What is catarrhal bilateral sinusitis
Not many people have an idea of what is catarrhal bilateral sinusitis and why it occurs. The pathology of the upper respiratory tract is very common. Often inflamed paranasal sinuses. They are also called the paranasal sinuses.
There are 4 varieties of these anatomical formations:
- paired maxillary sinuses;
- wedge shaped.
Most often, otorhinolaryngologists find inflammation of the maxillary sinuses. In this situation, it is a matter of sinusitis. The inner surface of the maxillary sinuses is lined with ciliated epithelium. In its thickness, there are many special cells capable of producing mucus. The maxillary sinuses perform a number of important functions. They participate in the amplification of voice resonance, warm the incoming air masses, participate in the distribution of weight in the skull. What is the etiology, clinic and treatment of bilateral sinusitis?
Features of catarrhal sinusitisSinusitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the maxillary sinus of the nose.
- allergic nature.
Separately, it is necessary to isolate the genyantritis that has arisen against the background of the use of medications. Catarrhal sinusitis can occur in both children and adults. The highest incidence rate is observed in the autumn-winter period. It is important that bilateral inflammation occurs much less frequently than one-sided inflammation.
The development of catarrhal bilateral sinusitis is due to several reasons. The most important factors are:
- frequent colds;
- inadequate or untimely treatment of influenza, ARVI;
- decreased immunity;
- allergic reactions (polynoses);
- curvature of the septum of the nose;
- the presence of polyps in the nasal passages;
- congenital pathology of the development of the maxillary sinuses;
- the presence of acute or chronic rhinitis;
- traumatic injury to the face.
Important importance is the focus of chronic inflammation (adenoiditis, pharyngitis). As for the infectious agent itself, it can be bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci), viruses, microscopic fungi. Catarrhal sinusitis can be non-infectious. In this case, it provokes an allergic reaction, taking medications. Most often, inflammation and swelling of the sinus mucosa develop in childhood. In this situation, it is an acute form of inflammation. In the absence of treatment, acute sinusitis easily passes into a chronic, which is much more difficult to cure. Often the infectious agent penetrates into the maxillary sinuses through the blood. The most common cause of catarrhal sinusitis is the pathology of the upper teeth.
Bilateral sinusitis has many symptoms. At the heart of their appearance is local mucosal edema and excess mucus production. The latter is produced by goblet cells. Normally, a healthy person develops mucus a little, and it goes through special ducts. With bilateral sinus sinus, the ducts are clogged. A similar condition can cause a secondary infection, suppuration. The most common symptoms of bilateral sinusitis are:
- severity in the region of the maxillary sinuses;
- mucous discharge from the nasal cavity;
- increased body temperature (with acute inflammation);
- soreness in palpation;
- nasal congestion;
- impaired sense of smell;
It is known that the maxillary sinuses are located on the side of the nasal septum at eye level. With bilateral catarrhal sinusitis, reddening of this area and eyelids can sometimes be observed. Some patients develop lacrimation. Acute inflammation develops suddenly. First there is a feeling of discomfort in the nasal area, then a pain syndrome. The pain intensifies in the evening. In the beginning, the pain is localized in one area. As the disease develops, the pain is determined throughout the head. Children may feel weak.
Due to the accumulation of serous or mucous secretions, breathing through the nose is disturbed. With catarrh of the genyantritis, the secret secret is liquid and transparent. If a putrefactive microflora is attached, it acquires a greenish color and a thick consistency. In this situation, there can be an unpleasant smell. Additional symptoms of the disease include sneezing, sore throat. The temperature can rise to 38 degrees or more. It happens in acute maxillary sinusitis. Catarrhal sinusitis is dangerous for its possible complications. They include the attachment of purulent infection, the formation of abscesses in the brain, inflammation of the meninges (meningitis), thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, purulent tissue melting.
