The thyroid gland of the endocrine system performs a number of functions in the life cycle of a person. The thyroid produces iodothyronines( iodine-containing hormones), is the "storehouse" of iodine in the body, participates in the synthesis of the hormone T4( thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine) and T3( triiodothyronine).
When the correct operation of this body is disrupted, there is a malfunction in the overall metabolic processes of the body. For example, the hormone calcitonin, which participates in the restoration of bones and prevents their destruction, is produced by the thyroid gland. Now you can imagine what negative consequences for the whole organism the frustration of the work of only one thyroid gland bears.
Let's look at the thyroid gland as the most important organ of the endocrine system.
The thyroid gland is the largest organ of all the incoming glands in the endocrine system. It weighs about 20 grams. It is located on the neck under the thyroid cartilage in front of the trachea and has the shape of a butterfly. The gland consists of the isthmus( lobus sinister , lobus dexter ) . The size of the thyroid gland and its weight have individual parameters.
On average, the thyroid gland of an adult can weigh between 12 and 25 g. Its volume in women is about 18 ml, and in men - up to 25 ml. In addition, women may experience deviations from the normal size of this organ. This condition can be considered a kind of norm, caused by the menstrual cycle and some other features.
The main activity of the thyroid gland is the synthesis of two classes of hormones - triiodothyronine and thyroxine .These biologically active hormonal compounds are referred to iodothyronines .Hormones participate in the processes of energy and substance exchange, and also control the maturation and growth of organs and tissues.
Parafollicular organ C-cells( part of the diffuse endocrine system) are responsible for the hormone calcitonin , a compound belonging to the class of polypeptides. This substance is indispensable in its participation in the exchange of calcium in the body. Without it, the human bone system can not normally develop and grow.
The disease of hypothyroidism develops when the thyroid gland produces a small amount above the designated hormones. There is a general failure in the endocrine system. Increased production of hormones leads to their overabundance. Then develop thyrotoxicosis( hyperthyroidism).
In medicine, it was possible to establish averaged norms of thyroid hormones for adults and children, the deviation from which will signal a dangerous health failure in the functioning of the endocrine system, which includes not only the thyroid gland, but also other organs:
- in men - the pituitary gland, adrenals andtesticles;
- in women - the epiphysis, thymus, pancreas and ovaries.
When the level of thyroid hormone TTG and T4 is normal, and there are no deviations and with value of triiodothyronine , then the endocrine system most likely works in normal mode.
Blood test for thyroid hormones and its decoding
It is necessary to take a blood test for thyroid hormones in cases when:
- is diagnosed with thyroid dysfunction;
- controls the effectiveness of treating diseases that affect the patient's endocrine system;
- found atrial fibrillation;
- in the patient is diagnosed with sexual dysfunction;
- in children there are indications of a delay in mental development;
- increased sharply or vice versa, the body weight of a person decreased;
- has signs of pituitary adenoma;
- observed a decrease in sexual desire;
- treats amenorrhea( malfunctions in the menstrual cycle) and infertility;
- the patient suffers from alopecia.
All of the above listed conditions of the body are directly related to the disorder of the thyroid gland.
The endocrinologist( specialist in the endocrine system) will tell you about the rules of taking the test and about what hormones of the thyroid gland to give to a woman, a man or a child with a suspicion of a particular disease.
The comparison of the normal parameters of thyroid hormones( TTG, T4, FT4, T3, FT3 ) and other important parameters( AT cTPO, AT ktg, thyreoglobulin ) for a certain gender and age of a person and the values of this particularpatient.
If the indicator of a hormone is raised or lowered, the endocrinologist will be able to diagnose, after prescribing treatment or, if necessary, will send a person for an additional examination.
|No.||Name of the hormone( full name)||Abbreviated abbreviation( abbreviated name for the hormone)||Statutory standard for the hormone|
|1||Thyroid stimulating hormone||TTG, TSH||0.47-4.15 mg / d *|
|2||Triiodothyronine free||FT3||2,62-5,77 nmol / l *|
|3||Triiodothyronine common||T3, TT3||1.06-3.14 nmol / l|
|4||Thyroxine free||FT4||9,56-22,3 pmol / l *|
|5||Thyroxine total||Т4, ТТ4|| for men 60,77-136,89 nmol / l; |
for women 71.23 - 142.25 nmol / l
|6||Thyroglobulin||TG||> 60.08 ng / ml *|
|7||Thyroid hormone absorption test||24-35%|
|8||Thyroxin-binding globulin||TCG||222-517 nmol / l|
|9||Antibodies to thyreperoxidase||AT-TPO||> 5.67 U / ml *|
|10||Antibodies to thyreoglobulin||AT-TG||titer * & gt;1:10|
Thyroid hormone norm in women: Table
Let's look at the norm of thyroid hormones in women that should be in the form of a table.
