the development of bronchopneumonia leads not only bronchitis, but also ARVI. Often this type of pneumonia and viruses cause this kind of pneumonia, in order to treat the disease correctly, establish a pathogen, prescribe antiviral drugs or antibacterial. How much the disease is treated depends on the type of pathogen.
In addition to community-acquired pneumonia, which develops under normal conditions, there is a serious form of illness - hospital, it is also hospital-acquired. The diagnosis is made when the inflammation appears after two days and more after placing a person in a hospital clinic with a completely different diagnosis. This is the most ruthless species, killing 50% of patients. The disease is caused by microorganisms. Types of nosocomial pneumonia:
- associated with artificial ventilation;
- Hospital-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized in serious condition.
Immunity of patients is weakened, the body struggled with another disease, was not ready to invade new microbes. To save the situation, patients are placed with droppers, use intravenous nutrition to maintain the vital forces of the body, use drugs of a new generation, potent drugs. Cure nosocomial pneumonia can not always. Treatment of pneumonia in this case is excluded.
Fracture pneumonia affects the lobe of the lung and the pleura. With this type of pneumonia, it is important to schedule injections of antibiotics, the duration of which is determined by the doctor. Applied physiotherapy, detoxification. Partial pneumonia begins suddenly and sharply. There are three forms of the disease:
- Upper-lobar - it is difficult, with neurological disorders;
- lower-lobed - gives a pseudo-picture of the "acute abdomen", which confuses during diagnosis, chills and "rusty" sputum are characteristic;
- central - inflammation develops deep in the lung, symptomatology is poorly defined, difficult to define.
Croupous pneumonia proceeds acutely. The nature of the defeat of the lungs is bilateral. If the pathology is not recognized and the treatment is not started quickly, the patient will die from cerebral hypoxia and cardiovascular insufficiency. The first day the patient has a dry cough. The next day, sputum is rusty, vomiting occurs. On the third day, it becomes worse, dyspnea appears, tachycardia develops. The patient is not able to climb to one floor. Treat croupous pneumonia in pulmonology, in a hospital or resuscitation. Pulmonary lobes of the patient are totally affected on both sides.
Video: types and symptoms of pneumonia
Pneumonia is a dangerous disease, it is important to determine it in the early stages, when the treatment is effective even with folk remedies at home. In the video offered below, experts will tell in detail about the symptoms of pneumonia, teach what to look for if pneumonia occurs without the typical symptoms. Timely detection will avoid irreversible consequences.
Symptoms of pneumonia in an adult
Pneumonia (pneumonia) is a very serious disease, ignoring its signs in any case impossible, because the consequences can be unpredictable. Doctors still can not accurately answer the question of why infection in some people stops in the upper respiratory tract, while in others it moves deeper and attacks the lungs. But one expert can state with full confidence - pneumonia develops only when the immunity is already weakened by some other disease.Symptoms of pneumonia in an adult appear somewhat differently than in a child. In general, they depend on the severity of the disease and on the type of infectious agent that caused them.
Causes and Symptoms of Pneumonia
In an adult, pneumococcus is the most common disease. Having penetrated into the bronchi and the alveoli, they generate an inflammatory process there. When the fluid component enters the alveoli from the walls of the vessels, the respiratory difficulty appears in the diseased person. Against this background, the body develops oxygen starvation, because the affected part of the lung becomes dysfunctional. To strengthen the influx to the tissues of the blood, the heart begins to actively contract. All these processes lead to the appearance of the first symptoms of pneumonia in an adult: a sharp rise in temperature, chest pain, a cough with a separation of reddish sputum.In the case when the inflammatory process is caused by other infectious agents: mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia - the symptomatology will be similar, but this inflammation proceeds somewhat easier. So, the symptoms of pneumonia in an adult person in the case when it is stimulated by mycoplasmas will show up in a chill, sore throat, runny nose (optional), fever, shortness of breath, leading to chest pain. If the development of the disease occurred as a result of the effects of chlamydia, the first signs of a disease will be similar to those that occur with colds: dry cough, sore throat, runny nose, temperature increase. If the pathogen is Legionella, the symptoms, other than those listed above, will be supplemented by loss of appetite, diarrhea.