Diagnostic measuresTo begin treatment, the doctor must make a correct diagnosis. Diagnosis of catarrhal sinusitis includes a detailed conversation with the patient, examination of the nasal mucosa and the entire face, laboratory and instrumental examination. Inspection should start from the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Often, this determines the soreness. The doctor assesses the mobility of soft tissues and their consistency. Rhinoscopy is mandatory. With an acute form of catarrhal sinus, reddening and swelling of the mucosa in the middle nasal passage is revealed. Additional methods of examining the nasal cavity include diaphanoscopy. This method is based on the transmission of maxillary sinuses. The patient has a darkening.
The final diagnosis is made based on the results of the X-ray study. An alternative option is the use of MRI, CT, ultrasound. With bilateral sinus, the sinus transparency is compared with that in the eye sockets. Computed tomography is indicated in case of traumatic injuries of the facial part of the skull, severe degree of sinusitis. This diagnostic method can not be used for pregnant women. Puncture is used to determine the type of pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics. Manipulation is performed under local anesthesia.
Tactics of treatment
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis has the following objectives:
- the elimination of infection;
- recovery of outflow of mucous secretions;
- elimination of the main symptoms of the disease;
- prevention of complications.
Treatment is often conservative.
Treatment involves drainage of the sinus sinus cavity, administration of antibiotics, the use of various vasoconstrictors (drops, sprays), sinus heating, physiotherapeutic Events.
Treatment is carried out only after consulting a doctor. With catarrhal inflammation, the secret is liquid, therefore surgical drainage may not be used. As antibacterial agents in the bacterial form of the disease, cephalosporins, semi-synthetic and protected penicillins, macrolides are used.
The best therapeutic effect is possessed by "Levofloxacin "Amoxicillin "Amoxiclav "Cefuroxime". Antibiotics are not always used. It is not appropriate to prescribe them for viral etiology of the disease. In this situation, therapy involves the use of steroids, mucolytics. To eliminate the main symptoms of the disease, humidification of the air, normalization of nutrition, elimination of the effects of allergens are carried out. In severe pain syndrome, drugs from the NSAID group are used. Local treatment involves washing the nose with solutions of antiseptics (Furacillin, sodium hypochlorite). In the allergic form of sinusitis, antihistamines are indicated. Thus, sinusitis should be treated timely and thoroughly.
Catarrhal sinusitis: varieties, causes and main symptoms
Most people at least once in their life faced such an unpleasant disease as sinusitis.
Sinusitis is called inflammatory diseases affecting the sinuses of the paranasal sinuses.
Diseases of the paranasal sinuses caused by a viral infection are called catarrhal sinusitis.
Catarrhal sinusitis is usually divided into localization of the pathological process into the following categories:
- Catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis(affects the maxillary or maxillary sinuses);
- Catarrhal frontal(inflammation of the frontal paranasal sinuses);
- Catarrhal ethmoiditis(affects the mucosa located in the trellis bone);
- Catarrhal sphenoiditis(inflammation of the sphenoid sinus);
At the same time, catarrhal sinusitis can be either unilateral or bilateral, involving several paranasal sinuses at once into the pathological process.
In this article, we will dwell on catarrhal sinusitis, symptoms of sinusitis in adults, treatment, the causes of its occurrence and prevention.
What is catarrhal sinusitis?It is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses, accompanied by swelling, redness, and an increase in mucous secretions. At the same time, the discharge is not of a purulent nature. The name of this disease is formed from the outdated term "Qatar which means the inflammatory process of the upper respiratory tract.
This type of catarrhal sinusitis is considered the easiest to treat. However, in particularly difficult cases of this disease, without timely treatment, inflammation can spread to the periosteum or even bone. That is why it is so important that the patient comply with all the recommendations prescribed to him by the attending physician-otolaryngologist.
Why develop catarrhal sinusitis?
The prerequisites for the development of catarrhal sinusitis are usually the following:
- Not treated on time ARVI.
- Prolonged rhinitis.
- Injuries of soft tissues and bones of the nose and upper jaw.
- Curvature of the septum of the nose, congenital or resulting from trauma.
Symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis
Symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis are not so pronounced that the diagnosis can be put to yourself at home. Nevertheless, below we list the symptoms, finding that you need to seek advice from a qualified otolaryngologist:
- elevated temperature (from 3, degrees Celsius);
- unpleasant sensations in the region of the maxillary sinuses;
- severe nasal congestion;
- swelling of the eyelids and face;
- decreased performance, lethargy.