|No.||No. of the hormone||Abbreviated name of the hormone||Normal value for the hormone|
|1||Thyroxine||T4||08-18 pg / ml *|
|2||Thyroid-stimulating hormone||TTG||0.4-4 μM / ml *|
|3||Triiodothyronine||T3||3, 5-8.0 pg / ml|
|4||Antibodies to thyroglobulin||AT-TG||& lt;100 med / l|
|5||Thyroglobulin||TG||50 ng / ml|
|6||Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase||AT-TPO|| & gt;30 IU / ml * - a negative value; |
30-100 IU / ml is an adjacent value;
& lt;100 IU / ml - positive value
Decoding of abbreviations from the table:
- MED - a unit of substance measurement in pharmacology;
- Hmol( nanomol , 10-9 mole ) is a unit for measuring the amount of a substance in the International System of Units( hereinafter referred to as SI);
- Ng( nanogram, 10-9 gram ) is a unit of mass measurement in SI;
- Ml( milliliter, 10-3 liters ) is an off-system unit of volume measurement;
- pmol( picomole, 10-12 mol) is a unit for measuring the amount of a substance in the SI;
- Solution Titer - unit for measuring the concentration of the substance;
- IU( ED , international unit) is a unit for measuring the dose of a compound in pharmacology;
- μME / mL ( micro-international units per milliliter) is a unit for measuring the dosage of a substance;
- Pg( picogram , 10-12 gram ) is a unit of mass measurement.
What are the rules for taking blood tests for hormones?
In order for the result of the analysis to be accurate, you need to know how to properly donate blood to thyroid hormones. Preparation for the analysis is better to start in advance. If this does not aggravate the course of the existing diseases, it is recommended that a month before the study, it is recommended to abandon the medicines containing thyroid hormones.
- Approximately a couple of weeks before the test should stop drinking iodine supplements.
- To hand over the biomaterial, both for the study of thyroid hormones, and for other blood tests, it should be strictly on an empty stomach.
Otherwise, the end result will be distorted, and the expert will incorrectly decode the analysis results.
- For twenty-four hours( minimum) before the study should not engage in sports, and also drink alcohol-containing beverages.
- Before the procedure, it is not recommended to smoke, and also do radioisotope scanning, ultrasound( hereinafter AS) , and biopsy .
How much does a blood test for thyroid hormones?
How to take the analysis to get the right result, we found out. Now you can answer the question about how much this study costs.
As a rule, the price of thyroid hormone analysis depends on the location of the thyroid gland and the period of readiness of the results. It is worth noting that the analysis can be submitted in public health institutions for free, for example, if the patient is on the account of an endocrinologist, or he is prepared for surgery.
However, most often public health facilities do not do a full free trial of thyroid hormones for free.
In private medical centers such a study will cost in average 2500-3000 rubles, all depends, of course, on the number of hormones being studied, as well as on the speed of obtaining the results.
Let's consider in more detail the main hormones of the thyroid gland and their determining role in the life cycle. What hormones shchitovidki happen, and for what they respond in an organism?
Thyroid hormones are nothing more than derivatives of such amino acid , as tyrosine( alpha-amino acid) .
Thyroid hormones produce human endocrine glands. These biologically active compounds are iodinated and have physiological properties important for the human body. Thyroid hormones include such compounds as thyroxine and triiodothyronine .
The main task of these hormones is to stimulate the proper development and growth of the body. In addition, thyroid hormones are indispensable in such processes as differentiation and tissue growth. Thyroid hormones increase the body's need for oxygen. They affect the blood pressure , and, if necessary, increase the strength and heart rate.
In addition, these hormones affect the course of mental processes, speeding up them, increase mental and motor activity, the level of wakefulness, metabolism and body temperature.
Increasing the level of glucose , thyroid hormones affect gluconeogenesis , occurring in the liver and thereby inhibit the synthesis of glycogen.
These hormones are responsible for the slenderness of the figure, since they are intended to strengthen the processes of fat disintegration( lipolysis ) and prevent its excessive formation and deposition.
For metabolic processes, thyroid hormones are of the same great importance. They have an anabolic effect at small amounts on protein metabolism, thereby increasing protein synthesis and slowing its decay.
As a result, the body maintains a positive nitrogen balance .In the case when there is an overabundance of thyroid hormones , in the human blood, they have the opposite catabolic effect, , thus disrupting the nitrogen balance. This kind of thyroid hormones participate in both water metabolism, and also affects the bone marrow, enhancing the blood formation of red blood cells( erythropoiesis ).
Thyroxine: a hormone T4
What is a hormone T4?As is known, hormones T3 and T4 belong to the main forms of thyroid compounds, which were discussed above. At its core thyroxine is a biologically less active hormone. It refers to the prohormones of triiodothyronine. T4 is produced in the follicular thyroid gland .
It is remarkable that thyroxine is synthesized with the participation of another hormone - thyrotropin or TTG.
T4 accumulates in the thyroid gland cells and exerts a longer lasting effect on the body than other hormones.
It is for this reason that providing a normal level of thyroxine is vitally important for a person.
If the level of of the hormone T4 is elevated, then this condition requires drug correction in order to avoid problems not only with the thyroid gland, but the entire endocrine system.
As the chain reaction inevitably fails in other life support mechanisms of the body. The surplus of thyroxin interferes with its own release. The hormone does not enter the bloodstream and continues to accumulate in the thyroid gland.
As a result, the production of tiroliberin( TRH), the hormone of the hypothalamus, and of the hormone TSG( thyroid stimulating hormone adenohypophysis) is slowing down. Most of the thyroxine is "transported" in an associated form( generic T4 ), but some of the compound circulates in free form( free FT4 ).
So, T4 is free, what kind of hormone is this, what is thyroxin responsible for in the human body? Free thyroxine or FT4 is the same thyroid hormone, the feature of which is that it does not bind to carrier proteins of biologically active compounds through the circulatory system of the body.