Common Symptoms of Pneumonia
Regardless of the type of pathogen, the first signs of the disease are most often the same. This is an obsessive dry cough, over time moisturizing, an increase in temperature (it can vary between 37-40 degrees). In severe pneumonia, the skin becomes a pronounced bluish tinge, breathing becomes quicker.Such symptoms are completely nonspecific, so even doctors sometimes confuse the disease with ARVI. And only when the temperature reaches high values, dyspnea appears, leukocytosis is noted, pneumonia is diagnosed. To confirm suspicions, carry out radiography.
How to treat pneumonia in adults
Ill be hospitalized. He is assigned bed rest, frequent intake of warm liquids, high-calorie meals. The main method of treatment - antibacterial therapy (the drug is selected for each patient individually, depending on many features). If necessary, it can be supplemented by the use of immunostimulants, expectorants, antihistamines, etc. In the case of delayed treatment, complications of pneumonia in adults can lead to death.
Inflammation: symptoms in adults and children
- Croupous inflammation
- Chlamydial inflammation
Among the most dangerous diseases of the respiratory system in the first place is pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs occurs in people regardless of age and can cause serious disruption to the body and even death.
Pneumonia is classified according to a number of signs:
According to the etiological sign, the disease occurs:
According to clinical and morphological manifestations, the disease can be:
In the course of the disease, pneumonia is distinguished as:
- acute prolonged;
In the spread of the inflammatory process, pneumonia happens:
Inflammation of the lungs in adults occurs by infection of the alveoli and bronchial epithelium.The development of the disease occurs within 2 - 3 days, after which there are symptoms on which it is possible to diagnose pneumonia.
The disease often occurs against the background of a weakening of the defenses of the body.
This can contribute to the following factors: hormonal changes in the body, frequent colds, malnutrition, constant intoxication.
Symptoms of pneumonia in adults are almost always similar to the appearance of a cold or flu.
If the high body temperature lasts more than 5 days and does not decrease with the use of paracetamol, you can suspect the presence of pneumonia.
The main manifestations of pneumonia are:
- increased body temperature;
- cough, at first the disease is dry, with development - with abundant phlegm;
- increased fatigue, weakness;
- fear caused by lack of air;
- pain in the chest.
Depending on the type of pathogen, the symptoms of pneumonia are acute or occasionally. It is very important to determine the presence of a serious disease on time, and begin treatment. It is not always the usual examination of a doctor can reveal pneumonia. To clarify the diagnosis, you need an additional examination in a medical facility.
It is especially difficult to determine the latent or chronic form of pneumonia. And yet an experienced doctor can diagnose it according to the following symptoms:
- the appearance of a patchy blush on the cheeks;
- sweat on the forehead with a slight load;
- constant thirst;
- the occurrence of pain in the chest when turning the body;
- painful sensations with deep breath;
- uneven, intermittent breathing;
- frequent pulse.
Inflammation of the lungs in adults and children varies in risk factors. The disease develops for the following reasons:
- weakened immune system;
- alcohol abuse;
- diseases of the bronchopulmonary system;
- frequent colds;
- poor-quality food;
- general anesthesia during surgical interventions;
- endocrine diseases;
- heart failure;
- old age;
- forced prolonged immobility.
- supercooling or overheating;
- frequent acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis and other diseases of the respiratory system;
- birth trauma;
- Congenital heart defect;
- hereditary immunodeficiency;
- chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx.
In children and adults, the symptoms of pneumonia also have differences. In a child, they are usually the least pronounced.
- If for an adult a high body temperature is a frequent symptom, then in children, pneumonia is not necessarily accompanied by fever. Sometimes children endure this disease, as they say, "on their feet."
- With the development of pneumonia caused by streptococcal infection, children do not develop fibrin in the cavities of the alveoli. Thanks to this, after recovery, breathing is fully restored.
- Symptoms of pneumonia in children are often similar to those that appear at the initial stage of bronchitis: dry cough, hoarseness.