Methods of treatment of catarrhal sinusitisTo start treatment of catarrhal sinusitis is necessary only after the diagnosis is specified, since there is a huge number of similar diseases.
Most often, with catarrhal sinusitis, medication or physiotherapy is prescribed.
The methods of treatment of catarrhal sinusitis, as a rule, are aimed at freeing the nasal canals from mucous secretions and reducing puffiness.
It should be noted that the use of antibiotics is not used to treat viral sinusitis, since they do not affect the virulent infection and do not alleviate the acute symptoms disease. In this case, it is advisable to follow an active wait-and-see tactics until there is a suspicion of joining a bacterial infection or a risk of developing serious complications.
In any case, treatment with antibiotics should be prescribed exclusively by the attending physician-otolaryngologist, based on results of a laboratory study of the biomaterial from the paranasal sinuses or in the case of complications.
It is important to know
In no case can not arbitrarily decide on the treatment of antibacterial drugs in catarrhal sinusitis! Failure to comply with this rule can lead to serious consequences, such as the emergence of resistant strains of the disease and the development of superinfection.
To improve drainage and air permeability in the paranasal sinuses, patients suffering from catarrhal sinusitis are advised to perform a systematic daily nasal wash. In the case of bilateral catarrhal sinusitis, it is recommended to perform alternate irrigation treatment, in which one half of the nose is washed first, and then the other.
To eliminate edematous processes with catarrhal sinusitis, vasoconstrictive agents of local or systemic influences are used.
In the event that painful symptoms in catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis are pronounced and significantly affect the quality of life of the patient, it is advisable to use analgesics. Pain management is recommended for use with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, Ibuprofen and Paracetamol. The most optimal one can be considered the reception of pain medications no more than twice a day, lasting three to four days.
Treatment of sinusitis should be approached with seriousness. At the first symptoms of this disease it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Manifestations of catarrhal sinusitis and its treatment
The paranasal sinuses of a person have special holes through which slime is excreted. Mucous membranes of the sinuses can swell, and catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis occurs. This disease has an inflammatory character.
In the normal state, the maxillary sinuses should be filled with air. Their main functions are as follows:
- to form nasal breathing;
- form a resonance in the formation of the voice;
- to form an olfaction.
The sinusitis is classified as follows:
1. According to the duration of the disease:
2. By the nature of inflammation:
Appearance of sinusitisThe following factors predispose to the development of the disease: vasomotor rhinitis, adenoids, curvature of the septum of the nose, hypertrophy of the nasal apertures, caries, chronic tonsillitis.
Under the influence of infection, swelling of the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinuses occurs. They are located between the eyeballs and teeth. Shells thicken, the volume of mucus released increases. Her outflow is hampered, catarrhal sinusitis begins to develop. It is caused only by the presence of viruses.
If you do not start treatment, then bacteria will join. In the sinuses will begin the formation of pus. Genyantritis will go to the stage of purulent disease. Improper treatment will lead to the recurrence of the disease. Over time, it will become chronic.
Diagnosis of genyantritisDiagnosis is established in the clinic on the basis of laboratory-instrumental studies.The main method is the x-ray of the maxillary sinuses of the nose.The doctor sees the changes taking place in the sinuses that point to the sinusitis. This allows you to quickly eliminate the onset of a purulent flow. Computed tomography is also performed for this purpose.
An effective method of establishing a diagnosis is an endoscopic examination of the sinuses. In advanced cases, a puncture of the maxillary sinuses is performed. The resulting pus is subjected to bacteriological examination, the cause of the disease is established.
A general blood test can detect only inflammatory changes in bacterial sinusitis when symptoms of body intoxication are expressed (weakness, headache, lack of appetite).
Treatment of the disease
Methods of treating sinusitis depend on the cause of the disease. Catarrhal sinus is more likely to develop on the background of respiratory diseases, but it also has the following reasons:
- anatomical pathology of nasal cavity structure;
- curvature of the septum of the nose, widening of the inferior concha;
- weakened immunity;
- inflammation in the background of allergies.