What is the response of the hormone T4 free ?Because, FT4 and T4 are essentially the same hormone, they have similar functions. The difference is only in the way of "movement" of these hormones in the body. Thyroxine is responsible for the process of the metabolism of and affects all tissues of the human body.
Perhaps the main feature of free thyroxine can be considered that this hormone of the endocrine gland affects the ability of women to reproduce. The analysis for this hormone is taken by all, without exception, future mothers during pregnancy.
What is the norm of T4 in women and men?
In accordance with the established general norm of the free hormone T4 in men and women, the value of thyroxine should range from 9.56 to 22.3 pmol / L.In women, the norm of free T4 hormone is in the range from 120 to 140 nM / L with pregnancy .
In the normal state, the thyroxine free range in women can range from 71.23 to 142.25 nmol / L.For healthy men, the thyroxine norm is set in the range from 60.77 to 136.89 nmol / l. Such rather large intervals are due not only to sex, but also to the age of a person.
T4 and FT4 are indicators of the effective functioning of the endocrine gland. The greatest concentration of thyroxine in the blood occurs at the time from 8 am to 12 noon. In addition, it is considered normal if the content of the hormone is increased in the autumn-winter period.
The decrease in thyroxine level in the blood occurs approximately from 23 o'clock in the morning and up to 3 hours, as well as in the summer season. However, deviations from the established average values can be caused not only by the time of the day and sometimes the year, but also by various diseases. Let's consider the basic reasons, entailing changes in the level of thyroxin.
If the free T4 is elevated, this indicates the development of diseases such as:
- myeloma disease ;
- nephrotic syndrome , coupled with glomerulonephritis ;
- dysfunction of thyroid in the postpartum period;
- HIV infection ;
- choriocarcinoma ;
- thyroiditis in acute and subacute stage;
- Toxic diffuse goiter ;
- porphyria ;
- liver disease.
In addition, seemingly causeless increase in FT4 and T4 levels may indicate the reception of patients analogues of thyroid hormones, oral contraceptives , methadone , prostaglandins , cordarone, Tamoxifen , radiopaque iodine-containing substances , Insulin and Levodopa .
The decrease in thyroxine level in the blood plasma indicates the development of such diseases as:
- Shihan syndrome ;
- hypothyroidism ;
- craniocerebral trauma ;
- endemic goiter of an innate or acquired character;
- inflammation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland;
- autoimmune thyroiditis .
In addition, if thyroxine free is lowered, then this may indicate the use of drugs such as: Tamoxifen, Propranolol, Mercazolil, Metoprolol, Atorvastatin, Ibuprofen, With imvastatin, Diclofenac and Propylthiouracil .Decreased levels of FT4 and T4 may indicate that the patient is taking antithyroid substances, anabolic drugs, steroids, diuretics, anticonvulsant and radiocontrast agents.
Hormone T3: Triiodothyronine
Triiodothyronine is the second thyroid hormone that is secreted in the thyroid gland. This hormone is inextricably linked with thyroxine, since it is formed due to the disintegration of of the hormone T4. Although T3 is produced in small enough volumes, the researchers believe that it is triiodothyronine that can be considered the main compound of the thyroid gland.
As mentioned earlier, the predecessor T3 is thyroxine( hormone T4) , which contains four iodine molecules. This hormone is produced in large quantities by the thyroid gland. After one molecule of iodine leaves the composition of thyroxine, there is a transformation of the hormone T4 into a common T3.Thus, a highly active substance is replaced by a less active compound.
Triiodothyronine is involved in many mechanisms of the human body.
By its biological essence, this hormone is the "engine" of important life-support processes. T3 is responsible for stimulating the nervous activity of , for the redistribution of energy and brain function.
Normative indicators of total T3 depend on the time of year, as well as on the age of the person.
The following normal indices of triiodothyronine for humans have been established:
- at the age from 1 year to 10 years - from 1.79 to 4.08 nmol / l;
- at the age from 10 to 18 years - from 1,23 to 3,23 nmol / l;
- at the age of 18 to 45 years - from 1.06 to 3.14 nmol / l;
- at the age of 45 years and older - from 0.62 to 2.79 nmol / l.
Free T3, what is this hormone?
After of the hormone T3 from the thyroid gland into the blood, it binds to proteins that "transport" it to other organs. Such bound triiodothyronine is called generic and is designated in the TT3 assay. Some insignificant amount of the hormone remains unbound and is called T3 free, denoted as FT3.
What is this - free triiodothyronine ?At its core, free T3 is the same triiodothyronine hormone. Just this part of T3 "moves" through the circulatory system without the help of proteins. Specialists call this hormone the first indicator of the normal functioning of the endocrine gland.
The rate of free triiodothyronine in women, as in men, can range from 2.62 to 5.77 nmol / l. Such a breakdown in the normal limits of T3 is due to the difference in the methods of laboratory studies of thyroid hormones.
The raised hormone T3 can be in the autumn-winter period, and its minimum level in the body of triiodothyronine reaches, as a rule, in the summer. Virtually all hormones depend on the time of the year and the day, the sex and age of the person.
It should be noted that the norms of free T3 in women can differ not only depending on the type of equipment used for analysis, seasonality and time of day, but also for other reasons. It's all about the characteristics of the structure of the female body, namely in the reproductive system.
