There are numerous food poisoning in children throughout the whole year, and in the summer, cases of poisoning in children of mushrooms, berries and flowers of poisonous plants and even cultivated plants are not uncommon in case of improper storage and excessive processing of fertilizers and pesticides in growing crops.
Therefore, here we will consider the possible symptoms of poisoning in the child and what to do in these cases and how to provide the first emergency care to the child at home before the arrival of an ambulance.
Food Poisoning in Children: Emergency Care by Dr. Komarovsky
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Video: first aid for food poisoning in a child
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When poisoning with mushrooms:
Symptoms of poisoning, signs and manifestations
Every year, just when the snow comes down, lovers of "quiet hunting" go to the forest for the first mushrooms - lines and morels and finish mushroom forays when the white flies begin to fly. This is the period of the most intense work for toxicologists who are treating children affected by eating inedible fungi and plants.
Mushrooms love everything: someone to collect, but someone is. But careless and frivolous attitude to the collection of mushrooms turns into a big disaster and takes away tens of thousands of human lives. In this mournful list there are many children's names, since the children's organism is especially sensitive to fungal toxins.
Mushrooms, even the most noble, are not very suitable food for a child.They are difficult to digest, require a large number of enzymes and flawless work of the liver and kidneys. Remember this and do not persuade your child to "taste a soup or fried mushrooms".
Poisoning occurs not only when eating poisonous mushrooms, but also with improper or insufficient culinary processing of the conditionally edible (stitch, morel, swine, freckles, ryadovka, russula, etc.).
Lines and morels
Mushroom season is openedstitch and morel,which appear in the forest, only the snow will come down and the sun will warm the earth. These fungi contain toxic helvetic acid, which is destroyed by heat treatment. Poisoning can develop after consuming poorly boiled mushrooms or broth. After 6-8 hours after eating, there are abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting with an admixture of bile, then diarrhea joins, which leads to rapid dehydration: pallor and dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, cyanosis of the lips and fingertips, headache, jaundice develops rapidly, blood appears in the urine, then a loss of consciousness and cramps.
The most poisonous mushroom is a pale toadstool. It contains toxic substances - phalloin, phalloidin, amanitine. In 100 grams of fresh mushrooms or in 5 grams of dry contains 10 mg of phalloidine, 13.5 mg of amanitine. The lethal dose of amanitin is 0.1 mg per 1 kg of body weight.
Think about these figures, and you will understand that one even a small pale toadstool, accidentally crocheted in a basket with edible mushrooms, is enough to poison the whole family of an unfortunate mushroom picker. Toxins do not break down when heat treated and when dried, they are quickly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate in the liver. Extremely serious poisoning occurs in children and in 16% of cases end up lethal. The disease develops violently 8-12 hours after eating: abdominal pain, indomitable vomiting, bloody diarrhea, severe weakness, delirium, hallucinations, pronounced symptoms of dehydration, seizures.
In children, the cause of poisoning is quite often known to allfly agarics.Attracted by a bright coloring of mushrooms, familiar from illustrations in children's books, kids tear and eat them, expecting from the elegant mushroom pleasant taste sensations. But the form in this case does not correspond to the content, the active principle of which is a toxic substance - muscarine. The disease develops rather quickly: 30-60 minutes after the use of fly agarics, there are pains in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, watery stools, severe weakness. The type of the child is typical: pupils are as narrow as possible, sweating is expressed, abundant tear and salivation, excretion of foamy sputum from the bronchi, which leads to difficulty breathing. Quickly develop a violation of consciousness, delirium, hallucinations, convulsions.
As a folk remedy for the treatment of radiculitis, an alcoholic tincture made of mushrooms is often used, the accidental use of which by the child can lead to severe combined damage (poisoning with fly agarics and alcohol plus chemical burns with alcohol in the mouth and respiratory tract).
Collecting mushrooms, do not chase after quantity at the expense of quality.Go around the mushrooms growing along the road, in dumps, near gas stations - they absorbed the whole periodic table and will generously share with you the accumulated toxins.
In the forest, be vigilant and attentive, any doubts about the edibility of the fungus are allowed in favor of their own safety and ruthlessly part with a beautiful stranger, not hoping for a Russian maybe.
Do not hesitate to take with you to the forest benefits for mushroom pickers with pictures and descriptions of edible and poisonous mushrooms, so you can look into them, like a cheat sheet.
Each mushroom cut with a knife and before you put it in the basket, clean the ground and sticky leaves-needles, once again, checking the quality of the prey.
If you took a baby with you to "quiet hunt," and he actively helps you replenish stocks, make sure that he does not try the mushrooms "for a tooth" and present each finding for identification. Returning from the woods, once again pick up the mushrooms, carefully inspect the bottom of the hat, clean from foreign inclusions, carefully wash it with running water and start preparing the dinner.
First urgent help to a child in case of poisoning with mushrooms
If, despite all precautions, troubles could not be avoided and the child hadsymptoms of fungal poisoning,immediately call an ambulance, andbefore the arrival of the brigadewater with warm water and, irritating the root of the tongue, cause vomiting to clear the stomach of fungi and their toxins. After that it is necessary to take enterosorbents for binding and elimination of toxins - activated charcoal at the rate of 1 tablet per 10 kg of weight or polyphepan - 1 teaspoon of powder for a child up to 3 years, 2 teaspoons from 3 to 7 years, for older children 1-2 tablespoons at the reception.