Inflamed can one sinus or both. In this case, the treatment will be longer.
Acute catarrhal sinusitis has significant signs. Intensive pain, high body temperature, impaired well-being always accompany this disease. The acute form is accompanied by abundant mucous discharge from the nose. They can be transparent or greenish in color, but always with an unpleasant odor.
The treatment consists in removing the edema of the mucous membranes of the nose and restoring air passages through the nasal passages. Assign: antihistamine and vasoconstrictive drugs, antipyretic drugs and immunomodulators. Antibiotics patient will receive a bacterial infection, antiviral drugs are prescribed for a viral infection.Sinus catheters are used to drain sinuses. A puncture can be performed to administer antibiotics.
Physiotherapeutic procedures are highly effective:
- UFO (ultraviolet irradiation).
It happens that the patient can be helped only with the help of surgical intervention. Surgeons perform a sinus puncture using a special needle. In some (neglected) cases, a complex operation is performed - a haymorotomy.
Cure sinusitis can and yourself. There are many recipes for the treatment of sinusitis. Some of them:
- Juice potatoes, honey and blue onions in equal proportions. Bury in the nose during the day. Nasopharynx rinse with water, which is added salt and beet juice.
- In the container put 3 bay leaves, pour them with water, bring to a boil. Warm the broth soak a natural napkin and put it on the bottom of the forehead and the bridge of the nose. When the napkin has cooled down, it will have to be replaced with a new one. So do it 6 days before bedtime.
- In a cup of boiling water, add an hour. l. tinctures of propolis. Take shelter with a thick towel and breathe the steam.
- Black radish grate, shift a bit on the bandage and attach to the bridge of the nose. Hold for 10 minutes. Do the procedure before going to bed.
Treatment of sinusitis often takes a long time.
In winter and autumn, sinusitis can exacerbate.
It will be necessary to repeat the course of treatment. We must remember about prevention, avoid the occurrence of diseases of the upper respiratory tract, timely sanitize chronic foci of infection in the body, avoid hypothermia.
The main symptoms and treatment of catarrhal sinusitis
Today, more and more people suffer from catarrhal sinusitis, the symptoms and treatment of which can vary depending on the stage of development of the disease. Neglecting one's own health and lack of timely therapy can adversely affect the quality of life.
General information about the disease and the main causes of the disease
Catarrhal sinusitis is a pathology characterized by the development of inflammation directly in the maxillary sinuses and accompanied by active release of mucus.Without timely therapy and under the influence of provoking factors, the disease can develop into a chronic form. Its characteristic features are the periods of remission and the subsequent attenuation of the pathological process with the simultaneous release of mucus.Catarrh of the maxillary usually develops due to previous colds. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the autumn-winter period, when the protective system of the body is noticeably weakening. Deficiency of vitamins, lack of sunlight - these factors create an excellent basis for the consistent development of pathology.
The phenomena of catarrhal nature in the maxillary sinuses themselves develop as a result of a change in habitual ventilation, which is usually observed in rhinitis and sinusitis. Predisposes to the appearance of this ailment is low immunity. Penetrating into the maxillary sinuses pathogenic microorganisms, not meeting the corresponding resistance from the protective forces of the body, begin their active activity. Also, experts identify other causes of this disease:
- Complications after an acute respiratory viral infection.
- Anatomical features of the structure of the nasal cavity.
- Allergic reactions.
- Untimely treatment of the common cold.
In children, catarrhal sinusitis develops with adenoids and a predisposition to colds.
Clinical manifestations of the diseaseBefore the onset of inflammation in the maxillary sinuses, patients are usually diagnosed with acute respiratory disease, which is accompanied by severe intoxication with chills and fever. Literally in a few days there are symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis:
- Severe pain over the maxillary sinus. Sometimes the discomfort is so pronounced that the patient experiences difficulties during chewing food.
- After an overnight rest, the pain syndrome usually falls off.
- The secret secret from the nasal sinuses is transparent. The change in its color to yellow or green indicates a purulent variant of the disease.
- Problems with nasal breathing.