At the age of 15 to 20 years, normal values of FT3 are considered values in the range from 1.22 to 3.22 nmol / l, and from 30 to 50 years - from 2.6 to 5.7 nmol / l. Gynecologists often call free triiodothyronine( FT3) and free thyroxine( FT4) "female" hormones, because they are responsible for the ability of a woman to conceive, endure, and then produce a healthy offspring.
Therefore, it is so important, during pregnancy to maintain the normal "female" hormones. If thyroxine and triiodothyronine are not in order, then there is a danger both for the organism of the future mother and for the health of her baby.
Pregnant women periodically perform hormonal blood tests( screening) of in order to identify problems in the endocrine system at an early stage. In addition, if there is a real need to adjust the hormonal background by resorting to medication.
Total and free triiodothyronine are elevated at:
- thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period;
- of myeloma;
- of HIV infection;
- thyroid( adolescent and acute);
- chronic liver disease;
- Toxic goiter.
In addition, an elevated content of triiodothyronine in the blood may indicate the admission of patients with analogues of thyroid hormones of synthetic origin, as well as drugs such as Methadone, Cordarone and oral contraceptives .Also, the increase in T3 is characteristic of the condition after hemodialysis .
Common and free T3 can be decreased with:
- of certain mental pathologies;
- low-protein diet ;
- hypothyroidism ;
- malfunction of the adrenal glands.
In addition, a low level of triiodothyronine may be due to the use of antithyroid drugs in the treatment of , for example, Propylthiouracil and Mercazolyl, steroids, of beta adrenoblockers such as Propranolol and Metoprolol.
Generally, the T3 level is lower than the normative values observed in patients taking anabolic and statins , for example Simvastatin and Atorvastatin, and also non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs) , as Ibuprofen or Diclofenac and radiopaque compounds.
Often, the indices of many hormones deviate from the norm during the recovery of the human body after ailments. It is important to know that a decrease in T3 is always a consequence of changes in the normative parameters of the hormone T4.
These two biologically active compounds are closely interrelated. And although thyroxine is considered a low-active hormone, it is also indispensable for humans, like triiodothyronine. When the body feels a lack of T3, a protective mechanism called peripheral conversion is launched. As a result, thyroxine, which shchitovidka produces in excess, is processed into highly active triiodothyronine.
The body is trying, therefore, to independently correct the situation and adjust its hormonal background. However, this does not always work. If the hormone T3 is free, what should I do? First, there is always the possibility of a mistake in research. Also, the incorrect result of the analysis may be a consequence of non-compliance with simple rules of preparation for the study of thyroid hormones.
Therefore, it is worth correctly approaching the diagnosis and retake the analysis for hormones. Secondly, it is advisable to apply as soon as possible after consultation to a doctor-endocrinologist. The specialist will be able to explain what are specifically caused by deviations from the norm of the level of thyroid hormones. If necessary, the specialist will give recommendations for treatment or further examination.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone( TSH, TTG)
Thyrotropic hormone( thyrotropin, thyrotropin) is a pituitary hormone, or rather, its anterior lobe. Although this glycoprotein hormone does not release the endocrine gland itself, TSH plays an important role in its uninterrupted functioning. Thyrotropin acts on the thyroid receptors, thus stimulating the activation and production of thyroxine.
As a result of the effect of TSH on the cells of the thyroid gland, they begin to consume more iodine, which leads to the biosynthesis of such irreplaceable hormones for the human body as T3 and T4.
In addition, tirotropin affects the number and size of thyroid cells, as well as stimulates the production of phospholipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
All vital systems of the body must work as a clock, so that a person can live a full life. So, in the case of hormones, the thyroid gland is also correctly arranged.
There is feedback between thyroxine and thyrotropin. If the thyroid gland increases the production of T4, then automatically the level of thyrotropin in the blood drops and vice versa.
Blood test for TTG
The analysis on TTG - what is this research and what is it for? Most often, people go to the endocrinologist-doctor for the first time in the direction prescribed by the district therapist, who notices the primary symptoms of thyroid disease. The narrow specialist, who is an endocrinologist, usually appoints thyroid ultrasound and a blood test for TTG , T3 , T4 , AT-TG and AT-TPO .
This is the so-called minimum of research, which allows the doctor to draw a conclusion about the state of the patient's endocrine gland. And although the biological essence of thyrotropin does not apply to the hormones produced by the thyroid, the analysis of TSH is considered to be a very important stage in the detection of pathologies associated with the endocrine system of the body.
Many people, for the first time hearing a list of unfamiliar names of hormones or their abbreviated abbreviations, are puzzled: " What kind of tests are these? . "Many even begin to worry and vainly worry about the very procedure of donating blood for research.
In fact, there is nothing to worry about, you just need to learn how to properly hand over biological material( in this case blood) for further laboratory research. About how to take the analysis on TTG, in detail can tell the endocrinologist or the expert of medical laboratory.
Here are some general rules that will help prepare for any type of blood research, including hormones of the endocrine gland:
- is recommended to reduce or exclude physical activity at some time before the study;
- biological material( ie blood from a vein) should be taken only on an empty stomach;
- a day before the study does not consume alcohol, as well as heavy fat or too spicy and spicy food;
- before the test, you can drink water, preferably conventional;
- is recommended( if possible) several weeks before the analysis to stop taking any medications;
- if medications are vital, then it is worthwhile to warn a specialist of the research laboratory about this, so that during the analysis a correction for the presence of medicines in the blood should be made.