- A loose stool, a lack of appetite, a frequent cough, a blue around the mouth against a catarrhal disease or inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx - a good reason for examining the child for pneumonia.
- Cough is the main symptom of the disease in both children and adults.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia in adults: symptoms of croupous inflammationPathogens - streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, Klebsiella. The inflammatory process occurs both in the whole lobe of the lung, so in its segments. The onset of the disease is acute: high fever, chills.
The development of the disease occurs in four stages.
- Stage of the tide. There is a sharp hyperemia of the lung tissue and the patency of the capillaries in the affected areas is impaired.
- Stage of red curing. The number of leukocytes in the alveoli increases. The affected lung becomes denser.
- The stage of gray curing. In the lumens of the alveoli, a large amount of fibrin accumulates, which complicates the process of gas exchange in the lungs.
- The resolution stage. Degraded infiltrate in the alveoli.
Symptoms of croupous pneumonia:
- increase in body temperature up to 40 Celsius;
- confusion of consciousness;
- Rusty sputum;
- pain in the chest.
Symptoms of viral pneumonia in adults
It develops against the background of viral infectious diseases. Pathogens - influenza viruses, parainfluenza, measles, chicken pox, adenovirus. Symptoms are similar to the manifestation of colds:
- high body temperature;
- severe headache;
- shortness of breath;
- pain in the chest;
- nausea, vomiting;
- pain in the muscles;
Possible bloody discharge or pus in sputum.
Symptoms of radical inflammation of the lungs in adults
Pathogens - staphylococcus, pneumococcus, hemophilic rod. The peculiarity of the ailment lies in the fact that it is difficult to diagnose. The disease has 2 forms: tumorous - proceeds imperceptibly and slowly; inflammatory - manifests itself quickly.
The main symptoms are:
- sore throat;
- increased body temperature;
- an increase in leukocytes in the blood.
For the diagnosis of this type of pneumonia, an X-ray scan is required.
Symptoms of Chlamydial Inflammation of the Lung in Adults
The causative agent is chlamydia. Most often affect the genitourinary system of the body of men and women. Chlamydia pneumonia is atypical and occurs mainly in children. In adults, it can develop against a background of reduced immunity. It is similar in appearance to an ordinary cold.
The main symptoms are:
- the temperature rises to 37.5 - 38 Celsius;
- a sharp sharp cough;
- strong weakness;
- a hoarse voice;
- can develop into bronchitis.
Symptoms of fungal inflammation of the lungs in adults
The disease was provoked by fungal infections: candidomycosis, blastomycosis, streptotrichosis, actinomycosis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis. The most dangerous pneumonia, as it is very difficult to diagnose. The patient may not even suspect the presence of fungal inflammation of the lungs. Fungi damage the lung tissue, forming cavities in it.
The main symptoms are:
- fast fatiguability;
- presence of pus in sputum;
- muscle pain.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia in older adults?
- there is no acute onset of the disease;
- the temperature is raised slightly;
- drowsiness, weakness, apathy;
- significant shortness of breath;
- a blush on one cheek;
- painful sensations in the chest during breathing.
The development of pneumonia in this category of persons can be accompanied by concomitant diseases:
- emphysema of the lungs;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Especially dangerous is the development of pneumonia in acute vascular insufficiency. In this case, emergency care is needed, since there is a possibility of septic shock and pulmonary edema.
Inflammation of the lungs in people with alcohol dependence
People who are prone to excessive drinking alcoholic inflammation is particularly difficult.This is due to strong intoxication of the body. Possible manifestation of various psychoses:
- visual and auditory hallucinations;
- disorientation in space and time;
- excessive overexcitation;
- inadequate behavior.
Chronic form of pneumonia occurs if the disease is treated in an untimely and inappropriate manner. It is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- a cough with purulent discharge;
- deformation of the chest;
- hard breathing;
- inflammation of the nasopharynx and mouth;
- changes in blood composition;
- decreased immunity;
- intoxication of the body.
Treatment of pneumonia in adults
In most cases of pneumonia, the doctor diagnoses on the basis of the clinical picture of the patient's illness and the X-ray.