To remove poisonfrom the intestine used salt laxatives (sulphate magnesia) and cleansing enema with warm water (30-32 ° C) in the amount of 300 ^ 400 ml for a child up to 3 years and 1.0-1.5 l for a schoolboy. Further treatment is carried out in the toxicology department with the use of modern methods of purifying the body of toxic substances and maintaining the functions of vital organs.
Poisoning with berries and flowers
Symptoms, signs and manifestations
The cause of "summer" poisoning in children can beand poisonous plants,Attracting babies beautiful berries or flowers. The most susceptible to poisoning are children under 3 years old, who know the world "through the mouth". In adolescence, poisoning is of a conscious nature - to get a "buzz". For this purpose, bleached, hemlock, hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Belen, belladonna, dope- plants from the Solanaceae family, contain atropine, which causes a clinical picture of poisoning: 15-20 minutes after eating the belladock fruit similar to wild cherry, there is concern, the child rushes, screams, fights off someone's hands and feet, which indicates about visual and auditory hallucinations, coordination of movements is disrupted. The skin and mucous membranes are dry, there is a swelling in the throat and a violation of swallowing, a speech disorder, a red face, pupils are wide, do not respond to light. Appears delirium, palpitation, convulsions.
White acacia(robinia) - poisoning causes the bark of the plant: there are pains in the abdomen, vomiting, diarrhea, in severe cases, blood appears in the stool and urine.
Milestone poisonous(tsikuta, hemlock) - the most poisonous plant rhizomes, especially in early spring and late autumn. The poison is quickly absorbed from the stomach, so the initial symptoms are manifested after 20-30 minutes: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, drooling, pupil dilating, palpitations, convulsions, loss of consciousness.
Aconite(wrestler, blue buttercup) - poisoning manifests itself by nausea, vomiting, thirst. There is numbness of the tongue, lips, cheeks, which leads to speech disturbance. The tips of the fingers and toes lose sensitivity, there is a feeling of creeping crawling, vision is impaired. Later, convulsions develop, loss of consciousness.
Lily of the valley, mountain, jaundice, hellebore- Poisons with a predominant effect on the cardiovascular system. Poisoning develops quickly: nausea, vomiting, a rare heartbeat, a drop in blood pressure, pale and cyanotic skin, convulsions, loss of consciousness.
The first emergency aid for poisoning berries and flowers
If suspected poisoning with plant poisonsit is necessary to render first aid to the victim: give him a drink with warm water and induce vomiting (if consciousness is saved), then give enterosorbents, make a cleansing enema. Further treatment is carried out by the ambulance team and physicians of the toxicology department.
Poisonous plants and fungi are highly toxic and present a danger to the child in any dose. Therefore, the use of plant poisons is considered an extremely dangerous condition, requiring immediate assistance and emergency hospitalization.
Poisoning with cultivated plants
symptoms, signs and manifestations
There are poisoning and cultivated plants,which as a result of prolonged and improper storage became toxic. It is known that green potato tubers containing solanine can cause poisoning. Grain, overwintered in the field, infected with fungi of ergot, causes the disease ergotism, called in the people "anton fire". Horse beans in people with increased sensitivity to them can cause acute hemolysis.
Poisoning is possible with fruits and vegetables containing high concentrations of nitrates, introduced into the soil to produce a high yield.
At the beginning of summer, watermelons and melons appear on the markets, and we hasten to please our fresh hearts, exhausted with a long winter, with a fresh aroma and unique sweetness, without thinking: when did they manage to catch up?
And it is not known to many that the fleshy red flesh of the green-striped berry did not turn red from ripeness, but from shame for the unscrupulous farmer who injects nitrogenous fertilizers directly into the fetus. This, without exaggeration, criminal reception significantly accelerates the ripening of melons, and, therefore, promises fabulous profits from the sale of the first, expensive parties. The craftsmen do not think about the harm that the fruits of their hands will bring to consumers, including children.
In the human body, low-toxic nitrates are converted into poisonous substances - nitrites and nitrosamines, which cause poisoning.After 1-2 hours, the first signs appear: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe weakness. The severity of the condition is indicated by the cyanosis of the lips, fingertips, and mucous membranes.
Nitrates can also accumulate in vegetable crops, especially in root crops, with non-compliance with agrochemical regulations and late harvesting.
It is known that in cabbage the greatest quantity of nitrates is contained in the stump and the outer leaves, in carrots - in the core, in potatoes and zucchini - in the peel, in beets - in the tail and apex. Given this information when processing vegetables, you reduce the risk of poisoning.
Treatment of fields and vegetable gardens with pesticides containing salts of heavy metals, or organic insecticides can lead to poisoning of ripe fruits and berries during their careless and inadequate washing.
In summer, children are often lapped with sweet peas, abundant in the fields. After eating delicacies a picture of poisoning develops, related to the ingestion of pesticides into the body, with which the plants were treated.
The first pre-medical help to the child turns out to be similar to the one described above when poisoning with mushrooms, berries and flowers.
Emergency First Aid for Child Poisoning
- Video on the topic.
- "Pediatrics: A complete reference book for parents / L. Sh. Anikeev ": Moscow: Publishing house" Exmo ".