What is the norm of thyroid stimulating hormone?
The peculiarity of the hormone thyrotropin is that its level in the blood plasma depends on seasonality and time of day. In addition, for different ages, individual TSH hormone norms are established. The most significant concentration of TSH in the blood is observed about 2-3 hours of the night, and the least amount of the hormone can be fixed approximately at 17-18 hours of the day.
Such daily fluctuations in secretion are inherent in many types of hormones, including thyroid hormones. It is interesting that if there is a disturbance in the sleep regime, an imminent failure in the synthesis of thyrotropin occurs in the human body, which entails a number of serious ailments.
The table below shows the hormone TSH for people of all ages.
|Age of the person||Norm TSH of the hormone( thyrotropin)|
|Newborn children||from 1.12 to 17.05 mU / l|
|Children of the first year of life||from 0.66 to 8.3 mU / d|
|Children from 2 to 5 years||from 0,48 to 6,55 mU / l|
|Children from 5 to 12 years old||from 0.47 to 5.89 mU / l|
|Adolescents from 12 to 16 years||from 0.47 to 5.01 mU / d|
|Young people 16 to 24 years old||from 0,6 to 4,5 mU / l|
|Adult people from 25 to 50 years||from 0.47 to 4.15 mU / l|
Norm TTG in women
As can be seen from the above table, the norm of TTG in men and women is the range of the indicatorlei from 0.47 to 4.15 mU / l. As you can see, both these and other sexual categories are united into one age group "Adults".These standards, albeit general, but still reliable.
However, because of the peculiarities in the structure of the female body( mainly reproductive system), many specialists are inclined to divide such concepts as the norm of TTG for women and for men. So, what level of thyrotropic hormone( TTG) in women is normal, and what is signaled about a dangerous deviation?
|Age||Norm for thyroid stimulating hormone|
|girls from 1 year to 6 years||0,6-5,96 mU / l|
|girls from 7 to 11 years old||0,5-4,83 md / l|
|girls from 12 to 18years||0,50-4,2 mU / l|
|girls from 20 years and older||0,26-4,1 mU / l|
|pregnant women||0,20-4,50 md / l|
As mentioned earlier, the analysisfor such "female" endocrine gland hormones , as T3 and T4 , are mandatory for all pregnant women. That's just the same great role for mom and the future child plays and thyrotropin. Therefore, it is very important to maintain a normal hormone TSH in women during pregnancy.
The organism is rebuilt during the preparation for the birth of the child and works in a new way, absolutely not as in its usual mode, to provide for all the needs of the growing baby in the mother's womb. Therefore, for women in the situation, their own "normal" indices( adjusted for their condition) of certain analyzes of biological fluids( urine, blood, and so on) are established.
As in the case of hormones T3 and T4 free, the norm of TSH in the blood of women in the position differs from the general parameters established for healthy adults. In , the first trimester of decreases thyroidotropin level, which is due to the production of more than usual amounts of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
From 6 to 13 weeks TTG should be in the normal for this period range from 0.1 to 2 mIU / l. In II trimester ( from 14 to 27 weeks) - from 0.2 to 3 mIU / l, and in III( from 28 to 41 weeks) - 0.3-3 mIU / l. When is a multiple pregnancy , a complete suppression of the production of the thyrotropin hormone is often observed.
This state is considered normal and does not require any correction. Not only during pregnancy should pay special attention to the hormonal background of the female body. For women after 50, the thyroid-stimulating hormone, like other "female" hormones, is set taking into account the changes that occurred in their body ( menopause, menopause).
If the thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher than normal, it most likely indicates such diseases as:
- adenoma of the pituitary ;
- pre-eclampsia ;
- adrenal insufficiency;
- thyroiditis Hashimoto ;
In addition, if the results of the TSH analysis are above the norm, this means that the patient takes anticonvulsant or anti-emetic drugs, beta-blockers, neuroleptics, and radiopaque substances .
Morphine, Clofelin, Furosemide and Merkazolyl may also affect the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Deviation from the TSH standards may result from excessive physical exertion, so before giving blood to thyrotropin, you must give up the sport for a while.
If TTG is lowered, this indicates such ailments as:
- pituitary damage;
- hyperthyroidism during pregnancy;
- toxic goiter;
- pituitary necrosis in the postpartum period.
Drugs such as beta-adrenomimetics, anabolics, cytostatics, glucocorticosteroids, as well as Bromocriptine, thyroxine, somatostatin, carbamazepine, and Nifedipine can reduce the level of thyrotropin.
In addition, with prolonged starvation, for example, if a person observed a hard diet for weight loss, a blood test will show a deviation from the normal TSH.
When the body is healthy, the and the hormones T3, T4, TTG are normal. If there is a big difference between the parameters of the patient's analyzes and the normative values, then this indicates serious problems. With a normal hormonal background, slight deviations from the averaged parameters of thyroxine, thyrotropin and triiodothyronine are allowed.
This is due, for example, to the time of the year. However, if hormones T3 and T4 are normal, and TTG is elevated or vice versa, then this is the first signal about hypothyroidism .This disease at the initial stage develops asymptomatically and if it is not treated, it leads to serious complications( in adults the myxedema develops, and in children - cretinism ).