In some cases, we can talk about the etiology of the disease before carrying out the relevant bacteriological studies.
Depending on what kind of pneumonia, symptoms and treatment in adults differ.
The main component of the treatment are drugs aimed at fighting the pathogen. The remaining drugs are aimed at removing the symptoms of pneumonia.
If not severe pneumonia in adults, in-patient treatment is provided. It consists of the following measures:
- taking medications that dilate the bronchi for sputum discharge;
- reception of antibiotics, antiviral drugs for fighting the pathogen of pneumonia;
- the passage of a course of physiotherapy;
- performance of exercise therapy;
- compliance with diet, abundant drink.
In severe cases, the patient is shown hospitalization.
Medication for inflammation of the lungs in adults includes the following drugs to kill infection and relieve symptoms:
For the treatment of infection:
- penicillins: amoxiclav, ampicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin;
- aminoglycosides: gentamycin, kanamycin;
- Lincosamides: clindamycin, lincomycin;
- macrolides: sumamed, clarithromycin;
- carbapenems: thienes, meronem.
- corticosteroids - to relieve inflammation;
- mucolytics - for sputum expectoration;
- antipyretics - to reduce temperature;
- bronchodilators (list of drugs) - for cough and breathing;
- antihistamines - to relieve allergies;
- drugs that remove intoxication;
- vitamins - to strengthen the body and improve immunity.
Concomitant treatment of pneumonia in adults includes the following procedures:
- paraffin therapy;
Known in Russia, Dr. Komarovsky believes that along with antibiotics and cough tablets, physiotherapy procedures for the treatment of pneumonia are no less important. During the exacerbation, the patient needs to take medication and adhere to bed rest.And after the state of health improves, the result of treatment should be fixed by various auxiliary procedures.
For the treatment of pneumonia, folk remedies are widely used. Healing plants, fruits and roots are recommended for making beverages, inhalations, compresses. Many recipes of traditional medicine can be found on forums in the topics of discussion of the treatment of pneumonia.
Emergency care for pneumonia in adults includes the following activities:
- oxygen therapy - with severe respiratory failure;
- injections of non-narcotic analgesics - with severe pleural pain;
- anti-shock therapy - with toxic shock;
- psychotropic drugs - in case of mental disorders in people with alcohol dependence;
- detoxication therapy - with severe intoxication.
Inadequate treatment of pneumonia can cause the following complications:
- destruction of lung tissue;
- obstruction of the bronchial tree;
- acute heart failure;
- the spread of infection through the bloodstream (sepsis);
- pulmonary edema;
- septic shock.
Prevention of pneumonia in adults:
- strengthening immunity;
- hardening of the body;
- timely treatment of colds;
- timely treatment of caries;
- to give up smoking;
- frequent wet cleaning and airing of the room;
- avoidance of hypothermia.
Signs of bacterial pneumonia in an adult
- Bacterial pneumonia
- Viral pneumonia
The disease of pneumonia or pneumonia is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms.
This inflammation causes fluid to flow into the infected part of the lungs, affecting one or both of the lungs.
Inflow of blood to the infected part of the lung (or lungs) decreases, which means that the oxygen level in the blood can decrease.
This decline is likely to occur in the elderly or malnourished people. During illness, the body tries to maintain blood flow to vital organs and reduce blood flow to other parts of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract.
Causes of pneumonia in adults:
- Bacterial pneumonia: this type of pneumonia usually begins after a flu, cold, or upper respiratory tract infection. Decreased immunity allows bacteria to multiply in the lungs, causing disease. There are many different bacteria that can cause inflammation of the lung tissue. The most common pathogen is pneumococcus. Microorganisms can spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes or touches objects with unwashed hands. Bacterial pneumonia can be a more serious disease than viral pneumonia.
- Viral pneumonia. A variety of different viruses can cause viral pneumonia. Among them: influenza, chicken pox and respiratory syncytial virus. Viruses can be transmitted between people through coughing, sneezing or touching something that has been in contact with the liquid of the infected person.
- Fungal pneumonia. It is most often caused by fungi from the environment.