- Cough, worse at night. This sign indicates that the discharge from the sinuses gradually drips down the posterior part of the pharynx.
- Sick eyelids are rarely seen.
Such a clinical picture indicates a chronic form of pathology. During the remission, the symptoms of the ailment described above are almost completely absent.
Conservative methods of therapy
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis should be aimed at eliminating the primary causes of the disease and accompanying symptoms.To facilitate nasal breathing, doctors prescribe vasoconstrictive drops ("Naphtizin "Nazol "Otryvin"). Drugs are not recommended for longer than one week, as they can cause addiction and overdrying of the mucosa. Preference should be given to the means, which contain natural oils, for moistening the nasal cavity.
Taking into account the fact that catarrh of the maxillary sinusitis is not accompanied by the release of pus, sinus rinsing is usually not required. In prophylactic purposes, to moisten the mucosa, some doctors prescribe a remedy based on physiological saline (Dolphin, Akvalor).
If the disease is bacterial in nature, therapy should include the use of appropriate drugs. "Sumamed "Augmentin" - these products have an excellent antibacterial effect and can reduce the manifestation of unpleasant symptoms.
Additionally, the following physiotherapeutic procedures can be prescribed: saline lamp treatment, inhalation, UHF therapy.
When an operation is requiredThe lack of positive dynamics from conservative therapy often results in the overgrowth of the disease into a purulent form. At the same time, the condition deteriorates sharply, signs of general intoxication of the body appear, and purulent discharge appears from the nasal passages. In this case, consultation with a specialist and the appointment of a more serious treatment is required.
As a rule, the doctor recommends making a puncture involved in the pathological process of the sinuses. Some parents refuse this procedure, worrying for the state of the child. In fact, the proposed method of treating the disease is highly effective.
The doctor initially pierces the maxillary sinus, then extremely carefully sucks the contents of the syringe and only then pours in the antibacterial solution. After this small operation, the patient instantly feels relieved. In the area of the paranasal sinuses, the pressure is markedly lowered, the puffiness disappears, the focus of infectious lesion disappears.
Catarrhal sinusitis is a serious enough disease that requires a competent approach in treatment. Otherwise, the probability of the transition of the disease to a chronic form increases and more serious therapy is needed.
To prevent the development of the disease, doctors strongly recommend timely treatment of all colds..
Regular rhinitis is an occasion for consultation with a specialist, because such pathology is often different in allergic nature. When practicing sports, you should use special equipment to protect your face. A blow in the nose can cause an injury. Even a small amount of blood upon ingestion into the paranasal sinuses is an excellent medium for vital activity of many pathogens, which often entails the development of catarrhal sinusitis.
Gaimorovy sinuses, bone cavity formations to the left and right of the nose in the upper jaw. They are connected to the nasal passages by holes in the bottom wall. Sinusitis is an inflammation inside the maxillary sinus. Distinguish between acute sinusitis and chronic.
The main cause of acute sinusitis is a viral infection (pathogens are respiratory viruses infection, adenovirus, influenza and parainfluenza, children with measles and scarlet fever viruses), much less often - bacterial.
Most often acute sinusitis occurs:
- as a result of complication of rhinitis with respiratory viral disease;
- when the infection spreads from the carious teeth of the upper jaw (odontogenic sinusitis);
- with chronic bilateral tonsillitis and adenoiditis;
- with an allergic rhinitis;
- at a curvature of a nasal septum and other congenital anatomic defects of the top respiratory ways;
- in bacterial carriers of staphylococci and streptococci live normally on the nasal mucosa, but in case of hypothermia they become pathogens of the disease and cause symptoms of sinusitis.
The emergence of acute inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is facilitated by any long-term chronic diseases, transferred stresses, surgical interventions, malnutrition, causing a sharp decline immunity.
In children, the cause of maxillary sinusitis can be chlamydial infection and mycoplasma. This is important to consider for the selection of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment.
Chronic rhinitis causes swelling of the nasal passages and blocks the natural opening for cleansing of the maxillary sinuses, helps the development of infection. Other inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx provoke infection in the maxillary sinuses when coughing, sneezing, blowing.