Hypothyroidism is a condition caused by a deficiency in the human body of endocrine gland hormones, usually for a long period. When there is an elevated level of T3 and T4 in the blood, this indicates the development of hyperthyroidism , ie.a disease in which the endocrine gland intensively produces "extra" hormones for the body.
What is this thyroglobulin ?By its biological essence - it is a protein that is contained in the follicles of the thyroid gland. Protein thyroglobulin is a substrate on the basis of which thyroid hormones are produced. TG, passing through the thyroid gland, dissociates into atoms of iodine and molecules of tyrosine , resulting in the production of thyroxin .
Protein thyroglobulin has a large molecular weight and can, within two weeks, ensure the production of important thyroid hormones for the human body.
This blood test parameter, such as TG, is important to investigate if there is a suspicion of cancer detection in the patient. It is called the tumor marker or by the oncomarker.
Due to mutations in the thyroid follicular cells, an increase in the production of the TG protein occurs. As a result, the follicular or papillary cancer is developing. It is believed that surgical intervention is an effective way to combat these diseases. After removal of the thyroid gland, the thyroglobulin norm for the patient is zero for life.
Such a minimally low concentration of protein must be kept in the body throughout life. For maintenance postoperative therapy, patients are prescribed a dosage of Eutirox or of thyroxine to completely block the pituitary hormone production of the hormone TSH.
For an adult without significant health problems, the following norm of thyroglobulin is established: less than 60.08 ng / ml. As a rule, if thyroglobulin is elevated, it means that the develops a malignant thyroid tumor .However, other factors can influence the content of this protein in the blood plasma.
If thyroglobulin is elevated, the reasons may be:
- autoimmune inflammatory processes;
- destruction of thyroid cells due to the development of papillary or of follicular cancer ;
- purulent inflammation;
- therapy using radioactive iodine ;
- postoperative complications.
It is important to remember that during pregnancy in the blood test in women the thyroglobulin dose is different from the above values. First of all, it is connected with the changes that have occurred in the body of the future mother. Therefore, pregnant women should not panic if the level of this protein is increased. Also, a high TG can be observed in newborn infants.
The level of thyroglobulin decreases with:
- adenoma of the thyroid gland.
Thyroxin-binding globulin( TSH)
The thyroxine-binding globulin is the main transporter of iodothyronines in the blood of the human body. TSH is produced in the liver, but the main role plays in ensuring the normal functioning of the endocrine gland.
The reasons for the deviation of the thyroxine-binding globulin level from the normative indices can be:
- with an increased amount of TSH - hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland, viral hepatitis, methadone intake, oral contraceptives, and porphyria;
- with a reduced amount of TSH - ovarian hypofunction, stress, acromegaly, somatic disorders, thyrotoxicosis, protein starvation, liver cirrhosis, anabolic, glucocorticosteroid, beta-adrenoblocker medication, as well as surgery.
Test for the absorption of thyroid hormones
This test is carried out to investigate changes in proteins that bind free T3( triiodothyronine) and T4( thyroxine) hormones. Based on the results of the study, the physician can diagnose the hypothyroidism or in the patient hyperthyroidism. When carrying out the test for the absorption of thyroid hormones, a person is given a drug to drink on the basis of radioactive iodine .
This technique allows you to fix the path of a micronutrient in the human body. In this case, the pathway of thyroid hormones. If a low iodine uptake is detected, is diagnosed with hypothyroidism, and thyrotoxicosis is high.
Antibodies to thyreperoxidase( AT to TPO) - what is it?
Having received a transcript of the hormonal analysis of the thyroid gland, many are wondering what is the - hormone AT-TPO ?First of all, it is important to understand that of thyroperoxidase is an auxiliary enzyme that participates in the synthesis of such hormones , as T3 and T4 by the thyroid gland.
By its biological nature, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase - are autoantibodies, ie,antibodies that interact with the body's antigens. Such indicator as AT-TPO, is important for the analysis of the state of human health.
Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase appear in blood plasma if the thyroid gland cells are perceived by the human immune system as foreign substances.
If the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase is normal, then this indicates that the production of thyroid hormones goes according to plan.
An enzyme such as thyroperoxidase , is involved in the process of iodine production.
In addition to the main indicators in hormonal analysis, it is not accidental that there are data on antibodies to thyreperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and also to TSH receptors. Since deviation from the norms above these indices is a signal for the development of certain thyroid pathologies in the patient, as well as autoimmune diseases.
The level of AT-TPO is increased:
- with thyroid cancer ;
- with diabetes mellitus ;
- with in systemic lupus erythematosus ;
- with thyroiditis Hashimoto ;
- with rheumatoid arthritis ;
- with vaskulite .
With increasing antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, the following symptoms appear:
- sleep disorder ;
- goiter( enlarged thyroid gland);
- brittle hair;
- heart palpitations;
- increased sweating;
- hearing loss;
- alopecia ;
- change in voice.
Some chronic diseases, hereditary factors, viral infections or toxin poisoning can also cause the increase in the level of AT to TPO.It is important to note that a deviation from normal indices of AT-TPO during pregnancy indicates the possibility of developing hyperthyroidism in a child.
In addition, an increase in the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase is a risk factor for the miscarriage of .Therefore, pregnant women are simply required to regularly give blood to hormones.
AT-TPO norm in women
As mentioned earlier, such an indicator as AT-TPO plays a really important role for pregnant women. However, control over the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase should be carried out not only by future mothers, but also by all other women, regardless of age.