- Pneumonia of mycoplasma. Mycoplasma organisms invisible to the eye easily spread, especially in places of large concentrations of people (such as offices or schools). This type of pneumonia, as a rule, quickly passes.
- Pneumocystis pneumonia. Caused by a yeast-like fungus, which is usually found in the lungs, without creating problems for the "master", but can grow and lead to pneumonia in people whose immune system is weak (for example, because of AIDS, organ transplant, cancer, or chemotherapy).
- Aspiration pneumonia. Occurs when the contents of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx are inhaled into the respiratory tract.
- Legionnaires' disease. It is caused by a bacterium legionella, which lives in water. Disease Legionnaires can spread through contaminated plumbing, shower or air conditioning.
Signs of pneumonia in an adult with bacterial pneumonia
Doctors often divide bacterial pneumonia into a typical and atypical, based on the signs and symptoms of the disease.
A typical pneumonia occurs very quickly.
- Typical pneumonia usually leads to severe fever and chills.
- At the patient at cough sputum of yellow or brown color is allocated.
- There can be a pain in the chest, which, as a rule, increases with deep breathing or coughing. The chest can hurt when it is touched or pressed. Chest pain can be a sign of other serious illnesses, so do not try to diagnose inflammation of your lungs yourself.
- A typical pneumonia can cause dyspnea, especially if a person has any chronic lung disease, such as asthma or emphysema.
- Elderly people may suffer from confusion or mental impairment during pneumonia or other infections.
Atypical pneumonia begins gradually.
- Sometimes another illness begins several days or weeks before pneumonia.
- Fever is usually weak, and chills are less likely than in the case of typical pneumonia.
- The patient can complain to the doctor about a headache, body aches, and joint pain.
- Cough can be dry or with it a small amount of sputum is released.v
- Chest pain is often absent.
- There may be abdominal pain.
- There is a feeling of fatigue or weakness.
Bacterial pneumonia, like the virus, is contagious.
When to seek medical help?
- If the patient has a fever and cough with yellow, green or brown sputum, he should visit a doctor.
When to call an ambulance for pneumonia?
- If the patient has shortness of breath. This sign of lung inflammation in an adult as a breathlessness is not just a feeling that a person can not take a full breath. Shortness of breath means that the patient can not dial into the lungs enough air to meet the needs of the body. This is a potentially serious symptom and he always requires a visit to the emergency room.
- If the temperature rises above 39 ° C or falls below 35 ° C.
- If the pulse is equal to or greater than 125 beats per minute at rest.
- If the respiratory rate is more than 30 breaths per minute at rest.
- If a systolic blood pressure drop below 90 mm Hg occurred, resulting in dizziness, blockage, or fainting.
- If there is pain in the chest or confusion.
Risk factors for the development of pneumonia:
- a chronic health problem, such as diabetes;
- alcoholism or drug addiction;
- cardiac ischemia;
- a weak immune system, for example, due to the use of steroids or the use of drugs to suppress immunity (people with transplanted organs take such drugs);
- sick or damaged lungs due to asthma or emphysema;
- very young or very old age (over 65 years);
- life in a nursing home;
- problems with vomiting reflex (frequent suffocation or difficulty swallowing);
- a surgery to remove the spleen.
Complications that may occur from pneumonia include:
- Bacteremia: the infection penetrates into the bloodstream and can spread to various organs.
- Pleurisy and empyema: with pleurisy occurs an inflammation of the membrane, which covers the lungs (pleura). The empyema occurs when the fluid in the lungs that causes inflammation becomes infected.
- Lung abscess: cavities (or one cavity) filled with pus may appear in the infected area of the lungs.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome: when the lungs are severely damaged due to pneumonia, respiratory arrest may occur.
The first signs of viral pneumonia in adults: how to recognize viral inflammation
Viral pneumonia usually occurs in young children and the elderly. This is because the body of a young or elderly person is harder to fight the virus than an adult human body with a strong immune system.