Sluggish caries of the upper four extreme teeth leads to direct penetration of the infection from the destroyed root, granuloma, fistula, fossa of the removed tooth. In some people, the roots of the teeth grow directly into the maxillary sinus, cause the symptoms of sinusitis. Therefore, the cause of inflammation can be a normal filling material from dental treatment.
SymptomsSymptoms of the disease are most often layered on acute respiratory viral damage and aggravate the course. It is possible to suspect the transition of the process to the maxillary sinuses if:
- there was an unpleasant feeling of raspiraniya or pressure around the nose;
- by the evening disturbing a growing headache, which is worse when the head is tilted forward;
- pain is localized in one half of the face (one-way process) or captures the whole face (bilateral), the area under the eyes hurts, gives into the ears, The symptom of maxillary sinusitis can be defined as a toothache when chewing, a characteristic feature is the reduction of the headache in the prone position back;
- sharply increased body temperature to a value above 38 degrees;
- there was a complete bilateral stasis of the nose or breathing is absent alternately on one side, then on the other, the dense greenish-yellow content rarely leaves;
- the voice becomes nasal;
- growing weakness, fatigue, there is insomnia;
- decreased sense of smell;
- possible reddening and puffiness of the eyelids, lacrimation - symptoms of involvement in the inflammatory process of lacrimal ducts;
- swelling of the face on the side of the lesion;
- photophobia (a rare symptom).
Depending on the nature of the discharge from the nose, sinusitis is divided into acute catarrhal and purulent maxillary sinusitis.
Symptoms of catarrhal and purulent sinusitis
Acute catarrhal sinusitis can be considered an easier form of the disease. Inflamed maxillary sinuses contain serous, liquid contents, which are more easily separated from the nose.
Symptoms of the disease are less pronounced: general malaise, low body temperature, pain in the sinuses and forehead, and shortness of breath.
Treatment of catarrhal sinusitis is carried out by conservative methods: vasoconstrictive drops or sprays, inside are prescribed sulfanilamide preparations, in complex treatment physiotherapeutic procedures are widely used, people's funds are recommended medicine. Most often there is no need for antibiotics and puncture (puncture) of the sinus. The course of treatment lasts 10-14 days. With a favorable course of symptoms subsiding, recovery comes.
Acute purulent maxillary sinusitis is characterized by the presence of pus in the maxillary sinuses. Because the purulent content is much thicker than the serous discharge from the sinuses is small. All symptoms are pronounced. Disturbing severe pain in the face, headaches when leaning forward, high fever, general malaise, insomnia.
Treatment of purulent maxillary sinitis is much more complicated: antibiotics are required to influence bacterial infection, it is possible to appoint a short-course physician-otolaryngologist anti-inflammatory hormones. A sinus puncture is suggested with washing and purging of the purulent contents. After the puncture, antibiotics and sulfonamides continue to be administered, anti-inflammatory sprays against the background of vasoconstrictor drugs. Physiotherapy treatment is prescribed when the process abates. Treatment and recovery after a previous purulent sinusitis will take 3-6 months. Folk remedies are indicated for treatment during recovery and for the prevention of transition to chronic sinusitis.
Catarrh of the sinusitis in untimely or incorrect treatment can go into purulent. With the running purulent acute process in the maxillary sinuses, the development of symptoms of severe complications is possible:
- transition of the process to the membranes of the brain and the development of meningitis;
- the spread of infection through the blood vessels leads to an abscess of the brain;
- damage to the vessels on the face contributes to thrombosis and phlebothrombosis;
- inflammation of the trigeminal and facial nerves;
- inflammation of the eyeball and orbit.
Acute maxillary sinusitis can lead to life-threatening severe illness, requiring long-term treatment. Therefore, timely contact with a doctor with the first symptoms of the disease and the full course of treatment is very important.
Similarly, the transition from an acute to a chronic process is undesirable. Health problems for the patient will appear significantly more. Exacerbations after any hypothermia are treated more difficult each time.
Experts advise not to start dental treatment, follow the throat, avoid hypothermia of the legs, to prevent colds, to carry out vaccine prevention against influenza, to carry out advice doctor.