Since it is the female part of the population, this indicator is much more often deviates from the standards. The consequences of increasing the level of AT to TPO are able to severely damage human health and disable the musculoskeletal system, nervous and cardiovascular systems. In the female body, the reproductive system suffers first, which leads to infertility or to the risk of spontaneous miscarriage.
There are certain normative indices of AT to TPO, depending on the age of a person.
- up to 50 years - the norm in the blood - 0-34,9 U / ml;
- after 50 - 1-99,9 U / ml.
It is considered the norm if the values of AT to TPO are increased within 20 U / ml. If the indicators are rejected by 25 U / ml or more, the patient is urgently required appropriate treatment. The above table of antibodies to thyreperoxidase provides information for people of different ages, without disaggregation by sex.
It is remarkable that in women the norm of antibodies to thyreperoxidase depends not only on age. For example, during pregnancy, and already in the I trimester the values of ATPO increase. This is due to changes affecting not only the endocrine and reproductive system, but also the entire female body as a whole, which is preparing for the bearing of the child and for future childbirth.
If the level of of the hormone ATPO is increased, what should I do in such a situation? First, do not panic, statistics say that every tenth woman and twentieth man in the analysis have antibodies to thyroid peroxidase. In itself, the presence of antibodies is not bad news, it's another matter if the level of ATP is significantly increased in comparison with the established standards.
Secondly, you need to immediately seek a second consultation with an endocrinologist, who will prescribe a number of additional laboratory tests and other procedures to clarify the final diagnosis. As a rule, in addition to the blood test for the main hormones and indicators characterizing the work of this vital organ, you will need to pass ultrasound of the endocrine gland.
Undoubtedly, it is better not to bring your body to illness and regularly undergo an examination with an endocrinologist. Especially in our time, when problems with the endocrine system are found everywhere due to poor ecology and the rapid rhythm of modern life. Prevention is considered the best protection against many health problems.
Antibodies to Thyroglobulin( AT-TG)
What is this AT-TG, and what is the effect of this indicator? Antibodies to thyroglobulin are called the main parameter used to test the thyroid gland for the presence of serious autoimmune diseases .By its biological nature thyroglobulin is none other than the glycoprotein , which is part of the thyroid follicles.
In the synthesis of thyroid hormones, this biologically active compound plays the role of propeptide ( ie, the protein , contained in the thyroid gland).Until now, science for certain reasons for which thyroglobulin becomes an "enemy" for the organism is not known for certain and it turns into the category of autoantigens .
Sensing a danger, the human body triggers protective mechanisms, starting an active production of antibodies that combine with thyroglobulin and mimic hormonal activity. In simple words, they block thyroglobulin and "deceive" the thyroid gland. As a result, the gland secretes more hormones, thereby violating the metabolism and the work of the cardiovascular system.
When antibodies to TSH are elevated, it means that in the future the following diseases can be detected in the patient:
- thyroiditis in chronic or subacute stages;
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis;
- myxedema is idiopathic;
- Graves disease;
- anemia is pernicious;
- non-dull, papillary, follicular thyroid carcinomas;
Calcitonin or Thyreocalcitonin is a hormone that is secreted by parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland of humans and other mammals. Thyreocalcitonin is important in calcium phosphate metabolism and refers to parathyroid hormone antagonists ( abbreviated PTH).
Parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid gland of the thyroid gland. Calcitonin as a PTH antagonist decreases the production of parathyroid hormone, which helps to avoid a disease such as hyperparathyroidism .
It occurs when the parathyroid hormone is elevated. In addition, an increase in blood levels of PTH leads to hyperplasia , cancer of parathyroid or parathyroid glands.
Calcitonin is also important for the balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts .
It reduces the level of phosphorus and calcium in the blood, and also stimulates the process of reproduction and the functional activity of osteoblasts .
And, conversely, during resorption( destruction, degradation) of bones suppresses similar processes in relation to osteoclasts .
Calcitonin is an oncomarker, i.e.a compound that indicates whether the patient has thyroid cancer .
If the level of calcitonin in the blood exceeds 100 pictograms per one milliliter, then it is likely that the doctor diagnoses medullary thyroid cancer .Therefore, the analysis for calcitonin is indicated to people in the event that the endocrinologist has suspicions of the presence of malignant formations.
Also calcitonin is an indicator of the effectiveness of cancer treatment. The analysis on this hormone should be constantly handed over by people with a distant thyroid gland, so that the doctor can diagnose the relapse of the disease in time, as evidenced by a sharp jump in the level of calcitonin in the blood.
Increase the level of thyrocalcitonin in the blood can not only malignant thyroid formations, but also other diseases, for example, such as:
- pancreatitis ;
- liver cancer;
- hepatic or renal insufficiency;
- stomach cancer;
- pernicious anemia;
- breast cancer.
It is important to note that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used most often for calcitonin levels in the blood, in which the level of the hormone is determined with a labeled reagent. This compound reacts exclusively to thyrocalcitonin and changes its color when it meets the hormone.
Since different reagents can be used in research laboratories, the standards for thyrocalcitonin are established in the form of a numerical interval of normal values. In addition, it is important to note that the norm of the calcitonin hormone in women differs from the rates established for men.