In healthy adults, pneumonia usually proceeds easily. In contrast, elderly people and those with weakened immunity often develop severe viral pneumonia. Patients aged 65 years and over are at risk of dying from viral pneumonia, as well as from influenza not complicated by pneumonia.Viral pneumonia is most often caused by one of several viruses:
- Paragrippus. Parainfluenza virus is the second most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and pneumonia and bronchitis in children under 6 months of age.
- Respiratory syncytial virus. This is the most common cause of lower respiratory infection in infants and children, and the second most common viral cause of pneumonia in adults. The first is influenza viruses.
Swine influenza (H1N1) was associated with an outbreak of pneumonia in 2009. The first reports came from Mexico, where there was a very high mortality from this disease. Many cases were also recorded in the US Nevertheless, early detection and treatment helped to significantly reduce the death rate from viral pneumonia.
Serious viral pneumonia is most likely to occur in:
- Premature babies.
- Children with heart and lung diseases.
- People infected with HIV.
- People undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or taking drugs that weaken the immune system.
- People who underwent organ transplantation.
The first signs of pneumonia in adults with viral infection
Symptoms and signs of viral pneumonia often develop slowly and at first appear harmless, whereas in bacterial The pneumonia is developing very quickly and the patients are turning to the doctor for several days.
The most common signs are:
- Subfebrile temperature (less than 38.8 ° C).
- Cough with a little mucus.
- Muscle pain.
- Blue nails (due to lack of oxygen in the blood).
- Nausea and vomiting.
During a physical examination, the following signs of pneumonia can be observed in a patient:
- Tachypnea (rapid breathing).
- Tachycardia or bradycardia.
- The wheezing in the lungs.
- Breast or intercostal retraction (internal muscle movements between the ribs).
- Decreased breathing sounds.
- Cyanosis (blue skin).
- Rashes on the skin.
- Acute respiratory distress (a dangerous violation of pulmonary function, respiratory failure).
When to seek medical help?
You should see your doctor if any of the following symptoms appear:
- Persistent cough.
- Dyspnoea in motion, or at rest.
- Severe chest pain.
- Severe weakness.
- Coughing with blood.
- Vomiting is so strong or frequent that dehydration has occurred.
- Impossibility to eat and drink fluids.
How to recognize pneumonia in adultsPhysical examination is necessary for the diagnosis of pneumonia. It can also help to determine how serious the disease is, and what can be its cause.
The doctor will listen to the heart, lungs and chest of the patient through a stethoscope.
It will also consider vital signs such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate.
Information collected during a physical examination can help a doctor determine if pneumonia is mild or severe.
- A chest X-ray may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of "pneumonia". Many people with mild pneumonia symptoms are prescribed effective treatment without radiography. Nevertheless, patients with moderate and severe pneumonia often receive a chest x-ray to determine the extent of the disease and identify complications of the disease, such as pus in the lungs.
- Laboratory tests are sometimes required to diagnose pneumonia. Laboratory tests can help a doctor find out what caused pneumonia and how the patient's body tolerates the disease.
- The most common laboratory tests include: measuring the number and type of white blood cells in the blood, and the use of a sputum sample to help identify possible pathogens of infection. People with difficulty breathing can undergo pulse oximetry (a test that allows you to assess the oxygen saturation and heart rate).
The patient should inform the doctor about any illnesses that he has, including a violation of the vomiting reflex, about the use of alcohol or intravenous drugs, smoking and the recent stay in the hospital. You also need to tell the doctor about a recent episode of a viral infection or flu-like symptoms.
What should I do with the first signs of pneumonia in adults?
- Do not smoke and do not allow others to smoke near the patient. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can lead to lung damage. Talk with your doctor before using electronic cigarettes and other drugs to help stop smoking.
- Have more rest.
- Use a household air humidifier. The patient is able to clear more sputum, if breathing with moist air.
- Drink fluids to help prevent dehydration when vomiting. In addition, the liquid helps to thinning the mucus, so it leaves the body more easily.
- Deep breathing and coughing. Deep breathing helps open the airways to the lungs. Cough helps to "drive out" mucus from the lungs. You need to take a deep breath and hold your breath for as long as you can. Then exhale the air and cough hard. Do 10 deep breaths in a row every hour from the moment you wake up.