Blood in the stool is a serious symptom that can manifest itself in the form of scarlet veins on the surface of stools or as inclusions into liquid secretions, it can look like a brown liquid or an elastic substance similar to black tar.
In any case, as soon as possible, you need to find out the causes of bleeding. This indicates a violation of the integrity of the blood vessel and organ of the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of a stool with an admixture of blood in 97% indicates serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( hereinafter - the gastrointestinal tract).
Blood in a chair of different colors, why is that?
The digestive tract contains substances( hydrochloric acid, enzymes and much more) and microorganisms that can change the color of the blood. The further from the rectum the source of its outflow, and the longer it is in the lumen of the digestive tract, the more significant its color will be different from red. But, no matter what the color of the blood( red, burgundy, black), it should not appear during feces.
When does blood have a normal color - red?
Blood red may appear in the stool if it is not affected by enzymes and bacteria found in the digestive tract. This can happen if the source of bleeding is close to the anus or when it quickly passes through the digestive tract.
Large bowel disease in which blood is detected during defecation
If the speed of movement of the food lump is normal, the unchanged blood in the stool in the adult indicates a sigmoid and rectum disease with the anal area.
Most often, the appearance of blood in the stool is facilitated by such pathologies.
Scarlet blood in this disease stains the surface of stool. She can stay on the linen and napkin after stool and looks unchanged. Inside the stony conglomerate, there is none, because the blood enters the feces after they are formed.
The anus of the anus can be a consequence of chronic constipation or excessive straining when emptying the intestine. In this case, the bleeding is small, it can bother a few days. Diagnosis of the disease occurs during examination and finger examination of the rectum. The disease is well treatable with timely treatment and uncomplicated forms.
In this case, the blood also appears on the surface( blood streaks in the feces), disturb the feeling of a foreign body, itching, pain in the rectum. The situation is aggravated by chronic constipation and an increase in intra-abdominal pressure. This answers the question of why hemorrhoids may appear in women during pregnancy, and after childbirth decreases. In men, the disease occurs against the background of lifting weights.
With the apparent simplicity of establishing a diagnosis, it must be remembered that hemorrhoids can be not only external, but also internal. With the latter variant, hemorrhoidal nodes can not be seen after bowel evacuation. They can be discerned only when using a rectoscope.
For the treatment of hemorrhoids, a diet, a normalizing stool, conservative and surgical methods of treatment is used. With the use of therapeutic agents, it is possible to reduce inflammation, reduce pain, tonicize vessels, exert a venosclerosis( ethoxiclerol), and reduce the rate of development of the disease.
Methods of surgical treatment are used routinely in case of neglected forms or urgently with massive bleeding. When they are used, the hemorrhoidal nodes can be turned off from the circulatory system, sclerosed. The main part of the operations is aimed at removing the altered sections of the veins.
Ulcerative colitis nonspecific
As a result of ulceration of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, due to immunological changes appears feces with blood. An important place in the development of this disease is inflammation. Therefore, in the feces not only blood is detected, but also mucus with pus.
There are complaints of abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever. The diagnosis can be made only on the basis of the results of histological and endoscopic studies.
Unchanged blood appears more often when the focus is located in the terminal part of the intestine( sigmoid, rectum).Typical complaints in this case are weight loss, pain, fever and other signs of intoxication.
If the source of bleeding is further from the rectum, then as the velocity of the stool moves increases, the blood exits outward unchanged. The diseases that must be suspected in this case are:
Immune inflammation is localized mainly in the thin and transverse colon. To provoke a hereditary disease can stress, smoking and food allergy.
In this case, a quickened stool with blood, pus and mucus is combined with high fever, abdominal pain, ulceration in the oral cavity, skin rash and decreased visual acuity.
Blood clots may appear in the stool. Symptomatology is similar to nonspecific ulcerative colitis.
Inflammation of the intestines caused by bacteria( staphylococci, klebsiella, salmonella), viruses( enteroviruses, rotoviruses), parasites( amoebas, schistosomes) leads to diarrhea with blood.
Temperature rise, a loose stool with blood and mucus and abdominal pain can be combined with skin rashes. Diagnosis of infectious diseases is made on the basis of laboratory methods of investigation( microscopic, cultural and serological).
Black stool and what diseases lead to its appearance
To this group of diseases are all diseases in which the source of bleeding is far from the rectum( in the upper GI tract) with the stored volume and speed of passage of the food lump.
In this case, hydrochloric acid, enzymes and bacteria that affect the red blood cells change the color of the blood. The food lump turns into a viscous adhesive substance of black color - it is called "melena".To her appearance may result in a loss of blood volume of 50 ml. The cause of such bleeding may be the following diseases:
- Peptic ulcer .With blood loss, localized in the stomach or duodenum, melena will appear against the background of pain in the upper abdomen associated with eating( arising after eating or on an empty stomach).Patients may experience nausea, heartburn and belching.
- Diseases of the esophagus ( diverticula, tumors, peptic ulcers).More often, bleeding with them will provoke bloody vomiting. However, when diagnosing melena, it should be remembered that a significant part of this pathology leads to the appearance of a black stool with a characteristic odor.
- Tumors of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum .In their diagnosis, informative are palpation, the use of X-rays with contrast, ultrasound and a blood test.
- Injuries to .In this case, apart from melena, pain, etc.there is a clear connection with the impact of the trauma agent. Diagnosis depends on the nature of the lesion and its location.
- Drug administration .Taking drugs that have anti-inflammatory effects( NSAIDs) and reduce blood clotting can lead to complications in the form of gastrointestinal bleeding. Aspirin ulcer is a classic example of such an effect. When performing a diagnosis when melena occurs, the doctor should be aware of the medications taken and the concomitant diseases. This will simplify and expedite the subsequent treatment.
- Diseases of the gallbladder and bile duct ( tumors and others).May be accompanied by mechanical jaundice with a change in the color of the mucous membranes and intense pain in the right hypochondrium. Diagnosis is performed using laboratory methods( liver tests) and ultrasound.
- Diseases of the pancreas .With cyst, cancer and pancreatic necrosis, blood can enter the lumen of the duodenum. Pain, dyspepsia and signs of intoxication complete the clinical picture.
Regardless of the causes of melena, it indicates the occurrence of bleeding, the volume of which exceeds 50 ml. This is accompanied by pallor of the skin, dizziness, weakness and loss of consciousness.
Gastrointestinal bleeding, what to do, what is the first help?
If you have a blood stool, you need to see a doctor. Depending on what caused the disease, the treatment will be carried out by an infectious disease specialist, therapist, gastroenterologist, proctologist or other doctor.
Where can I go for help? If blood loss is serious, you need to call an ambulance. If blood is found on feces in small amounts or her traces, you can consult a doctor at the clinic. There, depending on the clinical signs, laboratory methods of investigation( general blood test, feces for eggs of helminths), instrumental examinations( sigmoidoscopy, ultrasound) and examination of the proctologist will be assigned.
If there are signs - faintness, fainting, pale skin and sticky sweat, especially as a result of a trauma - a blow to the abdomen or a history of peptic ulcer and the like. The patient must remain immobile, he needs help to call an ambulance, put a cold on the supposed place of injury - it's better to have a bubble with ice.