When using the enzyme immunoassay, the calcitonin norm:
- for men is 0.68-32.26 mg / ml;
- for women is 0.07-12.97 pg / ml;
- for newborns is set at 70-150 pg / ml;
- for children from one year and older - up to 70 pg / ml.
Blood test for hormones
When a person encounters a number of ailments, he faces the question of how to check the thyroid gland and what tests should be taken for this.
Deals with the endocrine system of the body of the endocrinologist, who assigns a number of laboratory tests to the patient for subsequent analysis of the thyroid gland and the correct diagnosis in the event that there are abnormalities in the functioning of this organ.
Thyroid analysis is part of a general hormonal study that is prescribed to check the patient's hormonal background.
Indications for the purpose of hormone analysis in men and women are the following ailments:Atrial fibrillation;
Hormonal research is prescribed to a child if the pediatrician diagnoses a delay in psychological and mental development, obesity, outstrip or lag in growth, sexual development, and increased hairiness. The main task of this blood test can be considered the diagnosis of hormonal diseases, as well as monitoring their treatment.
For example, after removal of the whole gland or a portion of it, hormone tests( test hormone) are carried out regularly to maintain the medication necessary for the patient's normal life to have the amount of thyroglobulin in the blood. Of particular importance is the analysis of hormones in women. The thing is that thyroid hormones are closely related to the reproductive function.
The analysis of thyroid hormone assays can give an answer to many questions, for example, whether a woman can conceive and tolerate a healthy child. It is important for representatives of beauty to know as much as possible about the condition of their thyroid gland, since this body is responsible for the development of the so-called "female" hormones T3 and T4.
For women at any age, it is advisable to do ultrasound of the thyroid gland and hormonal studies no less than once a calendar year.
Such procedures become especially actual after the age of 50, when, as a rule, the majority of the fair sex has menopause.
Deciphering the results of thyroid ultrasound, together with hormonal studies, gives the specialist an opportunity to analyze the state of the endocrine system and, if necessary, to prescribe the appropriate treatment.
About how to take the test for hormones to a woman, can explain in detail either a gynecologist or an endocrinologist. However, preparation for this analysis differs little from any other preparation for laboratory studies of biological fluids.
How to Prepare for Blood Delivery for Hormones?
Let's consider the main questions and make a universal reminder about how to properly take such tests. Often people have a question about where the blood is taken for analysis. Blood sampling for this study is carried out from the vein. Of course, this is not a particularly pleasant procedure, but it is in the venous blood that there is sufficient amount of hormonal material to conduct such a study.
Remember, hormone analysis can not be taken without prior preparation. Otherwise, you will simply waste your time and money, as the results of such research will not only be distorted, but also unreliable.
Another common question - is blood donating hormones on an empty stomach or not? In most cases, blood for examination( including thyroid hormones) is taken to an empty stomach.
This is a universal rule for almost all laboratory tests. Since the food contains a huge amount of different biologically active components( fats, proteins, carbohydrates, glucose , vitamins , acids and many other substances), they all can influence the final result of the analysis.
In addition, some medical drugs may distort hormonal studies. Therefore, approximately one month before the analysis, hormone-containing drugs should be discontinued. Also, we will have to do with medications containing iodine , with oral contraceptives, tranquilizers and aspirin.
Blood for analysis for hormones is taken exclusively in the morning hours, from about 8 to 10 am. This rule is due to the fact that the concentration of certain hormones in the blood depends not only on the sex of the patient and his age, but also on the time of day, and also on the year.
Consideration of the patient's psychoemotional mood before hormonal studies is also considered important. If the patient is nervous, afraid or worried, the results of his analysis will be inaccurate. Because the nervous tension provokes an increased production of hormones that should help the human body cope with stress. In general, one should not worry and experience before giving blood.
A week before blood tests for hormones it is recommended to stop drinking alcohol. Smoking is also a concern. Although there is a catch. If a smoker quits smoking even for a couple of days, not to mention the whole week, then his body will be under tremendous stress. That eventually leads to a psycho-emotional imbalance, and such a state is absolutely not acceptable before the hormonal study.
Therefore, experts ask to smoke less, and a day before the direct delivery of the biomaterial is worth a little patient. Physical stress can distort the final results of the analysis, so it is advisable to refrain from playing sports for some time before the study.
Where to pass the hormone test and how much does it cost?
Hormonal studies refer to specific blood tests that are carried out in specialized laboratories using a variety of auxiliary reagents. Therefore, in state polyclinics, such studies are extremely rare, especially for free. If the result of hormone analysis needs to be obtained in the shortest possible time, it is best to contact a private laboratory, for example, in the Invitro .
Conveniently, it is not necessary to come personally for the results of the study, you can send them online in an email. The cost of such a study will depend on the location of your location, as well as on the number of indicators studied. As a rule, each hormone has its own separate price.
Price of hormone analysis in women, as in men, as well as children, is formed based on the number of hormones studied, as well as other significant indicators( globulin, antibodies and so on).The most profitable in the financial plan is complex analysis.
This study includes all the main indicators that are used to analyze the hormonal balance of the human body. The hormonal analysis includes:
- analysis on endocrine gland hormones ( T3, T4, AT-TG, AT-TPO, TG, TCG );
- analysis of pituitary hormones ( TTG, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin );
- analysis of sex hormones ( estrogen, testosterone );
- analysis of adrenal hormones ( aldosterone, DHEAS, cortisol ).